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Bint e Aisha

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  1. استخارہ سنت کے مطابق کیجیے (پہلی قسط) استخارہ کا مطلب ہے کسی معاملے میں خیر اور بھلائی کا طلب کرنا، یعنی روز مرہ کی زندگی میں پیش آنے والے اپنے ہرجائز کام میں اللہ تعالی کی طرف رجوع کرنا اور اللہ سے اس کام میں خیر، بھلائی اور رہنمائی طلب کرنا ،استخارہ کے عمل کو یہ سمجھنا کہ اس سے کوئی خبر مل جاتی ہے تویہ بہت بڑی غلط فہمی ہے۔ استخارہ ایک مسنون عمل ہے، جس کا طریقہ اور دعا نبی صلى الله عليه وسلم سے احادیث میں منقول ہے۔حضور اکرم صلى الله عليه وسلم حضرات صحابہ کرام رضوان اللہ علیہم اجمعین کو ہرکام سے پہلے اہمیت کے ساتھ استخارے کی تعلیم دیا کرتے تھے، حدیث کے الفاظ پر غور فرمائیے: حضرت جابر بن عبد اللہ رضى الله تعالى عنه فرماتے ہیں کہ نبی اکرم صلى الله عليه وسلم کا ارشاد گرامی ہے: اذا ھم احدکم بالامر فلیرکع رکعتین من غیر الفریضة (بخاری) ترجمہ: جب تم میں سے کوئی شخص کسی بھی کام کا ارادہ کرے تو اس کو چاہیے کہ فرض نماز کے علاوہ دو رکعت نفل پڑھے۔ استخارہ کا مسنون اور صحیح طریقہ سنت کے مطابق استخارہ کا سیدھا سادہ اور آسان طریقہ یہ ہے کہ دن رات میں کسی بھی وقت (بشرطیکہ وہ نفل کی ادائیگی کا مکروہ وقت نہ ہو) دو رکعت نفل استخارہ کی نیت سے پڑھیں، نیت یہ کرے کہ میرے سامنے یہ معاملہ یا مسئلہ ہے، اس میں جو راستہ میرے حق میں بہتر ہو، اللہ تعالی اس کا فیصلہ فرمادیں۔ سلام پھیر کر نماز کے بعد استخارہ کی وہ مسنون دعا مانگیں جو حضور صلى الله عليه وسلم نے تلقین فرمائی ہے۔ اگرکسی کو دعا یاد نہ ہو توکوئی بات نہیں کتاب سے دیکھ کریہ دعا مانگ لے۔ اگر عربی میں دعا مانگنے میں مشکل ہو رہی ہو تو ساتھ ساتھ اردو میں بھی یہ دعا مانگے، بس! دعا کے جتنے الفاظ ہیں، وہی اس سے مطلوب ومقصود ہیں، وہ الفاظ یہ ہیں: استخارہ کی مسنون دعا اَللّٰہُمَّ اِنِّیْ أَسْتَخِیْرُکَ بِعِلْمِکَ، وَ أَسْتَقْدِرُکَ بِقُدْرَتِکَ، وَ أَسْأَلُکَ مِنْ فَضْلِکَ الْعَظِیْمِ، فَاِنَّکَ تَقْدِرُ وَ لاَ أَقْدِرُ، وَ تَعْلَمُ وَلاَ أَعْلَمُ ، وَ أَنْتَ عَلاَّمُ الْغُیُوْبِ․ اَللّٰہُمَّ اِنْ کُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ ہٰذَا الْأَمْرَ خَیْرٌ لِّیْ فِیْ دِیْنِیْ وَ مَعَاشِیْ وَ عَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِیْ وَ عَاجِلِہ وَ اٰجِلِہ ، فَاقْدِرْہُ لِیْ، وَ یَسِّرْہُ لِیْ، ثُمَّ بَارِکْ لِیْ فِیْہِ․ وَ اِنْ کُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ ھٰذَا الْأَمْرَ شَرٌ لِّیْ فِیْ دِیْنِیْ وَمَعَاشِیْ وَ عَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِیْ، فَاصْرِفْہُ عَنِّیْ وَاصْرِفْنِیْ عَنْہُ، وَاقْدِرْ لِیَ الْخَیْرَ حَیْثُ کَانَ ثُمَّ اَرْضِنِیْ بِہ․(بخاری،ترمذی) دعاکرتے وقت جب ”ہذا الامر“ پر پہنچے تو اگر عربی جانتا ہے تو اس جگہ اپنی حاجت کا تذکرہ کرے یعنی ”ہذا الامر “کی جگہ اپنے کام کا نام لے، مثلا ”ہذا السفر “یا ”ہذا النکاح“ یا ”ہذہ التجارة“یا ”ہذا البیع “کہے، اور اگر عربی نہیں جانتا تو ”ہذا الأمر“ ہی کہہ کر دل میں اپنے اس کام کے بارے میں سوچے اور دھیان دے جس کے لیے استخارہ کررہا ہے۔ استخارہ کتنی بار کیا جائے؟ حضرت انس رضى الله تعالى عنه ایک روایت میں فرماتے ہیں کہ آنحضرت صلى الله عليه وسلم نے مجھ سے فرمایا کہ انس! جب تم کسی کام کا ارادہ کرو تو اس کے بارے میں اللہ تعالی سے سات مرتبہ استخارہ کرو ، پھر اس کے بعد (اس کا نتیجہ) دیکھو، تمہارے دل میں جو کچھ ڈالا جائے، یعنی استخارے کے نتیجے میں بارگاہ حق کی جانب سے جو چیز القاء کی جائے اسی کو اختیار کرو کہ تمہارے لیے وہی بہتر ہے۔(مظاہر حق) بہتر یہ ہے کہ استخارہ تین سے سات دن تک پابندی کے ساتھ متواتر کیا جائے، اگر اس کے بعد بھی تذبذب اور شک باقی رہے تو استخارہ کاعمل مسلسل جاری رکھے، جب تک کسی ایک طرف رجحان نہ ہوجائے کوئی عملی اقدام نہ کرے۔ اس موقع پر اتنی بات سمجھنی ضروری ہے کہ استخارہ کرنے کے لیے کوئی مدت متعین نہیں، حضرت عمر رضی اللہ عنہ نے جو ایک ماہ تک استخارہ کیا تھا تو ایک ماہ بعد آپ کو شرح صدر ہوگیا تھا اگر شرح صدر نہ ہوتا تو آپ آگے بھی استخارہ جاری رکھتے۔(رحمة اللہ الواسعة) استخارہ کے خلاف کرنا ”دعائے استخارہ کا مطلب یہ ہے کہ اللہ تعالی سے دعائے خیر کرتا رہے، استخارہ کرنے کے بعد ندامت نہیں ہوتی اور یہ مشورہ کرنا نہیں ہے، کیونکہ مشورہ تو دوستوں سے ہوتا ہے، استخارہ سنت عمل ہے، اس کی دعا مشہور ہے، اس کے پڑھ لینے سے سات روز کے اندر اندر قلب میں ایک رجحان پیدا ہوجاتا ہے اور یہ خواب میں کچھ نظرآنا، یا یہ قلبی رجحان حجت شرعیہ نہیں ہیں کہ ضرور ایسا کرنا ہی پڑے گا، البتہ اس کے خلاف کرنا مناسب نہیں۔ کتبه راشد محمود عُفِیٙ عٙنْہ
  2. FATAAWA ON SOME CONTEMPORARY GAMES CAN I PLAY CARDS IF THERE IS NO GAMBLING INVOLVED? Question As-salāmu 'alaykum If a group of people play games with playing cards, without gambling, is this still counted as haram? I have heard this is the case. Please explain in detail. Jzk. Wassalaam Answer In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh. It is Haram to play cards if gambling is involved. If gambling is not involved, then it will not be Haram. However, the nature of games played with cards entails a general ruling of dislike (Karahiyyat) as they contain elements of Haram such as animate pictures and the general association of cards with gambling. Such games distract one from Allah’s remembrance, and often prevent one from fulfilling his/her Shar’i duties.[1] Thus, one should abstain from playing cards even if it does not involving gambling.[2] And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best Abdullah ibn Mohammed Aijaz Student Darul Iftaa Baltimore, USA Checked and Approved by, Mufti Ebrahim Desai. [1] وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَشۡتَرِى لَهۡوَ ٱلۡحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ۬ وَيَتَّخِذَهَا هُزُوًا‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ۬ مُّهِينٌ۬ (Surah Luqman – Verse:6) Fataawa Darul Uloom Zakariyyah V.7/PG.632 [2] Fataawa Mahmudiyyah V.19/PG.536 Source ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ WHAT IS THE RULING ON CHESS IN ISLAM? Question is playing chess clearly prohibited in islam, please refer also Answer In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. As-salāmu ‘alaykumwa-rahmatullāhiwa-barakātuh. All the Fuqaha(Jurists) and scholars of Islam are unanimous on the fact that if gambling is involved in chess, it is categorically prohibited as it will fall under the ambit of the verse: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنْصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (5:90) “Oh you who believe, verily intoxicants, gambling (sacrificing on) stone alters (to other than Allah), and drawing arrows are defilement from the works of Shaytan. So avoid them so that you may be successful.” The same ruling applies to a person who, due to his playing, becomes negligent of his Salah or any other ordainments of Shariah.[1] If a person plays it without any of the aforementioned, it will be prohibitively disliked (makruhtahrimi). [2] And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best Checked and Approved by, Mufti Ebrahim Desai. [1] …أو يقامر بالنرد والشطرنج". لأن كل ذلك من الكبائر، وكذلك من تفوته الصلاة للاشتغال بهما، فأما مجرد اللعب بالشطرنج فليس بفسق مانع من الشهادة، لأن للاجتهاد فيه مساغا. )الهداية، ج3، ص123، دار احياء التراث العربي ( [2]وَيكرهُ اللّعب بالنرد وَالشطْرَنْجوَالْأَرْبَعَة عشر وكل لَهو لقَوْلهعَلَيْهِ السَّلَام مَا أَنا من دَد وَلَا الدَّد مني…وَهَذَا إِذا لم يكن فِيهِ قمارفَأَما إِذا كَانَ فِيهِ قمار فَهُوَ حرَام مَحْض لثُبُوت حرمته بِنَصّ )تحفة الفقهاء، ج3، ص344، دار الكتب العلمية ( وَيُكْرَهُ اللَّعِبُ بِالشِّطْرَنْجِ وَالنَّرْدِ وَثَلَاثَةَ عَشَرَ وَأَرْبَعَةَ عَشَرَ وَكُلُّ لَهْوٍ ما سِوَى الشِّطْرَنْجِ حَرَامٌ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ وَأَمَّا الشِّطْرَنْجُ فَاللَّعِبُ بِهِ حَرَامٌ عِنْدَنَا وَاَلَّذِي يَلْعَبُ بِالشِّطْرَنْجِ هل تَسْقُطُ عَدَالَتُهُ وَهَلْ تُقْبَلُ شَهَادَتُهُ فَإِنْ قَامَرَ بِهِ سَقَطَتْ عَدَالَتُهُ ولم تُقْبَلُ شَهَادَتُهُ وَإِنْ لم يُقَامِرْ لم تَسْقُطْ عَدَالَتُهُ وَتُقْبَلُ شَهَادَتُهُ ولم يَرَ أبو حَنِيفَةَ رَحِمَهُ تَعَالَى بِالسَّلَامِ عليهم بَأْسًا وَكَرِهَ ذلك أبو يُوسُفَ وَمُحَمَّدٌ رَحِمِهِمَا اللَّهُ تَعَالَى تَحْقِيرًا لهم كَذَا في الْجَامِعِ الصَّغِيرِ ) الفتاوى الهندية، ج5، ص352، دار الفكر ( ( وَ ) كُرِهَ تَحْرِيمًا ( اللَّعِبُ بِالنَّرْدِ وَ ) كَذَا ( الشِّطْرَنْجِ ) بِكَسْرِ أَوَّلِهِ وَيُهْمَلُ وَلَا يُفْتَحُ إلَّا نَادِرًا وَأَبَاحَهُ الشَّافِعِيُّ وَأَبُو يُوسُفَ فِي رِوَايَةٍ وَنَظَمَهَا شَارِحُ الْوَهْبَانِيَّةِ فَقَالَ : وَلَا بَأْسَ بِالشِّطْرَنْجِ وَهِيَ رِوَايَةٌ عَنْ الْحَبْرِ قَاضِي الشَّرْقِ وَالْغَرْبِ تُؤْثَرُ وَهَذَا إذْ لَمْ يُقَامِرْ وَلَمْ يُدَاوِمْ وَلَمْ يُخِلَّ بِوَاجِبٍ وَإِلَّا فَحَرَامٌ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ . ) رد المحتار، ج6، ص394، دار الفكر( ( قَوْلُهُ أَمَّا الشِّطْرَنْجُ فَلِشُبْهَةِ الِاخْتِلَافِ ) أَيْ اخْتِلَافِ مَالِكٍ وَالشَّافِعِيِّ فِي قَوْلِهِمَا بِإِبَاحَتِهِ ، وَهُوَ رِوَايَةٌ عَنْ أَبِييُوسُفَ ، وَاخْتَارَهَا ابْنُ الشِّحْنَةِ . أَقُولُ : هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةُ ذَكَرَهَا فِي الْمُجْتَبَى وَلَمْ تَشْتَهِرْ فِي الْكُتُبِ الْمَشْهُورَةِ ، بَلْ الْمَشْهُورُ الرَّدُّ عَلَى الْإِبَاحَةِ ، وَابْنُ الشِّحْنَةِ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الِاخْتِيَارِ سَائِحَانِيٌّ ، وَانْظُرْ مَا فِي شَرْحِ الْمَنْظُومَةِ الْمُحِبِّيَّةِ لِلْأُسْتَاذِ عَبْدِ الْغَنِيِّ ا هـ . ) رد المحتار، ج5، ص483، دار الفكر ( ( ولا من يقامربالشطرنج ) لأنه حرام . أما نفس اللعب لا يسقط العدالة لمكان الاجتهاد إلا أن تفوتهالصلاة أو يحلف عليه كذبا ) الاختيار لتعليل المختار، ج2، ص128، دار الكتب العلمية( أو يلعب بالنرد من غير شرط المقامرة أو تفويت الصلاة أو يقامر بالشطرنج أو تفوته الصلاة بسببه أي بسبب الشطرنج لظهور الفسق بتركه الصلاة وكذا بالمقامرة أما بدونهما لا يمنع العدالة لأن للاجتهاد فيه مساغا لقول مالك والشافعي بإباحته وهو مروي عن أبي يوسف واختارها ابن الشحنة إذا كان لإحضار الذهن واختار أبو زيد حله وفي النوازل سئل أبو القاسم عمن ينظر إلى لاعبه من غير لعب أيجوز فقال لن يصير فاسقا وقد سوى بين النرد والشطرنج في الكنز فقال أو يقامر بالنرد والشطرنج وليس كذلك والحاصل أن العدالة إنما تسقط إذا وجد واحد من خمسة القمار وفوت الصلاة بسببه وإكثار الحلف عليه واللعب به على الطريق أو يذكر عليه فسقا وإلا فلا بخلاف النرد فإنه مسقط مطلقا كما في البحر وإنما لم يذكر الثلاثة الأخيرة لأنها معلومة فلا تساهل في تركها ) مجمع الأنهر في شرح ملتقى الأبحر، ج2، ص199، دار إحياء التراث العربي ( وَيكرهُ اللّعب بالنرد وَالشطْرَنْج وَالْأَرْبَعَة عشر وكل لَهو ) الجامع الصغير وشرحه النافع الكبير لمن يطالع الجامع الصغير، ج1، ض482، عالم الكتب ( Source ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ CAN I PLAY LUDO AND DOES IT RESEMBLE CHESS? Question i want to ask about ludo game. is it haram or halal? many of arab ulama say this is haram, and giving tashbeh of ludo to shatranj which is mention in hades of muslim sharef (2260). can i ask my question in arabic or urdu, because i m not good in english Answer In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh. The word found in the Sahīh of Imām Muslim (2260) is nardshīr which is commonly translated as backgammon. Shatranj refers to the popular game of chess. There are differences of opinion with regards to the ruling of chess. The prevailing opinion is that chess is impermissible to play.[1] We have not come across any explicit prohibition on Ludo. In principle, if any game or amusement which is not explicitly prohibited is free of the following, it will not be prohibited. [2][3][4] It must be devoid of all harām elements, such as gambling, cheating, swearing, etc. The game should not engross one to the extent that it leads to religious duties to be abandoned, such as prayer. If any of these conditions are violated, then playing such a game will be prohibited. And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best Tahmid Chowdhury Student Darul Iftaa New York, USA Checked and Approved by, Mufti Ebrahim Desai. [1] رد المحتار - ط. بابي الحلبي (6/ 394) ( بالنرد ) هو اسم معرب ويقال له النردشير بفتح الدال وكسر الشين والشير اسم ملك وضع له النرد كما في المهمات وفي زين العرب قيل إن الشير معناه الحلو وفيه نظر قالوا هو من موضوعات سابور ابن أردشير ثاني ملوك الساسانية وهو حرام مسقط للعدالة بالإجماع قهستاني قوله ( والشطرنج ) معرب شدرنج وإنما كره لأن من اشتغل به ذهب عناؤه الدنيوي وجاءه العناء الأخروي فهو حرام وكبيرة عندنا وفي إباحته إعانة الشيطان على الإسلام والمسلمين كما في الكافي قهستاني قوله ( في رواية إلخ ) قال الشرنبلالي في شرحه وأنت خبير بأن المذهب منع اللعب به كغيره قوله ( قاضي الشرق والغرب ) هو الإمام الثاني أبو يوسف لأن ولايته شملت المشارق والمغارب لأنه كان قاضي الخليفة هارون الرشيد شرنبلالية البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ومنحة الخالق وتكملة الطوري (7/ 91) (قوله أو يقامر بالنرد والشطرنج أو تفوته الصلاة بسببهما) ؛ لأن كل ذلك من الكبائر وظاهر تقييده بما ذكر استواء النرد والشطرنج وليس كذلك فإن اللعب بالنرد مبطل للعدالة مطلقا كما في العناية وغيرها للإجماع على حرمته بخلاف الشطرنج؛ لأن للاجتهاد فيه مساغا لقول مالك والشافعي بإباحته وهو مروي عن أبي يوسف كما في المجتبى من الحظر والإباحة واختارها ابن الشحنة إذا كان لإحضار الذهن واختار أبو زيد الحكيم حله ذكره شمس الأئمة السرخسي كذا في المحيط البرهاني وفي النوازل سئل أبو القاسم عمن ينظر إلى لاعبيه من غير لعب أيجوز فقال أخاف أن يصير فاسقا اهـ. وفيه إذا قامر به سقطت عدالته إجماعا وفيه الميسر اسم لكل قمار والحاصل أن العدالة إنما تسقط بالشطرنج إذا وجد فيه واحد من خمس القمار وفوت الصلاة بسببه وإكثار الحلف عليه واللعب به على الطريق كما في فتح القدير أو يذكر عليه فسقا كما في السراج الوهاج وإلا فلا بخلاف النرد فإنه مسقط لها مطلقا والنرد كما في المصباح لعبة معروفة وهو معرب اهـ. وفي القاموس أنه وضعه أردشير بن بابك ولهذا يقال النردشير اهـ. وفي فتح القدير ولعب الطاب في بلادنا مثله؛ لأنه يرمى ويطرح بلا حساب وإعمال فكر وكلما كان كذلك مما أحدثه الشيطان وعمله أهل الغفلة فهو حرام مطلقا. اهـ [2] http://pachisi.vegard2.net/ludo.html [3] كتاب النوازل ١٦/٥٤٣ مفتي سلمان منصوربوري كتاب الفتاوى ٦/١٦٠ أحسن الفتاوى ٨/٢٤٣ دیگر کھیل أحكام القرآن مفتي شفيع ٣/١٩٤ فتاوى محمودية ١٩/٥٣٦ [4] شرح النووي على مسلم (15/ 15) [2260] (من لعب بالنردشير فكأنما صبغ يده في لحم خنزير ودمه) قال العلماء النردشير هو النرد فالنرد عجمي معرب وشير معناه حلو وهذا الحديث حجة للشافعي والجمهور في تحريم اللعب بالنرد وقال أبو إسحاق المروزي من أصحابنا يكره ولا يحرم وأما الشطرنج فمذهبنا أنه مكروه ليس بحرام وهو مروي عن جماعة من التابعين وقال مالك وأحمد حرام قال مالك هو شر من النرد وألهى عن الخير وقاسوه على النرد وأصحابنا يمنعون القياس ويقولون هو دونه ومعنى صبغ يده في لحم الخنزير ودمه في حال أكله منهما وهو تشبيه لتحريمه بتحريم أكلهما والله أعلم الترغيب والترهيب للمنذري ت عمارة (4/ 49) [قال الحافظ]: قد ذهب جمهور العلماء إلى أن اللعب بالنرد حرام، ونقل بعض مشايخنا الإجماع على تحريمه، واختلفوا في اللعب بالشطرنج؛ فذهب بعضهم إلى إباحته لأنه يستعان به في أمور الحرب ومكائده لكن بشروط ثلاثة: أحدها: أن لا يؤخر بسببه صلاة عن وقتها. والثاني: أن لا يكون فيه قمار. والثالث: أن يحفظ لسانه حال اللعب عن الفحش والخناء، ورديء الكلام؛ فمتى لعب به، أو فعل شيئاً من هذه الأمور كان ساقط المروءة مردود الشهادة، وممن ذهب إلى إباحته سعيد بن جبير والشعبي، وكرهه الشافعي كراهة تنزيه، وذهب جماعات من العلماء إلى تحريمه كالنرد، وقد ورد ذكر الشطرنج في أحاديث لا أعلم لشيء منها إسناداً صحيحاً ولا حسناً، والله أعلم Source _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ IS MONOPOLY ALLOWED IN ISLAM? QUESTION: Monopoly is a game played for amusement in the United States. This game simulates dealing in real estate, United States style. It is not played for money, so there is no gambling. Simulated mortgages (riba) are part of the play, but there is no real money involved. Is playing Monopoly permissible? Please explain your answer. ANSWER: Hazrat Mufti Mahmood Saheb, the former Grand Mufti of India, mentioned the following principle by which games could be judged: That game would be permissible which is not an exclusive symbol (Shi-‘aar) of the Kuffaar or Fussaq, there is no condition of money being wagered on winning or losing and furthermore, by playing the game Deeni obligations are not left out, and there is nothing contrary to Shari’ah in it. Those games and sports whereby a person’s health is maintained and increased and the intention thereby is to become able-bodied against the enemies of Islâm and to acquire skills for Jihaad then by this intention, such sports and games will, in fact, be encouraged like in the case of horse riding and swimming. Mahmoodiyah (Vol. 15 Pg. 364-365) From this it could be understood that playing games like monopoly would be permissible, however spending ones valuable time on more fruitful pursuits would be preferred. and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Ml. Husain Kadodia STUDENT: Darul Ifta CHECKED & APPROVED: Mufti Ebrahim Desai Source Back to table of contents
  3. لوڈو کھیلنا؟ اسلام کی نظر میں انسان کی بامقصد زندگی کی بڑی اہمیت ہے ۔اس لئے اس نے لہو ولعب لغو وفضول کاموں سے اپنے ماننے والوں کو سختی سے روکا ہے۔جائز حد میں رہتے اور لغویات و فضولیات سے اجتناب کرتے ہوئے ہر امر کی اجازت دی گئی ہے۔قلب ،جسم ودماغ اور فکر وخیال کی تفریح وتازگی بخشنے کی بھی اسلام نے اجازت دی ہے۔اس مقصد کے لئے ہر ایسے کھیل کی اجازت ہے جو لہو ولعب لغو وفضول چیزوں پہ مشتمل نہ ہو۔جس سے نہ اللہ کے حقوق ضائع ہوتے ہوں نہ بندوں کے ۔جو تمام منہیات شرعیہ سے بھی پاک ہو ۔ جس کا نفع نقصان سے زیادہ ہو ۔ ان شرطوں کی رعایت کے ساتھ ہر کھیل کود کی اجازت ہے ۔ ہارجیت کی شرط اور حقوق اللہ اور حقوق العباد میں تفریط کے بغیر عادت بنائے بغیر کبھی کبھار صرف تفریح قلب کے لئے لوڈو کھیلنے کی گنجائش ہے۔ممانعت کی کوئی دلیل نہیں ہے۔لوڈو کی ممانعت پہ "النرد " اور "الشطرنج " والی روایات کا انطباق درست نہیں ، بَاب تَحْرِيمِ اللَّعِبِ بِالنَّرْدَشِيرِ 2260 حَدَّثَنِي زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ عَنْ عَلْقَمَةَ بْنِ مَرْثَدٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدَشِيرِ فَكَأَنَّمَا صَبَغَ يَدَهُ فِي لَحْمِ خِنْزِيرٍ وَدَمِهِ صحيح مسلم. كتاب الشعر وقال النووي في شرحه على مسلم قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( من لعب بالنردشير فكأنما صبغ يده في لحم خنزير ودمه ) قال العلماء : النردشير هو [ ص: 417 ] النرد ، فالنرد عجمي معرب ، و ( شير ) معناه حلو . وهذا الحديث حجة للشافعي والجمهور في تحريم اللعب بالنرد . وقال أبو إسحاق المروزي من أصحابنا ، يكره ولا يحرم . وأما الشطرنج فمذهبنا أنه مكروه ليس بحرام ، وهو مروي عن جماعة من التابعين . وقال مالك وأحمد : حرام . قال مالك : هو شر من النرد ، وألهى عن الخير ، وقاسوه على النرد . وأصحابنا يمنعون القياس ، ويقولون : هو دونه . ومعنى ( صبغ يده في لحم الخنزير ودمه في حال أكله منهما ) وهو تشبيه لتحريمه بتحريم أكلهما . والله أعلم ۔ وأخرجه ابوداؤد برقم 4930 في الأدب. وأبن ماجه برقم 3763 في الأدب واحمد في مسنده برقم 22470۔ النرد چوسر کی طرح کا ایک کھیل جو دوہری بساط پر کھیلا جاتا ہے ایک ڈبیا میں کنکریاں یا پلاسٹک کی گوٹیں ہوتی ہیں اور دو نگ ہوتے ہیں جن کو ہلا کر جیسا نگ نکل آتا ہے اس کے مطابق کنکر یاں یا گوٹیں آگے بڑھائی جاتی ہیں۔ لوڈو سمیت ہر قسم کے کھیل کی اجازت مذکورہ بالا شرطوں کے ساتھ مشروط ہے ۔شرط کے فقدان کی صورت میں دیگر ممنوع کھیلوں کی طرح لوڈو کھیلنا بھی ممنوع وناجائز ہوگا۔ علامہ تقی عثمانی صاحب تحریر فرماتے ہیں وحاصل الکلام أن ترویح القلب وتفریحہ، وکذا تمرین البدن من الارتفاقات المباحۃ والمصالح البشریۃ التي لا تمنعہا الشریعۃ السمحۃ برأسہا، نعم تمنع الغلو والإنہماک فیہا بحیث یضر بالمعاش أو المعاد۔ (أحکام القرآن للتھانوي ۵؍۱۲۲، تکملۃ فتح الملہم ۴؍۴۳۴ مکتبۃ دار العلوم کراچی) ما شہدت التجربۃ بأن ضررہ أعظم من نفعہ، ومفاسدہ أغلب علی منافعہ، وأنہ من اشتغل بہا، ألہاہ عن ذکر اللّٰہ وحدہ عن الصلوات والمساجد التحق ذلک بالمنہي عنہ لاشتراک العلۃ، فکان حرامًا أو مکروہًا۔ (أحکام القرآن ۵؍۱۲۶، تکملۃ فتح الملہم ۴؍۴۳۵) در مختار میں ہے " هذا إذا لم يقامر ولم يداوم ولم يخل بواجب وإلا فهو حرام بالإجماع. (الدر المختار 396/6 ) واللہ اعلم بالصواب شکیل منصور القاسمی
  4. Further Reading Addiction- Is there Hope? Addiction - Is There Hope.doc Perspectives on Drug Addiction in Islamic History and Theology Download pdf Back to table of contents
  5. ALCOHOL- MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY Key facts¹ Worldwide, 3.3 million deaths every year result from harmful use of alcohol,² this represent 5.9 % of all deaths. The harmful use of alcohol is a causal factor in more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Overall 5.1 % of the global burden of disease and injury is attributable to alcohol, as measured in disability- adjusted life years (DALYs).³ Alcohol consumption causes death and disability relatively early in life. In the age group 20 – 39 years approximately 25 % of the total deaths are alcohol-attributable. There is a causal relationship between harmful use of alcohol and a range of mental and behavioural disorders, other noncommunicable conditions as well as injuries. The latest causal relationships have been established between harmful drinking and incidence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis as well as the course of HIV/AIDS. Beyond health consequences, the harmful use of alcohol brings significant social and economic losses to individuals and society at large. Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with dependence-producing properties that has been widely used in many cultures for centuries. The harmful use of alcohol causes a large disease, social and economic burden in societies. Alcohol impacts people and societies in many ways and it is determined by the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking, and, on rare occasions, the quality of alcohol consumed. In 2012, about 3.3 million deaths, or 5.9 % of all global deaths, were attributable to alcohol consumption. The harmful use of alcohol can also result in harm to other people, such as family members, friends, co-workers and strangers. Moreover, the harmful use of alcohol results in a significant health, social and economic burden on society at large. Alcohol consumption is a causal factor in more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Drinking alcohol is associated with a risk of developing health problems such as mental and behavioural disorders, including alcohol dependence, major noncommunicable diseases such as liver cirrhosis, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases, as well as injuries resulting from violence and road clashes and collisions. A significant proportion of the disease burden attributable to alcohol consumption arises from unintentional and intentional injuries, including those due to road traffic crashes, violence, and suicides, and fatal alcohol-related injuries tend to occur in relatively younger age groups. The latest causal relationships are those between harmful drinking and incidence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis as well as the course of HIV/AIDS. Alcohol consumption by an expectant mother may cause fetal alcohol syndrome and pre-term birth complications. Factors affecting alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm A variety of factors have been identified at the individual and the societal level, which affect the levels and patterns of alcohol consumption and the magnitude of alcohol-related problems in populations. Environmental factors include economic development, culture, availability of alcohol, and the comprehensiveness and levels of implementation and enforcement of alcohol policies. For a given level or pattern of drinking, vulnerabilities within a society are likely to have similar differential effects as those between societies. Although there is no single risk factor that is dominant, the more vulnerabilities a person has, the more likely the person is to develop alcohol-related problems as a result of alcohol consumption. Conceptual causal model of alcohol consumption and health outcomes The impact of alcohol consumption on chronic and acute health outcomes in populations is largely determined by 2 separate but related dimensions of drinking: the total volume of alcohol consumed, and the pattern of drinking. The context of drinking plays an important role in occurrence of alcohol-related harm, particularly associated with health effects of alcohol intoxication, and, on rare occasions, also the quality of alcohol consumed. Alcohol consumption can have an impact not only on the incidence of diseases, injuries and other health conditions, but also on the course of disorders and their outcomes in individuals. There are gender differences in alcohol-related mortality, morbidity, as well as levels and patterns of alcohol consumption. The percentage of alcohol-attributable deaths among men amount to 7.6 % of all global deaths compared to 4.0 % of all deaths among women. Total alcohol per capita consumption in 2010 among male and female drinkers worldwide was on average 21.2 litres for males and 8.9 litres of pure alcohol for females. Footnotes Based on the Global status report on alcohol and health 2014. The Global strategy refers only to public-health effects of alcohol consumption, without prejudice to religious beliefs and cultural norms in any way. The concept of “harmful use of alcohol” in this context is different from “harmful use of alcohol” as a diagnostic category in the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (WHO, 1992). The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) extends the concept of potential years of life lost due to premature death to include equivalent years of "healthy" life lost by virtue of being in states of poor health or disability. Source: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs349/en/ Back to table of contents
  6. Perspectives on Drug Addiction in Islamic History and Theology Download pdf Back to table of contents
  7. MA'ARIFUL QURAN Tafeer Of Surah al-Baqarah (2), Verse 219 (Part 1) "They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, "In both there is great sin, and some benefits for people. And their sin is greater than their benefit." (2:219) Commentary This verse forms part of the series of questions asked by the noble Companions. These are as they appear in this Surah along with the answers given. Here, the question is about wine and gambling which has been answered by Allah Almighty by pointing out that the use and practice of these two things breeds major sins while people may also get some benefits from them, but the sin they release is far too grave than the benefit they give, implying that both these are worth abandoning. Since these two issues are very serious, they need a somewhat detailed inquiry into their nature and the injunctions relating to them. The Prohibition of Wine, and Related Injunctions When Islam came, drinking was common practice as part of the general state of Jahili customs. When the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him emigrated to Madinah, people of that city were also accustomed to wine and gambling. Common people were infatuated with these in view of their obvious benefits. They had no idea of the evils inherent in these practices. However, it is the usual practice of Allah that there are, in every nation and in every country, sensible people who use reason to control their temperaments. They would not go'near an emotional urge if it goes against the dictates of reason. In this regard, the station of the noble Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him; was way high, for he had a built-in distaste for things which were going to be declared haram later on. Even among the blessed Companions there were some who had not touched wine during the days it was an open practice. It was after reaching Madinah al-Tayyibah that some Companions became deeply concerned about the evil effects of these two involvements. It was due to this concern that Sayyidna 'Umar al-Faruq Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him and Mu'adh ibn Jabal Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him along with some Ansari Companions presented themselves before the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him and told him how wine and gambling not only spoil man's reason but also cause financial loss and sought his advice in this connection. It was in answer to their question that the present verse was revealed. This is the first verse in which the elementary step to stop Muslim from wine and gambling was taken. What the verse says is clear from its translation, and its explanation which follows immediately. It may be added here that the word, 'Ithm' or sin includes everything that may become a preliminary to sin. For instance, wine dulls senses and weakens the power of reason, something basic to human excellence. Human reason acts as a brake against human indulgence in evil deeds. Once reason is blocked out, the door is opened for all sorts of evil deeds. It will be noted that drinking has not been clearly identified as something unlawful in this verse, but its evils has certainly been pointed out, which may lead man into many sinful activities. In a way, this takes the form of a good counsel urging man to abandon it. That is why, soon after the revelation of this verse, some noble Companions took this good counsel of the Holy Qur'an so seriously that they stopped drinking then and there. There were some others among them who thought that the verse, in fact, has not declared wine as haram; it has, instead, identified it as a cause of sin in as much as it does lead to evils religiously undesirable, so, if they can manage to keep themselves immune from such evils, what harm could there be if they continued drinking? Consequently, so they did, until came a day when the blessed Companion, 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf (R.A) invited some of his friends from among the noble Companions at his home. When dinner was over, everybody started drinking wine as usual. In the meantime, came the time for Maghrib salah. Everybody stood up for salah and selected one of them to lead the prayers. The Imam began his recitation from the Holy Qur'an, but drunk as he was, he recited the Surah al-Kafirun all wrong. Thereupon, the second step against drinking was taken and the following verse was revealed: "O those who believe, do not go near Salah when you are intoxicated." (4:43) Here, drinking was declared to be absolutely unlawful at the time of the Salah. Other times remained open. Some of the noble Companions had totally stopped drinking following the revelation of the first verse deducing from it that something which stops one from Salah cannot hold any good at all. And now that Salah has been prohibited in a state of intoxication, one should keep his distance from that which deprives one from Salah. However, since wine was not forbidden clearly and explicity during hours other than those of Salah, there were some who continued drinking during other hours until when there occured yet another incident. This time it was the blessed Companion, Itban ibn Malik who invited some Companions, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas being one of them. Once the dinner was over, wine was served in accordance with the custom. Then, turning to another customary Arab practice at that time, the intoxicated party started talking poetry and began reciting their respective accomplishments and excellences. The Companion Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him recited a Qasidah [An Arab poetical form introduced by the modern poet, Garcia Lorca in the West.] poem in which he satirized the Ansar (helpers) of Madinah and eulogized his own tribal affinities. This made an Ansari youngman angry and he hit Sa'd Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him with a jaw-bone from a camel causing severe injury on his head. Sayyidna Sa'd Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him came to the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him and complained against that Ansari youngman. At that time, the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him raised his hands in prayer and said: , that is, 'O Allah, give us a clear and conclusive guidance in the matter of wine'. Thereupon, the third verse regarding wine, that of Surah al-Ma'idah, was revealed with details declaring wine to be absolutely unlawful. The verse is as follows: "O you who believe! wine and gambling and stone altars and drawing of lots with arrows are only an abomination, a work of Satan; so shun it, that haply you may prosper." (5:90) The Gradual Forbiddance of Wine Being supreme in His authority, Allah alone knows the real wisdom behind all divine imperatives, but a close look into the Islamic legal code reveals that the Shari'ah of Islam has left ample room for human emotions when following its dictates. This is to give man the least possible inconvenience. The Holy Qur'an has itself said: 'Allah does not obligate anyone beyond his or her capacity'(2:286). It was the demand of this mercy and wisdom that made Islam go slow on forbidding wine. The gist of the Qur'anic history of forbidding wine through a gradual process is that it has revealed four verses on the subject. As said earlier, one of these verses belongs to Surah al-Baqarah, the explanation of which you are reading through now. Here, wine has been identified as sin-prone, a corrupting agent. The mention of wine has been left at that point. It has not been 'forbidden'. This, in a way, is a manner of saying that the habit of drinking is worth leaving, but the direct command to quit drinking was not given. The second verse: 'do not go near salah when you are intoxicated' (4:43) appears in Surah al-Nisa'. Here, wine was declared to be unlawful during salah hours. At other times, the choice remained open. The third and the fourth verses belong to Surah al-Ma'idah. In these two, as mentioned earlier, wine was declared to be unlawful clearly and absolutely. The Shari'ah of Islam used the method of gradual prohibition of wine for the simple reason that it would have been much too hard on human temperament to cut away from the habit of a life-time, specially so the habit of addiction to intoxicants. Scholars have said: : that is, it is harder to change an ongoing habit for man than it is for a child used to suckling at his mother's breast. So, moving wisely, Islam first stressed on its evil, then prohibited it only at the time of salah and finally after the passage of a certain time, it was absolutely forbidden. However, the wisdom that required a gradual process before the prohibition had equally required that once the prohibition is promulgated, it should be implemented with its full force. That is why the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him, in the early stages, warned people against the use of wine and told them how it invited divine punishment. He said that wine was the source of evils and indecencies and one who indulges in it can go on to commit even the worst possible sins. In a hadith, he said 'Wine and Faith cannot be combined.'These narrations appear in al-Nasa'i. In the Jami' of al-Tirmidhi, there is a narration from the blessed Companion Anas Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him which reports that the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him has cursed ten people in relation to wine, being the crusher or presser or squeezer, the distiller, the user, the server, the carrier, the receiver (the one for whom it is carried), the seller, the buyer, the giver (as gift), and the one who uses the income arising from it. This verbal teaching and persuasion was not all that he stopped at, he took practical steps and made a legally binding proclamation that whosoever has any wine in possession should deposit it at an appointed place. The Matchless Obedience of the Blessed Companions (radiallaahu 'anhum ajma'een) As soon as the first order came to them, the noble Companions, obedient and responsive as they were, lost no time and took out all wine stored in their homes for personal use and poured it out on the streets then and there. Sayyidna 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar, Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him has reported that at the time when the proclaimer appointed by the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him, went around the streets of Madinah announcing that wine was forbidden, whoever had a vessel of wine in his hands, threw it away right where he was and whoever had cups or goblets or flasks of wine in the house, brought these out and smashed them off. Sayyidna Anas was happily busy serving wine to a gathering of friends at that time. Present there were great Companions like Abu Talha, Abu 'Ubaydah ibn Jarrah, Ubaiyy ibn Ka'b and Suhayl (R.A). When the voice of the proclaimer struck their ears, everybody present said, 'Now, pour all this wine down on the ground and break all cups and goblets and ewers and pitchers.' In some narrations it is said that it was immediately with the announcement that wine had become unlawful that everyone who had a cup of wine reaching close to his lips was electrified and threw it away right there. That day, wine was flowing down the streets of Madinah like a stream of rainwater, and as a result of that, it remained usual in the streets of Madinah for a long time that rains would reactivate the smell of wine soaked in the ground, as well as its colour, which would show up on the surface. When people were ordered to deposit whatever wine they had at a given place, not much was left there to deposit except the limited stock of wine casks and bags, available in the market for commercial sales. So obedient were the noble Companions that they deposited those too at the designated place without the least hesitation. The Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him went there personally and slit many leather wine-bags with his own blessed hands and let the rest be slit apart by other Companions. Another Companion, a businessman who imported wine from Syria happened to be on a business trip in Syria. He had taken his entire capital with him against which he bought a stock of wine for commercial sales. When he returned with his cargo, he came to know that wine had been declared haram before he could enter the city limits of Madinah. Having heard about the ban on wine, the Companion who was a model of devotion and sacrifice, and who was also returning home after investing all his capital and labour hoping to make a big profit out of it, quietly stacked it on a wayside hillock, came down to see the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him asking him about this stock of his: 'What should I do?' The Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him ordered him, in accordance with the Divine command, that he should tear out all those leather bags and pour the wine in them down on the ground. This wonderful lover of Allah and His Messenger did not hesitate for a moment. Using his own hands, he poured forth all his invested capital on the sands of that hill-slope. This too is a great miracle of Islam, and a demonstration of mind-boggling and virtually unrivalled obedience that came about during this episode. Imagine how difficult it is to shake off the habit of being used to something while these people were chronically habituated to consuming wine and could not stay away from it even for a little while. For them, it was just that command from their Lord proclaimed by His prophet which brought about such an instant change in their habits that they started hating the same wine and gambling they were so addicted to. Islamic Strategy for a Social Change The verses above and the events connected with them present before us a model of active Muslim response to the law making wine unlawful. One may call it a miracle of Islam or a unique outcome of prophetic teaching and training or the inevitable end-product of Islamic methodology of social change, the fact is that its effectiveness was phenomenal. Compared to this was the attempt at prohibition made in the United States with the support of experts, lobbies, law, media and constitutional amendment which failed in the face of much increased use of liquor making the authorities cancel their plans. What is the secret behind this enormous difference? The secret is that Islam has never depended on law alone as the tool of social reform. Law not being sufficient, it has first prepared and fine-tuned the minds of its people tempering their attitudes with the golden prescription of a deep devotion to and worship of their Creator, moderation in worldly living and a genuine concern for the life to come. The great revolution brought in this manner produced matchless men who would eagerly come forward to sacrifice their life, property, honour, anything and everything at one call from their prophet. This task of preparing men who would match the mission continued throughout the Makkan period by means of rigorous spiritual training. Once such a devoted group of people was ready, then came the law. No doubt, the Americans too did their best utilizing the vast powers of the media, but they had everything with them except the concern for the life to come while the concern for the Hereafter was the very life-blood of Muslims. The golden prescription is still there, very much valid, waiting for peaceless people round the world to use it. Let the wise think. The Good and Evil of Wine The 'good' in wine is popularly known as a certain taste and a feeling of well-being, professed increase of temporary energy, and a given glow on the face. Being transient, these benefits hardly stand against the array of evils it breeds. Take the human body first. Drinking causes mal-function of the stomach, reduces desire to eat, affects facial contours, inflates the waistline, hurts the liver and the kidneys and becomes a contributor to all sorts of diseases. Reason does not work under the influence of hard drinks which goes beyond the time one claims to have become sober. The hangover turns out to be as bad. Wine, a tempting stimulant and a much romanticized poison works slowly, inspite of the spirited defence put up by its users. The fact is that drinking not only harms them but affects their children as well. Socially, drinking may become the cause of mutual malice and enmity which is a great evil in the sight of Islamic law. It is for this reason that the Holy Qur'an particularly mentions this evil in Surah al-Ma'idah: "The Satan only wants that hositility and hatred come to stay between you through wine and gambling." (5:91) One of the most harmful drawbacks of drinking shows up when a person under its influence lets out his guarded secrets. It becomes much more disasterous if the culprit happens to be a state functionary in possession of vital government secrets. Passing these out to an enemy agent can cause great damage to the state through a coup, a political loss or a challenge to national defence. Clever spies are always on the look out for such opportunities. So, the habit of drinking is not only an evil in itself but a mother of other evils as well making men ready to commit the worst possible crimes against their fellow-beings. The physical evils of drinking are too well-known to recount here while its spiritual evils are equally obvious. Wine is harmful because the Holy Qur'an says: 'It prevents you from remembering Allah and from the Salah'. Then, the question asked by the Holy Qur'an is: 'Would you then desist?' The Forbiddance of Wine: A Complete View Upto this point, we have discussed four verses of the Holy Qur'an which deal with the unlawfulness of wine, and its forbiddance. It seems appropriate that yet another mention of intoxicants made by the Holy Qur'an in Surah Al-Nahl in a different context should be brought into focus here so that we have all Qur'anic statements concerning wine and intoxicants in one complete frame of reference. The said verse is as follows: "And of the fruits of the palms and the vines, you take therefrom an intoxicant and a good provision. Surely, in that there is a sign for a people who understand." (16:67) In verses preceding the one above, mention was made of Allah's blessings which cause production of human food through unique mechanisms. It was said: "And surely in the cattle there is a lesson for you; We give you to drink of what is in their bellies, between filth and blood, pure milk, sweet to drinkers." (16:66) The text uses the word, 'nusqikum' which means 'We gave you milk to drink' implying that it needs no further human processing. Following this, it was said that man procures things to eat, as well as, makes things which benefit him. Here, the hint is that human processing plays some part in procuring what he eats and in making what he uses to his advantage. And it is as a result of the entry of the human factor that two types of things were produced. One of these is an intoxicant known as wine while the other is 'a good provision', such as the dates and the grapes which can be used fresh off the palms and vines or can be dried and stored for later use. In short, Allah Almighty, in His perfect creativity, gave man fruits such as dates and grapes and gave him the added right to use them as food. Now what he makes out of them is his choice, either make intoxicants out of them and thereby spoil his reason, or use them for food and energy. According to this explanation, this verse cannot be used to argue in support of the lawfulness of intoxicating wine. The reason is simple. Here, the purpose is to describe the gifts of nature and to point out to the different forms in which they could be used which is all part of the same Divine blessing. For instance, consider all that man eats and things man uses to his advantage. There are many who use these in ways that are impermissible but, the incidence of someone using things wrongfully does not preclude a blessing from remaining a blessing. So, the context of the statement needs no details as to which use is permissible or impermissibe, however, there is a subtle indication embedded here too. If we look at how 'sakar: intoxicant' has been counter-poised by 'rizqan hasana': 'a good provision', we would realize that an intoxicant is not a good provision. The majority of commentators take sakar to mean something that intoxicates. (Ruh al-Ma'ani, Qurtubi and Jassas) There is a consensus of the Ummah that these verses are Makkan while the unlawfulness of wine was revealed later on in Madinah al-Tayyibvah. Even though wine was lawful at the time these verses were revealed and Muslims used to indulge in wine generally yet, even at that stage, a hint was made in the verse that indulging in wine is not good. Later on, came the Qur'anic command which clearly and forcefully made wine unlawful Some Juristic Rules and Related Notes 1) In this verse, the acknowledgement of some benefits of wine and gambling has been combined with the instruction to desist from them which helps us deduce the rule that the presence of material benefits in some thing or act is not contrary to its being declared haram under the Islamic law. We know that a certain medicine or food item is called harmful if its harmful effects are far stronger than its benefits. If this was not so, nothing in this world, not even the worst, would turn out to be totally devoid of any benefit. A deadly poison, the snake and the scorpion and the wild beasts, they all have their benefits but, speaking generally, they are called harmful and people are told to watch out against them. Similarly, keeping in view the essential sense, things the evils of which are greater than their benefits are declared haram or unlawful under the Shari'ah. None of the crimes such as theft, robbery, adultery, kidnapping and fraud are devoid of some benefit, for had they been totally benefitless no sane person would ever go near them, even though the most perfect people in all such crimes are those known for their tact and intelligence. This tells us that some or the other benefit does show up in all crimes but, since their harmfulness is greater than their benefit, no sane person stands up to declare them as useful and permissible. It is under this principle that the Shari'ah of Islam has made wine and gambling unlawful. 2) This verse also provides the rule that the elimination of evil takes precedence over the acquisition of benefit, that is, should something give a certain benefit along with causing some harm, it becomes necessary to abandon the benefit in order to stay safe against the harm. In other words, a benefit which comes with harmfulness attached to it is ignored. (Ma'ariful Qur'an, Volume 1) Back to table of contents
  8. Neglect Guarding the Fortress of Faith at Your Peril! Imam al-Hajjawi (d.968H/1561CE) - author of the celebrated Hanbali fiqh text, al-Iqna‘, and its abridgement, Zad a-Mustaqni‘ - wrote as part of his commentary to a famous Hanbali adab-poem: يُقَالُ مَثَلُ الْإِيمَانِ كَمَثَلِ بَلْدَةٍ لَهَا خَمْسُ حُصُونٍ، الْأَوَّلُ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ، وَالثَّانِي مِنْ فِضَّةٍ، وَالثَّالِثُ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ، وَالرَّابِعُ مِنْ آجُرٍّ، وَالْخَامِسُ مِنْ لَبِنٍ، فَمَا زَالَ أَهْلُ الْحِصْنِ مُتَعَاهِدِينَ حِصْنَ اللَّبِنِ لَا يَطْمَعُ الْعَدُوُّ فِي الثَّانِي، فَإِذَا أَهْمَلُوا ذَلِكَ طَمِعُوا فِي الْحِصْنِ الثَّانِي ثُمَّ الثَّالِثِ حَتَّى تَخْرَبَ الْحُصُونُ كُلُّهَا فَكَذَلِكَ الْإِيمَانُ فِي خَمْسِ حُصُونٍ الْيَقِينُ، ثُمَّ الْإِخْلَاصُ، ثُمَّ أَدَاءُ الْفَرَائِضِ، ثُمَّ السُّنَنُ، ثُمَّ حِفْظُ الْآدَابِ، فَمَا دَامَ يَحْفَظُ الْآدَابَ وَيَتَعَاهَدُهَا فَالشَّيْطَانُ لَا يَطْمَعُ فِيهِ، وَإِذَا تَرَكَ الْآدَابَ طَمِعَ الشَّيْطَانُ فِي السُّنَنِ، ثُمَّ فِي الْفَرَائِضِ، ثُمَّ فِي الْإِخْلَاصِ، ثُمَّ فِي الْيَقِينِ ‏.‏ ‘It is said: The allegory of faith (iman) is as a fortress having five walls. The first [innermost] is made of gold; the second of silver; the third of iron; the fourth, baked bricks; and the fifth [outermost wall] from mud bricks. As long as the inhabitants of the fortress are diligent in guarding the clay wall, the enemy will not set its sights on [attacking] the next wall. But if they become negligent, they will attack the next wall, then the next, till the entire fortress lays in ruins. ‘In a similar way, faith is defended by five walls: certainty (yaqin), then sincerity (ikhlas), next comes fulfilling the obligations (ada’ al-fara’id), after which are the recommended acts (sunan), and lastly guarding beautiful behaviour (adab). ‘So long as adab is guarded and defended, the devil won't set his sight on it. If it is neglected, however, Satan makes inroads into the sunan, then the fara’id, then ikhlas, and finally yaqin itself.’[1] —————— [1] Sharh Manzumat al-Adab (Saudi Arabia: Dar Ibn al-Jawzi, 2011), 36.
  9. لوڈو کھیلنا گذشتہ کچھ دنوں سے لوڈو کی حرمت پر مسلسل ایسے مضمون جاری کئے جارہے ہیں کہ جس میں بعض روایات کو بنیاد بناکر ان کھیلوں کو جس میں ڈائس (چوکور گوٹی جس پر چھ نمبر لکھے ہیں) استعمال ہوتی ہے، حرام قرار دیا جاتا ہے. اس موضوع سے متعلق روایات (١) عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: "مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدِ فَقَدْ عَصَى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ". • جس نے نرد (چوسر) کھیلا اس نے اللہ اور اسکے رسول کی نافرمانی کی. (٢) عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: "مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدَشِيرِ فَكَأَنَّمَا غَمَسَ يَدَهُ فِي لَحْمِ خِنْزِيرٍ وَدَمِهِ". • جس نے نردشیر سے کھیلا گویا اس نے اپنے ہاتھ خنزیر کے خون اور گوشت میں لتھڑ دیئے. (٣) عَنْ ابْنِ أَبِي عَرُوبَةَ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ قَالَ : بَلَغَنَا أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سُئِلَ عَنْ اللَّعِبِ بِالْكَعْبَيْنِ فَقَالَ: "إنَّهَا مَيْسِرُ الْأَعَاجِمِ". قَالَ: وَكَانَ قَتَادَةُ يَكْرَهُ اللَّعِبَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَتَّى يَكْرَهَ اللَّعِبَ بِالْحَصَى. • حضور علیہ السلام سے جانور کے ٹخنے کی ہڈی سے کھیلنے کے بارے میں پوچھا گیا تو آپ نے فرمایا کہ یہ عجمیوں کا جوا ہے. (واضح رہے کہ جانور کے ٹخنے کی ہڈی سے فارس موجودہ افغانستان اور ایران میں اب بھی ایک کھیل کھیلا جاتا ہے ) (٤) عَنْ عَبْدِالرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ حَرْمَلَةَ عَنْ عَبْدِاللَّهِ قَالَ: "نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ الضَّرْبِ بِالْكِعَابِ". • آپ علیہ السلام نے ٹخنے کی ہڈی سے کھیلنے سے منع فرمایا. (٥) عَنْ حَبِيبِ بْنِ أَبِي عَمْرَةَ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ عَنْ ابْنِ عَوْنٍ قَالَ: لَأَنْ أَضَعَ يَدِي فِي لَحْمِ خِنْزِيرٍ أَحَبُّ إلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ أَلْعَبَ بِالنَّرْدِ. • ابن عون کہتے ہے کہ ہاتھوں کو خنزیر کے خون میں رکھنا نرد کھیلنے سے بہتر ہے. (٦) عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ فَرْدِ بْنِ مَعْمَرِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ قَالَ: سَأَلْت عَائِشَةَ عَنْ النَّرْدَشِيرِ، قَالَتْ: قَبَّحَ اللَّهُ النَّرْدَشِيرَ وَقَبَّحَ مَنْ لَعِبَ بِهَا. • حضرت عائشہ رضى الله عنها سے کسی نے نردشیر کھیلنے کے بارے میں پوچھا تو فرمایا: اللہ تعالٰی نردشیر کا بھی ناس کرے اور جو اس کو کھیلے اس کا بھی ناس کرے. (٧) عَنْ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ: قَالَ عَلِيٌّ: النَّرْدُ أَوْ الشِّطْرَنْجُ مِنْ الْمَيْسِرِ. • حضرت علی نے فرمایا کہ نرد اور شطرنج جوے کی قسمیں ہیں. (٨) عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ نَافِعٍ عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ: كَانَ إذَا وَجَدَ نَرْدًا فِي بَيْتٍ كَسَّرَهَا وَضَرَبَ مَنْ لَعِبَ بِهَا. • حضرت ابن عمر رضی الله عنهما اگر کسی گھر میں نرد کو دیکھ لیتے تو اس کو توڑ دیتے اور کھیلنے والوں کو مارتے. (٩) عَنْ قَتَادَةَ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ عَبْدِاللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو قَالَ: مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدِ قِمَارًا كَانَ كَآكِلِ لَحْمِ الْخِنْزِيرِ، وَمَنْ لَعِبَ بِهَا مِنْ غَيْرِ قِمَارٍ كَانَ كَالْمُدَّهِنِ بِوَدَكِ الْخِنْزِيرِ. • حضرت عبداللہ بن عمرو بن عاص نے فرمایا کہ جو نرد کو جوے کے ساتھ کھیلے گا وہ خنزیر کھانے والے کی طرح ہے اور جو بغیر جوے کھیلے گا وہ خنزیر کی چربی ہاتھوں میں لگانے والے کی طرح ہے. (١٠) عَنْ فُضَيْلِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ أَنَّهُ كَانَ إذَا مَرَّ بِهِمْ وَهُمْ يَلْعَبُونَ بِالنَّرْدَشِيرِ عَقَلَهُمْ إلَى نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ. • حضرت علی رضی اللہ عنہ اگر کسی کو نردشیر کھیلتے ہوئے دیکھ لیتے تو اسکو آدھا دن باندھ کر رکھنے کی سزا دیتے تھے. ان تمام روایات میں دو باتوں پر بہت زور دیا گیا: ١. نردشیر کے کھیلنے پر مطلقا وعید بیان کی گئی. ٢. دیگر ایسے کھیل جن پر قومیں جوا کھیلتی ہیں ان پر وعید بیان کی گئی. نردشیر کیا ہے؟ اس کھیل کو اللہ اور اسکے رسول کی نافرمانی قرار دیا گیا اور خنزیر کے خون میں ہاتھ رنگنے والا کہا گیا، تو اس کھیل کا تعارف کیا ہے اور اس پر شدید وعید کی وجہ کیا ہے؟ □ قال ابن منظور: شيءٌ يلعبُ به، فارسي معرب، وليس بعربي، وهو النردشير، فالنردُ اسمٌ عجمي معربٌ، و(شير) بمعنى حل، ابن منظور کہتے ہے کہ یہ ایک کھیل ہے جس کو فارس کے لوگ کھیلتے ہیں ويقول الزبيدي: يقالُ: (النردشير)، إضافةً إلى واضعهِ أرد شير بن بابك من ملوكِ الفرسِ. زبیدی کہتے ہیں کہ اس نام کی نسبت اس کے بنانے والے کی طرف کی گئ ہے اردو لغات میں نردشیر کا معنی نرد کا معنیٰ: چوسر یا شطرنج کی گوٹ یا مہرہ، شطرنج کے کھیل کا پیادہ جو صرف آگے چلتا ہے پیچھے نہیں چلتا، مراد ہبقت، پیشوائی۔ فیروز اللغات اردود جامع صفحہ 1356 کالم 1 تقریبا تمام علمائے اسلام نے نردشیر کی جو تعریف بیان فرمائی ہے اس سے اس کھیل کی قباحت واضح ہوتی ہے. □ جاء في "حياة الحيوان" للدميري: وقد أغفل ابن خلكان من وصف النرد أشياء منها: أن الاثني عشر بيتًا التي في الرقعة مقسومة أربعة على عدد فصول السنة. ومنها أن الثلاثين قطعة بيض وسود كالأيام والليالي. ومنها أن الفصوص مسدسة، إشارة إلى أن الجهات ست لا سابع لها. ومنها أن ما فوق الفصوص وتحتها كيفما وقعت سبع نقط عدد الأفلاك، وعدد الأرضين، وعدد السموات، وعدد الكواكب السيارة. ومنها أنه جعل تصرف اللاعب في تلك الأعداد لاختياره وحسن التدبير بعقله. كما يرزق العاقل شيئًا قليلا فيحسن التدبير فيه، ويرزق المفرط شيئاً كثيراً فلا يحسن التصرف فيه، فالنرد جامع لحكم القضاء والقدر وحسن التصرف لاختيار لاعبه. ○ علامہ دمیری رحمه اللہ اپنی کتاب "حیات الحیوان" میں لکھتے ہیں: ١. نردشیر میں بارہ گھروں کو چار چار کے خانے میں تقسیم کیا گیا ہے، تو گویا یہ سال کے بارہ مہینے چار موسموں کے اعتبار سے تقسیم کئے گئے. ٢. اس میں تیس خانے ہوتے ہیں، کچھ کالے اور کچھ سفید، تو یہ دن اور رات کی طرف اشارہ ہے. ٣.اس میں جو پانسہ پھینکا جاتا ہے وہ چھ کونوں والا ہوتا ہے، یہ اس بات کی طرف اشارہ ہے کہ اطراف چھ ہیں: سامنے، پیچھے، دائیں، بائیں، اوپر، نیچے. ٤. جب بھی پانسے کو پھینکا جائیگا تو اوپر اور نیچے والا عدد ملا کر ہمیشہ سات ہی آئیگا، گویا یہ اس بات کی طرف اشارہ ہے کہ افلاک سات ہیں اور زمین اور آسمان سات ہیں. اب کھیلنے والے کے ہاتھ میں یہ کھیل دے کر گویا اس کو زندگی اور عالم کے تصرفات کا مالک بنایا گیا، کہ جو شخص جتنی عقل مندی سے کھیلے گا ویسے ہی جیتتا رہے گا، ایسے ہی اگر عقلمندی سے زندگی گذارےگا تو زندگی اس کے قابو میں رہے گی، گویا ایک طرح سے اس کھیل کا کھیلنے والا تقدیر کا مالک بن جاتا ہے. اس کھیل کو ایجاد کرنے والا النردشير المذكور في هذا الحديث ويقال له أيضا "النرد" وَهُوَ الْمُسَمَّى الآنَ بِالطَّاوِلَةِ فِي عُرْفِ الْعَامَّةِ. وَقَدْ وُضِعَ النَّرْدُ لأَزْدَشِيرْ مِنْ وَلَدِ سَاسَانَ وَهُوَ أَوَّلُ الْفُرْسِ وَهُوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ لَعِبَ بِهِ فَقِيلَ نَرْدَشِيرُ، وَجَعَلَ مَا تَأْتِي الْفُصُوصُ بِهِ مِنْ الأَعْدَادِ فِي الْكَثْرَةِ وَالْقِلَّةِ لِمَنْ يَضْرِبُ بِهَا مِثْلَ الْقَضَاءِ وَالْقَدْرِ وَتَقَلُّبِهِ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَجَعَلَ تَصَرُّفَ اللاعِبِ فِي تِلْكَ الأَعْدَادِ لاخْتِيَارِهِ وَلَهُ فِيهِ حُسْنُ التَّدْبِيرِ كَمَا يُرْزَقُ الْمُوَفَّقُ شَيْئًا يَسِيرًا فَيُحْسِنُ التَّصَرُّفَ فِيهِ، وَيُرْزَقُ الأَحْمَقُ شَيْئًا كَثِيرًا فَلا يُحْسِنُ التَّصَرُّفَ فِيهِ. اس کھیل کو ایجاد کرنے والا ازدشیر ہے، جو ساسانی نسل میں سے تھا، اسی نے سب سے پہلے اس کھیل کو کھیلا، اسی لئے اس کھیل کا نام نردشیر پڑگیا. چونکہ یہ مجوسی آتش پرست لوگ تھے اور اللہ رب العزت کے منکر تھے، اسلئے اس کھیل سے دنیا پر غلبہ اور انسان کا اپنی تقدیر پر مکمل اختیار ہونے کو ظاہر کیا گیا. موجودہ زمانے میں اس کی شکل النرد الوارد في الحديثِ والآثارِ ذمُّهُ هو: كعاب الدومينو. قال الدكتور محمد رواس قلعه جي في "معجم لغة الفقهاء" (2/83): النرد: بفتح فسكون، لفظ معرب: لعبة تعتمد على الحظ، ذات صندوق وحجارة وزهرين. وينتقل فيها الحجارة حسبما يأتي به الزهران، وتعرف اليوم ب‍ (الطاولة) .... Game at dice. اهـ game at dice اس کھیل کو موجودہ زمانے میں کہا جاتا ہے. • اس کی تائید حضرت علی رضی اللہ عنہ کے اس قول سے بھی ہوتی ہے کہ آپ نے فرمایا کہ میں دو انگارے اپنے ہاتھ میں لوں یہ مجھے زیادہ پسند ہے ان دو ہڈیوں کو ہاتھ میں لینے سے. □ ويؤيده قولُ عليّ رضي الله عنه في النرد: "لأن أقلب جمرتين أحب إليّ من أن أقلب كعبين". [رواه ابن أبي شيبة (26156 )] وفي مصنف ابن أبي شيبة آثار أخر، تؤكد هذا المعنى. فقھائے کرام کے اقوال ١. ذكر الإمام النووي أن الجمهور قال بالحرمة. امام نووی رحمه اللہ نے شرح مسلم میں فرمایا ہے کہ جمہور کا قول اس کھیل (نرد) کے بارے میں حرمت کا نقل کیا گیا ہے. ٢. وأن أباإسحاق المروزي وغيره قال بالكراهة فقط. قلت: وقد رد العلماء على من قال بكراهته فقط. بعض علماء نے کراہیت کا قول نقل کیا ہے: فَقَالَ الرُّويَانِيُّ فِي الْحِلْيَةِ: أَكْثَرُ أَصْحَابِنَا عَلَى التَّحْرِيمِ، وَقَالُوا: إنَّهُ مَذْهَبُ الشَّافِعِيِّ. وَمِمَّا يُزَيِّفُ الْقَوْلَ بِكَرَاهَةِ التَّنْزِيهِ نَقْلُ الْقُرْطُبِيِّ فِي شَرْحِ مُسْلِمٍ اتِّفَاقَ الْعُلَمَاءِ عَلَى تَحْرِيمِ اللَّعِبِ بِهِ مُطْلَقًا، وَنَقْلُ الْمُوَفَّقِ الْحَنْبَلِيِّ فِي مُغْنِيهِ الإِجْمَاعَ عَلَى تَحْرِيمِ اللَّعِبِ بِهِ. • وقال الماوردي: الصَّحِيحُ الَّذِي ذَهَبَ إلَيْهِ الأَكْثَرُونَ تَحْرِيمُ اللَّعِبِ بِالنَّرْدِ وَأَنَّهُ فِسْقٌ تُرَدُّ بِهِ الشَّهَادَةُ. علامہ ماوردی، علامہ موفق حنبلی اور علامہ قرطبی رحمهم اللہ نے نردشیر (چوسر) کے کھیل کی حرمت پر امت کا اجماع نقل کیا ہے. کیا یہ گناہ کبیرہ ہے یا صغیرہ؟ اس بات کو بھی متفقہ طور پر کہا جاسکتا ہے کہ یہ گناہ کبیرہ ہے، کیونکہ اس پر جس قدر سخت وعید وارد ہوئی ہے اس سے گناہ کبیرہ ہی سمجھ میں آتا ہے. وبعد الحكم بحرمته هل هو من الكبائر أم من الصغائر؟ اختلفوا في ذلك، والحديث الذي معنا فيه وعيد شديد عليه. • قال ابن حجر الهيتمي في الزواجر عَدُّه من الكبائر هُوَ ظَاهِرُ هَذِهِ الأَخْبَارِ لأَنَّ التَّشْبِيهَ الَّذِي فِيهِا يُفِيدُ وَعِيدًا شَدِيدًا. • وَقَالَ إمَامُ الْحَرَمَيْنِ: الصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ مِنْ الْكَبَائِرِ، وَجَرَى عَلَى ذَلِكَ الأَذْرَعِيُّ فَقَالَ: مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدِ عَالِمًا بِمَا جَاءَ فِيهِ مُسْتَحْضِرًا لَهُ فُسِّقَ وَرُدَّتْ شَهَادَتُهُ فِي أَيِّ بَلَدٍ كَانَ، لا مِنْ جِهَةِ تَرْكِ الْمُرُوءَةِ بَلْ لارْتِكَابِ النَّهْيِ الشَّدِيدِ. • وَلكن اَلَّذِي جَرَى عَلَيْهِ الرَّافِعِيُّ وغيرهٍ أَنَّهُ صَغِيرَةٌ، قال الرَّافِعِيِّ مَا حَكَمْنَا بِتَحْرِيمِهِ كَالنَّرْدِ. فَهَلْ هُوَ مِنْ الْكَبَائِرِ حَتَّى تُرَدَّ الشَّهَادَةُ بِالْمَرَّةِ الْوَاحِدَةِ مِنْهُ أَوْ مِنْ الصَّغَائِرِ يَتَعَيَّنُ فِيهِ الإِكْثَارُ؟ فِيهِ وَجْهَانِ ثم اختار الثاني. تنبيه: ما سبق من اختلافهم في حكم اللعب بالنرد هل هو حرام صغيرة أو كبيرة أو مكروه، فمحل هذا الاختلاف حَيْثُ خَلا عَنْ الْقِمَارِ وَإِلا فَهُوَ كَبِيرَةٌ بِلا نِزَاعٍ، كَمَا أَشَارَ إلَيْهِ الزَّرْكَشِيُّ. کیا بغیر جوے کے نردشیر حرام نہیں؟ قال شيخُ الإسلامِ ابنُ تيميةَ في "الفتاوى": وَالنَّرْدُ حَرَامٌ عِنْدَ الْأَئِمَّةِ الْأَرْبَعَةِ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ بِعِوَضٍ أَوْ بغَيْرِ عِوَضٍ، وَلَكِنَّ بَعْضَ أَصْحَابِ الشَّافِعِيِّ جَوَّزَهُ بِغَيْرِ عِوَضٍ، لِاعْتِقَادِهِ أَنَّهُ لَا يَكُونُ حِينَئِذٍ من الْمَيْسِرِ. علامہ ابن تیمیہ رحمه اللہ فرماتے ہیں کہ نردشیر آئمہ اربعہ کے نزدیک بالاتفاق حرام ہے چاہے اس میں جوا ہو یا نہیں. البتہ بعض علماء کے نزدیک بغیر عوض کے اس کا کھیلنا صرف مکروہ ہے. گوٹیوں سے کھیلا جانے والا ہر کھیل نردشیر کے حکم میں شامل نہیں کسی بھی زمانے میں مطلقا ہر کھیل کو نردشیر کے ساتھ جوڑ کر اس پر حرمت کا فتوی نہیں لگایا گیا، بلکہ اصل علت کو بنیاد قرار دیا گیا ہے اور وہ علت جوا ہے، لہذا اگر کسی جائز کھیل میں جوا ہوگا تو وہ حرام ہے، اور اگر کسی کھیل میں جوا نہیں تو اس کو مطلقا حرام قرار نہیں دیا جائیگا. ☆یہاں ایک اور علت بھی نردشیر میں سمجھ آرہی ہے اور وہ ہے تقدیر کے انکار کی شکل کا ہونا اور انسان کو متصرف مختار قرار دینا اسی لئے علمائے کرام نے کھیلوں میں مشغولیت کیلئے چند شرائط ذکر کی ہیں: *١. اس کی وجہ سے فرائض میں سستی نہ ہو.* *٢. اس میں جوا شامل نہ ہو.* *٣. کسی شرعی کام کی مخالفت نہ ہو.* قال الشيخ سيد سابق رحمه الله في كتابه القيم "فقه السنة" (3/514): والذين أباحوه اشترطوا لإباحته الشروط الآتية: *١-* أن لا يشغل عن واجب من واجبات الدين. *٢ـ* أن لا يخالطه قمار. *٣ـ* أن لا يصدر أثناء اللعب مايخالف شرع. لوڈو کے متعلق فتوی سوال: لوڈو کھیلنے کا کیا حکم ہے جب کہ کوئی جوا اور شرط وغیرہ نہ رکھی جائے، نماز وغیرہ کے وقت کا بھی خیال رکھتے ہوئے لوڈو کھیل کھیلنے کا کیا حکم ہے؟ الجواب حامدا و مصلیا اگر لوڈو میں جوا نہ لگایا جائے اور اس کی عادت بھی نہ بنائی جائے اور اس میں مشغولیت کی وجہ سے کسی واجب کا ترک یا کسی حرام کا ارتکاب بھی لازم نہ آتا ہو تو اس کا کھیلنا اگرچہ جائز ہوگا، لیکن ایسے کھیل کا انتخاب کرنا چاہیئے جس میں دماغی تفریح کے ساتھ ساتھ جسمانی ورزش بھی ہوتی ہو، جب کہ مذکور کھیل عموما ضیاع وقت کا باعث ہے. “ھذا اذا لم یقامر ولم یداوم ولم یخل بواجب، وإلا فھو حرام بالإجماع". [الدر المختار (6-396)] ● علامہ البانی رحمه اللہ جیسی متشدد شخصیت نے بھی مطلقا اس طرح کے کھیلوں کو حرام قرار نہیں دیا، بلکہ لکھا ہے کہ اگر جوا نہ ہو اور تصاویر نہ ہوں تو کبھی کبار اس طرح کے کھیل کھیلے جاسکتے ہیں، البتہ اس کو عادت بنانا اور اس میں ایسا انہماک کہ جسکی وجہ سے نمازیں اور واجبات چھوٹ جائیں یہ درست نہیں. قال الإمام الالباني رحمه الله تعالى جوابا على سؤال نصه: • سؤال: ما حكم لعب الورق، الشطرنج، النرد وغيرها من الألعاب؟ • الجواب: لعبة الورق هي لعبة الكفار الذين مثلوا عقيدتهم وشركهم في بعض الصور التي على بعض الأوراق، فاللعب بهذا الورق بدون قمار لا يخلوا كراهة على الأقل، لما فيه من استعمال هذه الصور والإقبال والانكباب عليها. وهذا يذكرني بما روي عن علي رضي الله عنه أنه مر بقوم يلعبون الشطرنج، فقال لهم: ما هذه التماثيل التي أنتم لها عاكفون؟.. لأنه فعلا الشطرنج فيه تماثيل كالفرس مثلا. • واللعب بالورق أنواع: بعضها قائم على إعمال العقل، والبعض الآخر قائم على الحظ فهذا النوع الأخير ای القائم على الحظ، فيه شبه بالنرد الذي جاء النص الصحيح الصريح بتحريمه، فقد جاء في صحيح مسلم عن النبي عليه السلام أنه قال: "الذي يلعب بالنرد مثله كمثل الذي يغمس يده في لحم خنزير ودمه". وحكم ماكان قائما على إعمال العقل هو حكم الشطرنج وھو الكراهة. وننصح من كان مبتلى بلعب الشطرنج أن يقطع رؤوس هذه التمثيل الصغيرة. فالضابط: أن أي لعب فيه تماثيل أو صور فيجب الابتعاد عنه، أما ما ليس فيه شيء من ذلك، فيجوز اللعب به أحيانا من باب الترويح عن النفس، أما أن يتخذ ديدنا بحيث يشغل وقته كله، ويشغله عن الصلاة، وعن أهله، فهذا حينئذ يعتبر كالخمر التي تصد عن ذكر الله وعن الصلاة. خلاصہ کلام ہر وہ کھیل جس کی ممانعت صراحتا روایات میں موجود ہے اس کا کھیلنا منع ہے، لیکن اس کے علاوہ جو کھیل ہیں ان کو چند شرائط کیساتھ کھیلنا جائز ہے: ١. اس کھیل کو مقصد نہ بنایا جائے ٢. اسکی وجہ سے کوئی شرعی واجبات فوت نہ ہوں. ٣. اس میں اتنا انہماک نہ ہو کہ پورا دن یا پوری رات اس میں گذر جائے. ٤. اس میں جوا نہ لگایا جائے. ٥. وہ کھیل تفریح کا باعث تو ہو لیکن لڑائی جھگڑے کا باعث نہ بنے. ہمارے ہاں لوڈو، کیرم بورڈ وغیرہ جیسے کھیل عموما تفریح طبع کیلئے کھیلے جاتے ہیں، لہذا اس پر چوسر کا حکم لگا کر اس کو حرام قرار دینا ہرگز درست نہیں، البتہ اس کے بارے میں زیادہ سے زیادہ یہ کہا جاسکتا ہے کہ یہ بہتر عمل نہیں. 《واللہ اعلم بالصواب》 《کتبه: عبدالباقی اخونزادہ》 ١٠ذوالقعده ١٤٣٨ مدینہ منورہ
  10. عاشوراء کے دن کی طرف منسوب انبیاء علیہم السلام کے واقعات کی حقیقت ذخیرہ احادیث میں ۵حضرات صحابہ کی روایات اس سلسلہ میں ملتی ہے : ۱۔ حضرت ابن عباس ۲۔ حضرت ابوہریرہ ۳۔ حضرت سعید الشامی ۴۔ حضرت انس ۵۔ حضرت علی رضی اللہ عنہم اجمعین ۔ اورتابعین میں سے : 6۔ حضرت قتادہ ۷۔ حضرت وہب بن منبہ ۸۔حضرت زید العمی رحمہم اللہ سے مرسل روایات منقول ہیں۔ ۞ ان روایات میں وقائع دو طرح کے ہیں : ۱۔ ایک وہ جن کا تعلق خداکی تخلیق سے ہے ، یعنی اللہ تعالی نے فلانی فلانی چیز عاشوراء کے دن پیدا کی ، جیسے زمین آسمان عرش کرسی لوح وقلم وغیرہ وغیرہ ، ان امور سے ابھی یہاں تعرض نہیں کیا جائے گا ، اگرچہ یہ امور ثابت نہیں ہیں ۔ ۲۔دوسرے وہ واقعات جو انبیاء کرام علیہم السلام کی طرف منسوب ہیں ، وہ مختلف روایات جمع کرنے سے تقریبا ۱۴ انبیاء علیہم السلام کی طرف منسوب کئے گئےہیں ، بعض انبیاء کی طرف متعدد باتیں منسوب کی گئیں ، جن کی یہ فہرست ہے : ۱۔ حضرت آدم علیہ السلام کی پیدائش ، اور اس دن ان کی توبہ قبول ہونا۔ ۲۔ حضرت نوح علیہ السلام کی نجات ، اور کشتی کا جودی پہاڑ پر جاکرٹھیرنا۔ ۳۔ حضرت ابراہیم علیہ السلام کی پیدائش، اور آگ سے نجات۔ ۴۔ حضرت اسماعیل علیہ السلام کی دنبہ کے ذریعہ فداء۔ ۵۔ حضرت موسی علیہ السلام کی پیدائش ،تورات کا نزول ،بنی اسرائیل کی نجات ، دریا پار کرنا، اور فرعون کا غرق۔ ۶۔ حضرت یونس علیہ السلام کا مچھلی کے پیٹ سے نکلنا ، اور ان کی قوم کی توبہ قبول ہونا ۔ ۷۔ حضرت ادریس علیہ السلام کو آسمان پر اٹھالینا۔ ۸۔ حضرت ایوب علیہ السلام کا شفایاب ہونا۔ ۹۔ حضرت داود علیہ السلام کی فیصلہ والی غلطی معاف ہونا۔ ۱۰۔ حضرت سلیمان علیہ السلام کاحکومت و سلطنت پر فائز ہونا۔ ۱۱۔ حضرت یوسف علیہ السلام کا قید خانہ سے نکلنا۔ ۱۲۔ حضرت یعقوب علیہ السلام کی بینائی واپس لوٹنا۔ ۱۳۔ حضرت عیسی علیہ السلام کی پیدائش، اور آسمان پر اٹھالینا۔ ۱۴۔ حضرت نبی کریم صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی پیدائش ، اور اگلے پچھلے گناہوں کی مغفرت کی بشارت ۔ ۞ ان واقعات میں سے پایۂ ثبوت تک پہنچ نے والا صرف حضرت موسی علیہ السلام کی فرعون سے نجات کا واقعہ ہے ، جو بروایت حضرت ابن عباس رضی اللہ عنہما ، کتب احادیث میں صحیح سند سے مروی ہے۔ ۞ اس کے علاوہ چار واقعات اسانید ضعیفہ سے وارد ہوئے ہیں ، ضعف سند کے ساتھ ان کا کچھ اعتبا ر کرسکتے ہیں ، وہ ہیں : ۱۔ حضرت آدم علیہ السلام کی توبہ قبول ہونا ۲۔ حضرت نوح علیہ السلام کی طوفان سے نجات۔ ۳۔ فرعون کے جادوگروں کی توبہ قبول ہونا۔ ۴۔ حضرت عیسی علیہ السلام کی پیدائش ۔ بقیہ جتنے بھی واقعات ہیں جو عاشوراء کی طرف منسوب کئے گئے ، اسی طرح عاشوراء کے فضائل ، وہ سب غیر مستند ، جھوٹے اور من گھڑت ہیں ۔ ۞ اب اسانید ومرویات کا حال معلوم کرتے ہیں : ۱۔ حضرت ابن عباس کی روایت : ان سے مختصر روایت جس میں حضرت موسی علیہ السلام اور بنی اسرائیل کی فرعون سے نجات کا واقعہ جو مروی ہے ، وہ صحیح ہے ۔ دیکھئے : صحیح البخاری رقم(2004) ( 3397) ،مسلم(1130)۔ جب کہ حضرت ابن عباس رضی اللہ عنہما کی مطول روایت جس میں مختلف انبیاء علیہم السلام کے واقعات مذکور ہیں ، وہ روایت من گھڑت ہے ، اس کی سند میں حبیب بن ابی حبیب جھوٹا راوی ہے ۔ اس روایت کوبیہقی نے فضائل الاوقات (ص: 430,440)میں ذکر کرنے کے بعد کہا : هَذَا حَدِيثٌ مُنْكَرٌ، وَإِسْنَادُهُ ضَعِيفٌ بِمَرَّةٍ ،وَأَنَا أَبْرَأُ إِلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ عُهْدَتِهِ، وَفِي مَتْنِهِ مَا لَا يَسْتَقِيمُ وَهُوَ مَا رُوِيَ فِيهِ مِنْ خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرَضِينَ وَالْجِبَالِ كُلِّهَا فِي يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ ،وَاللَّهُ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ: {اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ} وَمِنَ الْمُحَالِ أَنْ تَكُونَ السَّنَّةُ كُلُّهَا فِي يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ ،فَدَلَّ ذَلک عَلَى ضَعْفِ هَذَا الْخَبَرِ۔ ابن الجوزی نے الموضوعات (2/199)میں کہا : هَذَا حَدِيث مَوْضُوع بِلَا شكّ. قَالَ أَحْمَد بْن حَنْبَل: كَانَ حَبِيب بْن أَبِي حَبِيب يكذب.وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَدِيٍّ: كَانَ يَضَعُ الْحَدِيثَ.وَقَالَ أَبُو حَاتِم ابن حِبَّانَ: هَذَا حَدِيثٌ بَاطِلٌ لَا أَصْلَ لَهُ.قَالَ : وَكَانَ حَبِيبٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ مرو يضع الحَدِيث على الثقاة، لَا يَحِلُّ كَتْبُ حَدِيثِهِ إِلا على سَبِيل الْقدح فِيهِ. وانظر: اللآلىء المصنوعة في الأحاديث الموضوعة (2/92)،وتنزيه الشريعة (2/149) ،والفوائد المجموعة (ص: 96)۔ ۲۔ حضرت ابوہریرہ کی روایت : ان سے مختصر روایت مسند احمد (14/335)وغیرہ میں مروی ہے ، جس کا خلاصہ ہےکہ : اس دن حضرت موسیٰ علیہ السلام اور بنی اسرائیل کو غرق ہونے سے بچایا تھا، اور فرعون کو غرق فرمایا تھا ،اسی دن حضرت نوح علیہ السلام کی کشتی جودی پہاڑ پر جا کر رکی تھی۔ تو حضرت نوح اور موسیٰ علیہم السلام نے اللہ کا شکراداکرنے کے لئے روزہ رکھا تھا۔ احمد کی سند میں عبد الصمد بن حبيب ضعیف ہے ، اور اس کے والد مجہول الحال ہیں ۔لیکن اخبار کے باب میں اس قسم کا ضعف چل سکتاہے، تو کشتی کا واقعہ قابل قبول ہوسکتاہے ، حضرت قتادہ کی مرسل روایت میں بھی یہ مذکور ہے ۔ البتہ حضرت ابوہریرہ کی طویل روایت تو موضوعات میں شمار کی گئی ، ابن الجوزی نے الموضوعات (2/199)میں ذکر کے کہا : هَذَا حَدِيث لَا يشك عَاقل فِي وَضعه وَلَقَد أبدع من وَضعه وكشف القناع وَلم يستحيي وأتى فِيهِ المستحيل وَهُوَ قَوْله: وَأول يَوْم خَلَقَ اللَّهُ يَوْم عَاشُورَاءَ، وَهَذَا تغفيل من وَاضعه لِأَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا يُسمى يَوْم عَاشُورَاءَ إِذَا سبقه تِسْعَة. شوکانی نے الفوائد المجموعہ (ص: 96)میں کہا : ساقه في "اللآلىء" (2/92) مُطَوَّلا وَفِيهِ مِنَ الْكَذِبِ عَلَى الله وعلى رسوله ، ما يقشعر لَهُ الْجِلْدُ فَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْكَذَّابِينَ ، وهو موضوع بلا شك. ۳۔ حضرت سعید شامی کی روایت : یہ روایت کتابوں میں عبد الغفور بن عبد العزیز بن سعیدالواسطی، عن ابیہ عبد العزیز ، عن ابیہ سعید ، کی سند سے منقول ہوتی ہے ، جس سے عثمان بن مطر شیبانی روایت کرتاہے ، عبد الغفور پر وضع حدیث کا حکم لگایا گیا ہے ،اور عثمان بن مطر متروک الروایت ہے، اس لئے اس روایت کا کوئی اعتبار نہیں ہے ۔ عبد الغفور کی روایت طبرانی کی المعجم الكبير (6/69) تفسير طبری (15/355)اور ترتيب الأمالی الخميسیہ (2/127)میں ہے۔ دیکھئے :عبد الغفور کے لئے :میزان الاعتدال (2/641) لسان المیزان (5/229)السلسلہ الضعیفہ (11/691)۔ عثمان بن مطر کے لئے :میزان (3/53)تہذیب الکمال(19/494)۔ ۴۔ حضرت انس کی روایت : ابویعلی نے مسند(7/133)پرمختصرا روایت کیا ہے ، اس میں بنی اسرائیل کے لئے دریا کا پھٹنا مذکور ہے ، سند میں ضعف ہے لیکن شواہد صحیحہ کی وجہ سے تحسین کے قابل ہے۔ ۵۔ حضرت علی رضی اللہ عنہ کی روایت فضیلت صوم عاشوراء کے سلسلہ میں ترمذی (741)میں وارد ہے کہ: محرم کے روزے رکھا کرو کیونکہ یہ اللہ کا مہینہ ہے، اس میں ایک ایسا دن ہے جس میں اللہ تعالیٰ نے ایک قوم کی توبہ قبول کی تھی ،اور اس دن دوسری قوم کی بھی توبہ قبول کرے گا۔ سند عبدالرحمن بن اسحاق واسطی کی وجہ سے ضعیف ہے ۔اس میں ایک قوم کی توبہ قبول ہونے کا مبہم تذکرہ ہے ، بعض شراح اس سے قوم یونس کی توبہ مراد لیتے ہیں [التنوير شرح الجامع الصغير (4/ 246)]اور بعض فرعون کے جادوگروں کی توبہ ، کیونکہ تفسیر کی بعض کتابوں میں (یوم الزینہ ) کی تفسیر میں حضرت ابن عباس سے نقل کیا گیا کہ وہ عاشوراء کا دن تھا [تفسير ابن كثير (5/ 289)]۔ ۶۔ حضرت قتادہ کی مرسل روایت میں صرف حضرت نوح علیہ السلام کی کشتی کا جودی پہاڑ پررکنا مذکور ہے [تفسير الطبري (15/ 336)] اس کی تقویت حضرت ابوہریرہ کی روایت سے ممکن ہے [مسند احمد (14/335)]۔ ۷۔ حضرت وہب بن منبہ کی روایت طویل ہے ، اور مختلف وقائع اور فضائل عاشوراء پر مشتمل ہے [ترتيب الأمالی الخميسيہ للشجری (1/245)]لیکن سند میں عبد المنعم بن ادریس کذاب ہے [میزان الاعتدال 2/668]۔ ۸۔ حضرت زید بن الحواری العمی کی مرسل روایت مستدرک حاکم میں (2/638))وارد ہے ، اس میں حضرت عیسی علیہ السلام کی عاشوراء کے دن پیدائش کی بات ہے ۔ذہبی نے تلخیص المستدرک میں کہا : سند واہ۔ ۞ علامہ عبد الحی لکھنوی رحمہ اللہ[الآثار المرفوعہ في الأخبار الموضوعہ (ص: 95)]میں مذکورہ بالا واقعات کا تجزیہ کرتے ہوئے فرماتے ہیں : قلت : الَّذِي ثَبت بالأحاديث الصَّحِيحَة المروية فِي الصِّحَاح السِّتَّة وَغَيرهَا أَن الله تَعَالَى نجى مُوسَى على نَبينَا وَعَلِيهِ الصَّلَاة وَالسَّلَام من يَد فِرْعَوْن وَجُنُوده وغرَّق فِرْعَوْن وَمن مَعَه يَوْم عَاشُورَاء .وَمن ثَمَّ كَانَت الْيَهُود يَصُومُونَ يَوْم عَاشُورَاء ويتخذونه عيدا . وَقد صَامَ النَّبِي حِين دخل الْمَدِينَة وَرَأى الْيَهُود يصومونه وَأمر أَصْحَابه بصيامه وَقَالَ نَحن أَحَق بمُوسَى مِنْكُم، وَنهى عَن اتِّخَاذه عيدا وَأمر بِصَوْم يَوْم قبله أَو بعده حذرا من مُوَافقَة الْيَهُود والتشبه بهم فِي إِفْرَاد صَوْم عَاشُورَاء. وَثَبت بروايات أخر فِي "لطائف المعارف" لِابْنِ رَجَب وَغَيره :أَن الله قبل تَوْبَة آدم على نَبينَا وَعَلِيهِ الصَّلَاة وَالسَّلَام . وَثَبت بِرِوَايَة أُخْرَى أَن نوحًا على نَبينَا وَعَلِيهِ الصَّلَاة وَالسَّلَام اسْتَوَت سفينته على الجودي يَوْم عَاشُورَاء كَمَا فِي "الدّرّ المنثور" وَغَيره معزوا إِلَى أَحْمد وَأبي الشَّيْخ وَابْن مرْدَوَيْه وَابْن جرير والأصبهاني وَغَيرهم .وَفِي رِوَايَة للأصبهاني فِي كتاب "التَّرْغِيب والترهيب" أَن يَوْم ولادَة عِيسَى يَوْم عَاشُورَاء كَمَا فِي "الدّرّ المنثور" أَيْضا . وَأما هَذِه الْأَحَادِيث الطوَال الَّتِي ذكر فِيهَا كثير من الوقائع الْعَظِيمَة الْمَاضِيَة والمستقبلة أَنَّهَا فِي يَوْم عَاشُورَاء فَلَا أصل لَهَا ،وَإِن ذكرهَا كثير من أَرْبَاب السلوك والتاريخ فِي تواليفهم، وَمِنْهُم الْفَقِيه أَبُو اللَّيْث ذكر فِي" تَنْبِيه الغافلين" حَدِيثا طَويلا فِي ذَلِكَ ،وَكَذَا ذكر فِي "بستانه" فَلَا تغتر بِذكر هَؤُلَاءِ ،فَإِن الْعبْرَة فِي هَذَا الْبَاب لنقد الرِّجَال لَا لمُجَرّد ذكر الرِّجَال . رتبه ملخصا المذنب : محمد طلحه بلال أحمد منيار
  11. Yazeed Ki Shakhsiyat Ahle Sunnat Ki Nazar Mein By: Maulana Abdur-Rashid Nomani 209 pages A detailed book about the Sunni view of Yazid, seen as a highly sinful (fasiq) person. Some scholars even doubted his basic belief in Islam. Read Online Download (12MB)
  12. عاشوراء کے دن وسعت علی العیال یوم عاشوراء میں اہل وعیال پر کھانے پینے میں وسعت وفراخی کرنے کی بابت جو حدیث بیان کی جاتی ہے ، کیا وہ ثابت ہے ؟ الجواب : عاشوراء کے دن وسعت علی العیال والی حدیث : ۵ صحابہکرام رضی اللہ عنھم سے مرفوعا ، اور حضرت عمر سے موقوفا ، اور ایک تابعی کی روایت سے مرسلامنقول ہے ،جن صحابہ کرام سے مرفوعا وارد ہے ، وہ یہ ہیں : ۞ حضرت جابر [شعب الإيمان 3512] ۞ حضرت ابن مسعود [شعب الإيمان 3513] ۞ حضرت ابو سعيد خدری [شعب الإيمان 3514] ۞ حضرت ابو هريرہ [شعب الإيمان 3515] ۞ حضرت ابن عمر [التوسعة على العيال لأبي زرعة (ص: 10،12)] ۞ حضرت عمر پرموقوف روایت [ التوسعة على العيال لأبي زرعة (ص: 13) ] میں ۞ اور ابن المنتشر تابعی کا بلاغ [شعب الإيمان 3516] میں مروی ہے ۔ بعض علماء حدیث اس حدیث کی تمام اسانید وطرق پر جرح کرتے ہوئے فرماتے ہیں کہ: یہ حدیث مرفوعا ثابت نہیں ہے ، اور بعض صراحتا من گھڑت ہونے کا حکم لگاتے ہیں ۔ [ التوسعة على العيال لأبي زرعة (ص: 13) ، مرعاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح (6/ 363) ] جبکہ ان کے مقابلہ میں بعض محدثین نے ان کو قبول کیا ہے ، اور بعض اسانید کو صحیح یا حسن کا مرتبہ دیا ہے ،ان میں بالخصوص امام بیھقی ، ابن القطان ، عراقی ، ابو زرعہ بن العراقی ، ابن حجر عسقلانی ، سیوطی رحمھم اللہ ہیں، ان کے اقوال ملاحظہ فرمائیں : ۱۔ امام بیہقی : " هَذِهِ الْأَسَانِيدُ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ ضَعِيفَةً فَهِيَ إِذَا ضُمَّ بَعْضُهَا إِلَى بَعْضٍ أَخَذَتْ قُوَّةً " [ شعب الإيمان (5/ 333) ] ۲۔ ابن ناصر الدین : قال العراقي في أماليه : " لحديث أبي هريرة طرقٌ، صحح بعضَها ابن ناصر الحافظ " [ المقاصد الحسنة (ص: 674) ] ۳۔ ابو الفضل عراقی : قال العراقي في أماليه : " لحديث أبي هريرة طرق ، صحح بعضها ابن ناصر الحافظ، وأورده ابن الجوزي في الموضوعات من طريق سليمان بن أبي عبد اللَّه عنه، وقال: سليمان مجهول. وسليمان ذكره ابن حبان في الثقات، فالحديث حسن على رأيه، قال: وله طريق عن جابر على شرط مسلم، أخرجها ابن عبد البر في "الاستذكار" من رواية أبي الزبير عنه ، وهي أصح طرقه ، ورواه هو والدارقطني في "الأفراد" بسند جيد ، عن عمر موقوفا عليه " [ المقاصد الحسنة (ص: 674) ] ۴۔ ابوزرعہ عراقی : " هَذَا مَا وَقَعَ لَنَا مِنَ الأَحَادِيثِ الْمَرْفُوعَةِ فِي الْبَابِ، وَأَصَحُّهَا حَدِيثُ جَابِرٍ مِنَ الطَّرِيقِ الأَوَّلِ، وَفِي بَعْضِ طُرُقِهِ الْمُتَقَدِّمَةِ مَا يَصْلُحُ أَنْ يَكُونَ شَاهِدًا لَهُ " [ التوسعة على العيال لأبي زرعة (ص: 12) ] ، وقال عن رواية ابي الزبير عن جابر : " وَأَقَلُّ أَحْوَالِ هَذَا الطَّرِيقِ أَنْ يَكُونَ حَسَنًا ، وَحُكْمُهُ حُكْمُ الصَّحِيحِ فِي الاحْتِجَاجِ بِهِ." [ التوسعة على العيال لأبي زرعة (ص: 2) ] ۵۔ ابن حجر عسقلانی : قال ابن حجر عن رواية أبي سعيد : ولولا الرجل المبهم لكان إسناده جيداً ، لكنه يقوى بالذي قبله ، وله شواهد عن جماعة من الصحابة غير أبي سعيد [ الأمالي المطلقة (ص: 28) ] ۶۔ سیوطی : (حديث) "مَنْ وَسَّعَ عَلَى عِيَالِهِ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ وَسَّعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ سَائِرَ سَنَتِهِ" قال الدارقطني : لا يثبت ، إنما هو من كلام محمد بن المنتشر. قلت: كلا بل هو ثابت صحيح [ الدرر المنتثرة في الأحاديث المشتهرة (ص: 186) ] ۷۔ ابو الفیض احمد الغماری : حدیث صحیح [ هدية الصغراء بتصحيح حديث التوسعة يوم عاشوراء ص 39 ] ۞ ۞ ۞ اور مذاہب اربعہ کی کتابوں میں بھی اس پر عمل کرنے کی گنجائش لکھی ہے ، اور یہ کہ سال بھر کی برکت کے بارے میں یہ عمل مجرب اور پائے ثبوت کو پہنچا ہوائے ہے ۔ :حنفیہ کےبعض فتاوی ملاحظہ فرمائیں ۞ وسعت علی العیال کی روایت اگرچہ سنداً ضعیف ہے؛ لیکن مختلف طرق سے مروی ہونے کی وجہ سے فضائل میں قابل استدلال ہے؛ لیکن اس روایت سے کھچڑے اور حلیم پکانے پر استدلال کرنا صحیح نہیں ہے؛ کیوں کہ کھچڑا آج کل اہل بدعت کا شعار بن چکا ہے اور یہ لوگ روزہ رکھنے کے بجائے دن بھر کھچڑا کھاتے کھلاتے رہتے ہیں، جو منشأ نبوی کے بالکل خلاف ہے، نیز اس میں التزام مالا یلزم کے معنی بھی پائے جاتے ہیں؛ کیوں کہ وسعت پر عمل کھچڑا پکانے پر ہی منحصر نہیں؛ بلکہ کسی بھی طرح دستر خوان وسیع کرنے سے یہ فضیلت حاصل ہوسکتی ہے۔ (کتاب النوازل ج۱۷ ص ۱۸۸)۔ ۞ عاشوراء کے روز شام کو وسعت دسترخوان ناجائز نہیں ہے ،بلکہ جائز اور باعث خیرو برکت ہے۔(فتاوی قاسمیہ ج۲ص۴۳۲)۔ ۞ عاشوراء کے دن اہل وعیال کو اچھا اور خوب کھلانا حدیث و کتب فقہ سے ثابت ہے ، حدیث اگرچہ ضعیف بھی ہو پھر بھی فضائلِ اعمال میں اس پر عمل کرنے میں ثواب ہے ، نیز فقھاء نے بھی اس حدیث کو قابلِ عمل فرمایا ہے۔واللہ اعلم۔(فتاوی دار العلوم زکریا ج۱ص۴۱۹)۔ ۞ عاشورا کے دن اہل وعیال پر فراوانی کی حدیث صحیح ہے اور اس پر عمل کرنا جائز ہے۔(نجم الفتاوی ج۱ص۲۹۶) ۔ ۞ خلاصہ بحث ۞ وسعت علی العیال کیحدیث کو حضور اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کی طرف منسوب کرنے میں کوئی حرج نہیں ہے ۔ اوراس پر عمل بھی جائز و مستحسن ہے ۔ رہی بات دیگر رسوم کی جیسے : سرمہ لگانا ، خضاب لگانا ،غسل کرنا ، رشتہ داروں سے ملاقات کرنا ،خاص قسم کا کھانا پکانے کا اہتمام کرنا،تو یہ سب بدعت ہے اور ان باتوں کی کوئی اصل نہیں ہے۔
  13. And the fifth one is: المسلم من سلم المسلمون من لسانه، ويده A Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hands the Muslims are safe.
  14. Sincere Words Penetrate & Illuminate Sincere Hearts: ‘Whatever [sincerely] emerges from the heart, enters the heart. But whatever is limited to the tongue, does not go beyond the ears. Then, on penetrating the heart, it may either encounter an opposition which repels it with total rejection, as in the case of unbelievers; or an unwillingness, as with hypocrites; or a thin veil, as with sinners; or it may touch its essence and reality such that it gives rise to courage and restraint for acts [of worship], as in the case of truthful seekers [of Allah].’* —————— *Ahmad Zarruq, Qawa‘id al-Tasawwuf (Shariqa: Marqaz al-‘Arabi, n.d.), 213, no.130.
  15. EFFECTS OF GAMBLING QUESTION: Please can you inform me of the effects of gambling on ones life, household, rizq and children. My husband gambles 'occasionally' as he says ( Allah knows best) but says theres no harm because its not something that he does daily. The only reason its not daily is because we live in a town with no casino...but I recently found out that hes been going when we in a city...he just lies about work and visiting friends and cousins and he goes at times when kids are asleep and I cant go with. I know it is not occasionally because I managed to get information from the casinos and the amounts that were used there, shows otherwise. Our relationship has always been turbulent . he is showing no remorse...I have three children and feel like I cannot bring them up in a household like this. Answer In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh. We are sorry to hear of the turbulence in your marriage. We make dua Allah Taala bring peace and happiness in your life. Whatever is prohibited in Shariah, it is due to the harms contained in it. Allah Taala is Al-Hakeem( The All Wise) He has expressly prohibited gambling. We trust in the absolute knowledge of Allah Taala and believe that gambling is harmful and detrimental. Hereunder are some of the harms of gambling, Ø Disobeying Allah Taala by committing a prohibited act. Ø The mind gets consumed in gambling and forgets Allah Taala and other obligations like Salah and Zikr. Such an attitude incurs the anger and wrath of Allah Taala and deprives one of peace and happiness. Ø Gambling leads to an addiction and incurring debts to pursue ones addiction. This in turn affects ones marriage and family life and host of spiritual maladies. Health harms Ø Self-esteem declines as losses increase. Ø Problem gamblers suffer more from stress, anxiety, moodiness, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and manic and clinical depression. Ø They are at increased risk of experiencing blackouts and emotional breakdowns. Ø Some physical problems include muscular tension, fatigue, stomach ailments, insomnia, ulcers, colitis, high blood pressure, heart disease, migraines, and skin problems. Ø Compulsive gamblers are likely to turn to alcohol, cigarettes, or other drugs to cope with anxiety or depression. Ø About 80 percent of compulsive gamblers seriously consider suicide and 15 percent attempt it. We advise you consult with senior members of your family on the issue. Also turn to Allah with Salah and Dua and Zikr. And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best Huzaifah Deedat Student Darul Iftaa Lusaka, Zambia Checked and Approved by, Mufti Ebrahim Desai. www.daruliftaa.net ________________________ {يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِنْ نَفْعِهِمَا } [البقرة: 219] {يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنْصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (90)} [المائدة: 90] http://rehab-international.org/gambling-addiction/effects http://patient.info/health/problem-gambling http://www.askimam.org/public/question_detail/18361 Source ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NEGATIVE EFFECTS Based on recent research, there are currently 2.5 million Americans who have a gambling addiction and an additional three million are considered to be problem gamblers. A gambling addiction is a compulsion and the end result can be devastating for the gambler as well as their family. More than 80 percent of the population in the United States has reported gambling at some point and studies have revealed that $500 billion is spent annually on wagers. Gambling addictions can lead to other serious effects, including loss of jobs, failed relationships and severe debt. Gambling addictions are often associated with mental health problems, including depression, mood disorders and anti-social personality disorders. There is treatment available for gambling addicts. Treatment has been successful in helping more than 80 percent of gambling addicts. When discussing a gambling addiction, it is important for people to realize it causes social and economic effects. The National Gambling Impact Study Commission conducts studies on a regular basis to determine the cost to society for gambling addicts. You can get gambling addiction help here. Economic Effects Studies have shown that more than $5 billion has been lost each year to gambling addictions. In addition, $40 billion has been spent on social services and creditor losses. These studies go on to state that two out of three gambling addicts will engage in illegal acts to pay for their gambling debts. The effect is that the addiction places a severe hardship on prison systems, public assistance programs and legal systems. There are many consequences of gambling addictions that result in economic costs. Some gambling addiction dangers are: Increased rates of unemployment Bankruptcy Fraud and check forgery Forced home sales Increased alcohol and drug abuse Poor mental and physical health of the addict Social Effects While the addict will definitely suffer, the family also faces challenges when there is a gambling addiction. Family members suffer physical and psychological abuse. More than 85 percent of families with a gambling addict have reported receiving threats from creditors and bill collectors. There is also an increased rate of divorce. In the United States, 65 percent of couples that consist of one spouse with a gambling addiction, end up divorced. There is also an extreme amount of stress placed on the family to repay debts and bills that the addict has accumulated as a result of gambling. Research has shown that three out of five gambling addicts have a family with children. The children also suffer the effects of the addiction in many ways, including: Experiencing physical and emotional abandonment. Children of gambling addicts are commonly left in cars while their parent gambles. This causes the child to miss out on the nurturing they should be receiving. Children of gambling addicts are often verbally, physically and mentally abused by the person with the addiction. Children of gambling addicts have a very high chance of developing a gambling addiction later in life. Out of the people who have a gambling addiction, more than half have stated that their parents were also addicts.. Compulsive Gambling When a person is a compulsive gambler or an addict, the effects are devastating immediately. A large number of addicts will use credit cards and debit cards to pay for their addiction or internet gambling addiction. The result places them in debt to the point of losing homes, jobs, vehicles and even their families. There are many ways in which a gambling addiction can have an effect on people. Family problems are very common. Almost 90 percent of gambling addicts around the world have issues at home with their family because of their addiction. Financial devastation is unavoidable. People with a gambling addiction will go to extreme measures to get money to gamble. More than large-4 columns of people with this addiction have stolen to support it. Job loss is very high among gambling addicts. These people tend to miss many days at work, causing problems and loss of jobs. Gambling addictions will interfere with work relations. Only 20 percent of gambling addicts are able to maintain their jobs as well as their addiction. The various effects of gambling addictions do not just apply to the person with the addiction. People who are in close contact with the addict also suffer. In addition, there are serious social and economic effects that are caused by compulsive gambling. Treatment centers are available for these types of addiction and recommended for anyone who has a problem controlling their urges to gamble. SOURCE: https://rehab-international.org/gambling-addiction/effects ______________________________________________________________________________ Potential harms associated with problem gambling Problem gamblers are more likely than other people to experience the following harms: Financial harms: overdue utility bills; borrowing from family friends and loan sharks; debts; pawning or selling possessions; eviction or repossession; defaults; committing illegal acts like fraud, theft, embezzlement to finance gambling; bankruptcy; etc ... Family harms: preoccupied with gambling so normal family life becomes difficult; increased arguments over money and debts; emotional and physical abuse, neglect and violence towards spouse/partner and/or children; relationship problems and separation/divorce. Health harms: low self-esteem; stress-related disorders; anxious, worried or mood swings; poor sleep and appetite; substance misuse; depression, suicidal ideas and attempts; etc. School/college/work harms: poor school, college or work performance; increased absenteeism; expulsion or dismissal. SOURCE: http://patient.info/health/problem-gambling Back to table of contents
  16. WHY GAMBLING IS PROHIBITED IN ISLAM? Question: Could you please explain briefly why gambling is not permitted in Islam. Answer: In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh Allah Ta’ala says, يسألونك عن الخمر والميسر قل فيهما إثم كبير ومنافع للناس وإثمهمآ أكبر من نفعهما "They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say, 'In them there is great sin and some benefit for men; but the sin is greater than the benefit."(Al-Baqarah, 219) The reason for the prohibition of gambling is clearly understood from the following verse, يا أيها الذين آمنوا إنما الخمر والميسر والأنصاب والأزلام رجس من عمل الشيطان فاجتنبوه لعلكم تفلحون (90) إنما يريد الشيطان أن يوقع بينكم العداوة والبغضاء في الخمر والميسر ويصدكم عن ذكر الله وعن الصلاة فهل أنتم منتهون (91) “O you who believe, intoxicants, and gambling,and the altars of idols, and the games of chance are abominations of the devil; avoid them so that you may attain succees. The devil desires only to create enmity and hatred among you by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to keep you back from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you then keep back?”(Al-Ma’idah, 90, 91) Hatred and hostility is harvested between two individuals when one takes possession of somebody else's property without any valid reason, due to which, the latter gets poorer and the former, without any effort becomes wealthier. In anticipation of winning a person loses his initiative to work hard. However, when he loses he goes into debt gets into severe financial problems for him and his family. It is perhaps for this reason that many gamblers become so frustrated that they ultimately commit suicide. Furthermore, the temperament of Islam is to bolt all pathways which lead to some evil. It has been proven that gambling often leads to physical and mental ill-health, family breakdown, the neglect and abuse of children, financial ruin, crime and associated incarceration, and in some cases self-harm and suicide. Over 60 percent of compulsive gamblers commit crimes of which include tax evasion, check forgery, stealing credit cards, fraudulent loan applications, insurance fraud, theft, embezzlement, fencing stolen goods, bookmaking, arson, and even armed robbery. A Delaware study reported that 86 percent of compulsive gamblers commit felonies. The American Insurance Institute estimates that as much as 40 percent of U.S. white collar crime comes from compulsive gamblers. Gambling addicts usually experience decreased productivity in their businesses as they often daydream about gambling or use the Internet to gamble. Some 14 percent of compulsive gamblers skip entire work days to gamble. They are more likely to ask employers for pay advances, borrow money from fellow employees, steal from work, and embezzle. It is for this reason that statistics prove that about 36 percent of compulsive gamblers lose their jobs because of their addictions. In the aspiration of ‘winning’, the amounts lost through gambling are indeed alarming. Statistics have shown that every day New Zealanders lose $5.5 million on gambling. That is around $2 billion each year. Half of this, around $1 billion, is lost on pokie machines. According to Monash University “Australians spend (or, it might be said) lose around $18 billion a year, most of it on poker machines (also known as electronic gambling machines, or EGMs).” According to Dr Rodger Meyer, medical director of the National Responsible Gambling Programme (NRGP), some gamblers might "spend three days and nights, invariably losing everything in the end…” (1 August 2007, Daily News) Total absorption in recovering losses made on previous bets (of any form) often lead to depression, strained family relationships and becomes an impediment to ones daily chores. The addiction often comes with a recognizable cycle of withdrawal, moodiness, obsession, dishonesty, guilt and despair. In short, gambling also takes its toll on an addict's emotional, physical, and spiritual health. Extreme cases of problem gambling may cross over into the realm of mental disorders. It is precisely for this reason that Pathological gambling was recognized as a psychiatric disorder in the DSM-III. As defined by American Psychiatric Association, pathological gambling is an impulse control disorder that is a chronic and progressive mental illness. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem_gambling) This is further corroborated by the national survey data from New Zealand which found that expenditure on gambling was disproportionately higher among people with lower levels of education, people with "lower status occupations," Maori, and Pacific peoples. Besides the harm that one brings on himself through gambling, he also becomes a burden on others. The 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey reports that almost 3% of adults (87,000) had experienced problems due to someone’s gambling in the previous 12 months. Moreover, through gambling a person bases his economic activity on chance rather than his own technical capabilities. This leads to cowardice and superstition. From the aforementioned, we can clearly see how destructive gambling is. For easier understanding, we hereby present some of the harms of gambling in a table format: Religious Harms · Directly disobeying the emphatic command of Allah Ta’ala. · Neglecting of prayers. · Becoming unmindful of the remembrance of Allah Ta’ala · Loosing trust in Allah Ta’ala. Financial harms · Debts. · Borrowing from family and friends. · Giving personal and family valuables as mortgage. · Writing bad checks. · Eviction and forced to sell personal items. · Bankruptcy. Family harms · A gambler will give less time to his family members · Families usually have more arguments over money and get hounded by bill collectors. · Problem gamblers might miss family activities, including meals and other important events. · "Casino kids" sometimes are left in cars at gambling venues while a parent bets. · Addicts are more likely to abuse spouses and children—verbally, mentally, and physically. · Children of gambling addicts typically have lower grades, higher substance abuse rates, and more frequent suicide attempts. · Half of all children of gambling addicts will become gambling addicts themselves. · Problem gamblers are more likely to become separated or divorced. Health harms · Self-esteem declines as losses increase. · Problem gamblers suffer more from stress, anxiety, moodiness, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and manic and clinical depression. · They are at increased risk of experiencing blackouts and emotional breakdowns. · Some physical problems include muscular tension, fatigue, stomach ailments, insomnia, ulcers, colitis, high blood pressure, heart disease, migraines, and skin problems. · Compulsive gamblers are likely to turn to alcohol, cigarettes, or other drugs to cope with anxiety or depression. · About 80 percent of compulsive gamblers seriously consider suicide and 15 percent attempt it. New Zealand, for example, has adopted a public health approach, and legislation provides for an integrated problem gambling strategy focused on public health (Gambling Act 2003, Part 4, s.317) that is funded by a levy paid by gambling operators to the Crown. The Ministry of Health is responsible, under the Act, for the prevention and treatment of problem gambling. Their approach is outlined in a six-year strategic plan – (Preventing and Minimising Gambling Harm: Strategic Plan 2004-2010.) In view of all the above, how true is the following verse: يسألونك عن الخمر والميسر قل فيهما إثم كبير ومنافع للناس وإثمهمآ أكبر من نفعهما "They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say, 'In them there is great sin and some benefit for men; but the sin is greater than the benefit."(Al-Baqarah, 219) And Allah knows best Wassalaamu `alaykum Ml. Ismail Moosa, Student Darul Iftaa Checked and Approved by: Mufti Ebrahim Desai Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah Source Back to table of contents
  17. MA'ARIFUL QURAN Tafeer Of Surah al-Baqarah (2), Verse 219 (Part 1) "They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, "In both there is great sin, and some benefits for people. And their sin is greater than their benefit." (2:219) The Prohibition of Gambling The word, maisir is an infinitive and lexically means 'to distribute'. One who distributes is called yasir. During the days of Jahiliyyah, several types of games of chance were common in Arabia. In one of such games, they used to slaughter a camel following which they would gamble while distributing shares from the meat. Some used to get more than one share while others remained deprived of even one. The one who thus remained deprived had to pay for the whole camel. The meat was, of course, distributed among the poor; the gamblers did not use it themselves. The catch in this particular game of chance was that it benefited the poor while, at the same time, it demonstrated the philanthropy of the gamblers. That is why this game was considered a matter of pride by them. Anyone who would not participate in it was chided as miserly and wretched. It is because of the relevance of distribution that Qimar is given the name of Maisir. All Companions, and Successors to them, hold the unanimous view that the word, Maisir includes all forms of Qimar or gambling and that all of them are haram or unlawful. Ibn Kathir in his Tafsir and al-Jassas in Ahkam al-Qur'an report that the blessed Companions 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, Ibn 'Umar, Qatadah, Mu'awiyah ibn Salih, 'Ata and Ta'wus (R.A) said: 'Qimar (of all kinds) is Maisir - even the games of children with dices and walnuts.' Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him said: that is, Mukhatarah (to put something on stake) falls under Qimar (jassas). Ibn Sirin said: 'That which involves stakes is included in Maisir' (Ruh al-Bayan). Mukhatarah or 'stake' is a deal which revolves between profit and loss, that is, there may be a chance that one gets a lot, and also, that one gets nothing. This is very much like what we find in all sorts of modern lotteries. All these types are included under Qimar and Maisir or gambling, and are haram. Therefore, Maisir or Qimar or gambling has been defined as a deal in which the act of making a person the owner of something of value depends on a contingency the two sides of which are equal, and consequently, there are two equal possibilities of taking total profit Or absorbing total loss (Shami, Kitab al-Khatar wa l'ibahah, volume 5, page 355). For instance, it is quite possible that the penalty falls on A, and it is also possible that it falls on B. To sum up, the rule is that all kinds and forms in vogue - in the past or current today or likely to emerge in the future - shall all be called Maisir and Qimar and gambling. Prize-awarding cross-word puzzles (in which the participants are charged a fee) and commercial lotteries, the generally known among whatever other forms they may have, are all included under gambling. However, should there be a prize offered by one side only, stipulating that it will be given to one who performs a certain feat, that would not matter subject to the condition that no fee is taken from that person. The reason is that, in this case, the deal does not hang between benefit and harm, but hangs between benefit and no benefit. Therefore, in authentic ahadith, chess and backgammon and their likes have been declared unlawful where money or property is staked in a win or lose situation. Should there be money staked in playing cards, that too will be included under Maisir. In Sahih Muslim, there is a report from the blessed Companion Buraydah Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him which states that the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him said that one who plays backgammon is like one who dyes his hands in the flesh and blood of pork. Sayyidna 'Ali Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him said that chess is included in Maisir, that is, gambling. Sayyidna 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him said that chess is much worse than backgammon. (Tafsir ibn Kathir) During the early days of Islam, gambling was permissible like drinking. When the verses beginning in Surah al-Rum were revealed where the Holy Qur'an foretold that the Byzantines have no doubt lost to their rivals - the Persians, but, after a few years, the Byzantines will prevail once again. When the disbelievers of Makkah denied the prophecy, Sayyidna Abu Bakr al-Siddiq Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with himchallenged them with a bet, something like Qimar, proposing that should the Byzantines prevail in so many years the disbelievers will have to pay a certain amount. The bet was approved. When this prophecy of the Qur'an actually came to pass, Sayyidna Abu Bakr Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him made sure that he got the waged amount from the disbelievers and brought it to the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him who expressed his pleasure with what had happened but asked him to give away the bet-money in charity. This is significant because Allah had kept His Messenger Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him protected from something that was permissible at that time but was going to be made impermissible later on. This is why he always kept aloof from wine and gambling, and there were particular ones among the noble Companions (radiallaahu 'anhum) who also remained protected against these. It appears in a narration that the angel Jibra'il told the Holy Prophet Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam: Peace be upon him that Allah Almighty likes four character-traits in Ja'far al-Tayyar Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him. He asked Sayyidna Ja'far al-Tayyar Radhi-Allahu Anh: Allah be pleased with him as to what these four traits were. He said, 'Till now, I have never talked about these before anyone. Now that Allah Almighty has told you about them, I submit and relate these four to you. I saw that wine ruins reason, so I never went near it. I saw that idols cause no benefit or harm to anyone, so I never indulged in idol-worship even during the days of Jahiliyyah. Since I have an acute sense of honour concerning my wife and daughters, so I never committed adultery. Then, I realized that lying is unbridled meanness, and a terrible disgrace, so I never told a lie even in Jahiliyyah'. (Ruh al-Bayan) Social Ill-Effects of Gambling The Holy Qur'an has said the same thing about Qimar or gambling as it has said about wine, that is, in it, there are some benefits as well, but the harm it brings is greater than its benefits. Everyone knows this sort of benefit can make a pauper an overnight millionaire, but there are very few people who know how evil the practice is economically, socially and spiritually. In gambling, speaking briefly, the gain of one person is dependent upon the loss of the other. The total gain of the winner is an outcome of the total loss of the loser because this transaction does not increase the (national) wealth or production. The amount of wealth remains as it was. What happens through this game of chance is that one is sucked dry of his wealth which then reaches the other, therefore, Qimar is a blanket undoing of a people, and the death of human morality. Isn't it that man, who should be an agent of public good, a model of sympathy and sacrifice, stoops to the level of a beast while gambling, and starts seeing his life in the death of his brother, and finding delight in his distress, and searching for gain in his loss, and goes about harnessing all his abilities to promote his selfishness? Contrary to this are the permissible forms of transactions in trade where parties buy and sell releasing profits for both. Then, wealth circulates and increases through exchange of commercial commodities and the buyer and seller both find it beneficial. To begin with, gambling is harmful because the addicted gambler comes to be deprived of the very habit of earning his livelihood, because he always keeps dreaming that he will simply sit and grab what belongs to the other person in no time through a bet, specially so as it involves no hard work. Some scholars have said that gambling has been called Maisir (as derived from the word 'yusr' meaning 'easiness') because one can easily take possession of what belongs to the other through it. Even if gambling deals revolve around a small number of people such as two or four, their harmful effects mentioned above show up very clearly. But, here we are in this modern age, called 'the age of progress' by those handicapped by superficial vision and lack of insight into its aftermath, where we see wine of all sorts given new names and labels, where ever-new kinds of interest and ever-innovative corporate methods to promote it have been invented, commandeered and given the safe name of 'banking'; so it is with gambling where thousands of dubious forms have found currency. Some of these are so highly collective that the amount of contribution from a whole nation keeps adding up bit by bit, and in case there is a loss, that gets spread out over everybody and thus does not become conspicuous. When an amount from this total 'take' reaches the hands of one person, his gain appears to be prominent, therefore, people tend to look at his personal gain but pay no heed to the collective loss of their nation or country. Consequently, they are trapped into believing that these new kinds may as well be valid, although present here are all those harmful effects which are found in gambling confined to a small group of two or four people. Looked at from another angle, the harm brought by this large-scale gambling is much worse than that released by the older form of gambling, for its evil effects are far-reaching and spell out the ruin of a whole nation. As evident, the natural result of this practice will be that wealth belonging to the common people of the community will go on decreasing while the capital of some capitalists will go on increasing further. Inevitably then, the entire wealth of the nation will shrink and come to be concentrated into the hands of a limited number of individuals and a limited number of families. This can be witnessed everyday in stock markets and in other forms of Qimar. Now, Islamic economic strategy has an important principle of its own. It declares that every deal which siphons the wealth of a whole community out into the coffers of a few capitalists is haram, unlawful and forbidden. The Holy Qur'an itself, while stating the principle of the distribution of wealth, has proclaimed: . It means that the principle of distributing spoils of war among different segments of the society given by the Holy Qur'an aims to make sure that wealth does not shrink and concentrate in the hands of a few capitalists. Gambling, like wine, becomes the cause of mutual disputes reaching the limits of hatred and animosity, so fatal in a civilized society. To quote once again, the Holy Qur'an mentions the evil of gambling in the following words: 'The Satan only wants hostility and hatred to come to stay between you through wine and gambling, and to prevent you from remembering Allah and from the Salah.' (5:91) The effect of gambling, like that of wine, is that one gets recklessly involved in it, becoming unable to attend to the remembrance of Allah, and the prayer. Perhaps, this is why the Holy Qur'an has elected to mention wine and gambling side by side in an identical manner since Qimar or gambling has an intoxicating pull of its own which makes one ignore the concern of what is good or bad for him. As partly mentioned earlier, the basic evil in gambling is that one can falsely devour what belongs to others through this method without any reasonable compensation or brotherly consideration. This is what the Holy Qur'an prohibits in the following words: (And do not eat up each other's property by false means)(2:188). The destroyer of many a home, the ill effects of gambling do not remain restricted to the gambler alone. They affect his whole family and become contagious to a much larger social circle because people may have entered into transactions, contracts and loan deals with him which will hurt all concerned in the event of his becoming insolvent. Finally, in the background of rising social addiction to various Qimar forms, it is useful to keep in view that this evil distorts one's natural attitude to work and rivets it on imagined gains. Rather than concentrate on his physical or mental skills to increase his earnings steadily, one starts getting fixed on finding ways and means to usurp the earnings of others. That is why the Holy Qur'an has said: the evils of wine and gambling are greater than their benefits. Some Juristic Rules and Related Notes 1) In this verse, the acknowledgement of some benefits of wine and gambling has been combined with the instruction to desist from them which helps us deduce the rule that the presence of material benefits in some thing or act is not contrary to its being declared haram under the Islamic law. We know that a certain medicine or food item is called harmful if its harmful effects are far stronger than its benefits. If this was not so, nothing in this world, not even the worst, would turn out to be totally devoid of any benefit. A deadly poison, the snake and the scorpion and the wild beasts, they all have their benefits but, speaking generally, they are called harmful and people are told to watch out against them. Similarly, keeping in view the essential sense, things the evils of which are greater than their benefits are declared haram or unlawful under the Shari'ah. None of the crimes such as theft, robbery, adultery, kidnapping and fraud are devoid of some benefit, for had they been totally benefitless no sane person would ever go near them, even though the most perfect people in all such crimes are those known for their tact and intelligence. This tells us that some or the other benefit does show up in all crimes but, since their harmfulness is greater than their benefit, no sane person stands up to declare them as useful and permissible. It is under this principle that the Shari'ah of Islam has made wine and gambling unlawful. 2) This verse also provides the rule that the elimination of evil takes precedence over the acquisition of benefit, that is, should something give a certain benefit along with causing some harm, it becomes necessary to abandon the benefit in order to stay safe against the harm. In other words, a benefit which comes with harmfulness attached to it is ignored. (Ma'ariful Qur'an, Volume 1) Back to table of contents
  18. It's Not Just the Sin, It's the Way that You Sin It: The exemplary scholar and saint of the salaf, Sufyan ibn Uyaynah, once said: مَن كانتْ معصيتُه في الشَّهوةِ فارْجُ لهُ، ومَن كانتْ معصيتُه في الكِبرِ، فاخْشَ عليهِ فإنَّ آدمَ عَصى مُشتَهِيًا، فغُفِرَ لهُ وإبليسُ عَصى مُتكَبِّرًا فلُعِنَ. ‘Whoever sins due to a desire, have hope for him; but whoever sins out of pride, fear for him. For Adam disobeyed out of a desire and was forgiven, while Iblis disobeyed from pride and was cursed.’* —————— *Cited in al-Dhahabi, Siyar ‘Alam al-Nubala (Beirut: Mu'assasah al-Risalah, 1998), 8:461.
  19. HOW CAN I GROOM MY CHILDREN TO BE FUTURE ROLE MODELS? QUESTION: I have been trying very hard to bring up my children in an Islamic environment, However, things are not going as I expected. The children are 15 years old and doing hifz. THey keep lying about what they are reading and keep procrastinating their sabak. On top of that they are trying to listen to music and watch movies on YouTube without my knowledge. Also their attitude is becoming very bad that they yell when confronted or they stay upset (not talking or eating). I am obviously very concerned as to what to do and how to handle this. Not sure what am I doing wrong in the upbringing. Looking for some advice. ANSWER: Children are easily influenced by their surroundings. These days, it is extremely difficult to expose our children to an ideal Islamic environment given the influences from media, friends and even other members of the family. With television, radio, Internet and forms of media mostly touting un-Islamic values, it is up to parents and adults close to the children to set the correct example. It is impossible to shield our children from all the negative forces that can shape their minds and, ultimately, their behaviour. However, by our own example and showing them better options, we can set them on the true path, which is to obey the commandments of Allah Taala and our Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam. Here are some tips you may want to follow in helping your children grow up with Islamic values. 1. Treat them kindly. Kindness begets kindness. If we are kind to our children, they in turn would show kindness to others. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam was the best example in being kind to children. 2. Teach them examples of Muslim heroes. Relate incidents about the real heroes of Islam such as Hazrat Abu-Bakr and Hazrat Umar and the other illustrious Sahabah (Radhiallahu an hum). Tell them how Muslim leaders brought a real peaceful change in the world and won the hearts of Muslims and non-Muslims alike. Do not let them be influenced by comic book superheroes. 3. Go out as a family. Take family trips rather than allowing your children to always go out only with their friends. Let your children be around family and friends from whom you want them to pick up their values. Always remember that your children will become who they are around with most of the time. 4. Praise your children. Praise is a powerful tool with children especially in front of others. Children feel a sense of pride when their parents’ praise them and will be keen to perform other good deeds. However, praise must be limited to Islamic deeds and deeds of moral value. 5. Avoid humiliating your children in front of others. Children make mistakes. Sometimes, these mistakes occur in their efforts to please parents. If you are unhappy with your children, tell them in private. 6. Inculcate a sense of responsibility in them. Have faith in their abilities to perform tasks. Give them chores to do in line with their age. Convince them that they are performing an important function and you will find them eager to help you out again. 7. Perform salaah and other acts of Ibadah with them. Wake them up for Fajr and make Ibadah as a family. Talk to them about the rewards of salaah so that it doesn’t feel like a burden to them. 8. Good Company A child blossoms with good company. Watch your child’s friends and company. 9. Lead by example. Children observe their parents closely. Your speech and conduct should be an inspiration and guidance for your children. 10. Adopt all possible means to make them upright and practising muslims. Make the following dua constantly, رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا [الفرقان: 74] And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best Huzaifah Deedat Student Darul Iftaa Lusaka, Zambia Checked and Approved by, Mufti Ebrahim Desai. •┈┈┈┈┈┈┈• Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah Durban, South Africa Website: www.daruliftaa.net
  20. SALAH FOR A TRAVELLING FEMALE IN HER MENSES Question I have read in a book that if a woman travels whilst in the state of menstruation, her travel in the state of menstruation will not be regarded as travel for the purpose of shortening the Ṣalāh. Therefore, if she exits the state of menstruation and does not travel further, she will not shorten her Ṣalāh. Please can you shed light on this issue and outline the views of the four schools of thought. Answer According to most Ḥanafī scholars, the travel of a woman in her menses does not constitute travel for the purpose of shortening the Ṣalāh. Therefore, if she commences and completes her journey in the state of menstruation, she will not shorten her Ṣalāh at this destination. However, if her menstruation finishes and she continues to travel thereafter, she will shorten her Ṣalāh. This position has been affirmed by many Ḥanafī scholars including ʿAllāmah Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Anūsh al-Ḥaṣīrī al-Bukhārī (d. 500/1107), ʿAllāmah Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Bukhārī (d. 619/1622-3), the eighth century jurist ʿAllāmah Dāwūd ibn Yūsuf al-Khaṭīb (n.d.), ʿAllāmah Farīd al-Dīn ʿĀlim ibn al-ʿAlāʾ al-Tātārkhānī (d. 786/1384-5), Ḥāfiẓ Badr al-Dīn al-ʿAynī (d. 855/1451), ʿAllāmah Ibrāhīm Ḥalabī (956/1549), ʿAllāmah Ḥaṣkafī (d. 1088/1677), ʿAllāmah Ṭaḥṭāwī (d. 1231/1816), ʿAllāmah Ibn ʿĀbidīn (d. 1252/1836), Shaykh Ashraf ʿAlī Thānawī (d. 1362/1943), Mufti Maḥmūd Ḥasan Gangohī (d. 1417/1996), Mufti Rashīd Aḥmad Ludyānwī (d. 1422/2002), Mufti Raḍāʾ al-Ḥaq (b. 1369-70/1950) and others. This is also the famous position of the Mālikī school of thought. The reason why her travel will not constitute travel for the purpose of shortening the Ṣalāh is that a woman in her menses is not mukhāṭab (addressee/instructee) to offer Ṣalāh, not even as qaḍāʾ. Therefore, her intention to travel is irrelevant in so far as shortening Ṣalāh is concerned, just as the intention of a non-mature child who travels is not relevant according to the dominant Ḥanafī position. However, according to some Ḥanafī scholars, her journey in the state of menstruation constitutes travel and she must shortern her Ṣalāh accordingly. This is the view of the famous Ḥanafī jurist Imam Abū Jaʿfar al-Hinduwānī (d. 362/973). ʿAllāmah Shurunbulālī (d. 1069/1659) is also inclined towards this. From contemporary scholars, this view has been adopted by the scholars of Darul Uloom Karachi such as Mufti Muḥammad Taqī ʿUthmānī (b. 1362/1943) along with Mufti Shabbīr Qāsmī of Moradabad, India. My respected teachers Mufti Shabbīr Aḥmad (b. 1376/1957) and Mufti Muḥammad Ṭāhir Wādī (b. 1376/1957) are also inclined towards this. This is also the position of the Shāfiʿī and Ḥanbalī schools of thought, and several Mālikī scholars are also inclined to this. This appears to be the preferred view based on the following reasons: 1. Almighty Allah says in the Qurʾān (4:101), “And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame upon you for shortening the prayer.” Almighty Allah says in the Qurʾān (2:184-5), “And whoever from you is ill or on a journey, then the same number from other days.” These verses are general and do not stipulate any conditions in relation to the travel or the traveller. Thus, according to the Ḥanafī school of thought, all forms of travel including travel for a sinful purpose constitute travel for the purpose of shortening the Ṣalāh and the option not to fast. Likewise, the travel of all different types of travellers including a menstruating woman should constitute travel, as the reason for shortening Ṣalāh and the option not to fast is travel. 2. We have not come across any ḥadīth or statement from the first generation of Ḥanafī jurists which suggests that the travel of a menstruating woman does not constitute travel for the purpose of shortening Ṣalāh or the option not to fast. This is particularly relevant because the female companions would travel with the Prophet ﷺ and it would be inevitable for some of them to be in the state of menstruation at some point during the journey. If their travel in the state of menstruation did not constitute travel for the purpose of shortening Ṣalāh, this is likely to have been transmitted. 3. According to most Ḥanafī scholars, the travel of a non-mature child does not constitute travel whereas the travel of a non-Muslim constitutes travel. This is because the child is not mukallaf (responsible) and mukhāṭab and therefore his intention to travel is not valid, whereas a non-Muslim adult is mukallaf and mukhāṭab and therefore his intention to travel is relevant. Although there is a clear difference between the state of menstruation and disbelief, however, in both conditions there is a common feature in that both are mukallaf and mukhāṭab, as outlined below. Thus, based on analogy, the travel of a woman in her menses should constitute travel for the purpose of shortening the Ṣalāh. 4. A woman in menstruation is mukallaf and mukhāṭab. This is illustrated by the fact that the prohibition of travelling without Maḥram also applied to women in menstruation. Similarly, a travelling woman can choose not to fast after her menstruation ends. Similarly, a woman in her menstruation is required to enter the state of iḥrām when she passes the mīqāt. These examples demonstrate that a woman in her menses is both mukallaf and mukhāṭab. This is why she is obliged to make qaḍāʾ of the missed fasts. It is a separate matter that the Sharīʿah has not prescribed the Ṣalāh to be repeated for a very good reason. The instruction not to perform Ṣalāh temporarily during her menses does not mean she is incapable of making an intention to travel. Thus, her intention to travel is valid. 5. Moreover, it could be argued from one perspective that the khiṭāb (address/instruction) to a woman in her menses is stronger than the khiṭāb to a non Muslim because a non-Muslim who accepts Islam is not required to make qaḍāʾ of any fasts. It is perhaps for this reason some Mālikī scholars have mentioned that there is a difference of opinion whether non-Muslims are mukhāṭāb of furūʿ (branches, compared to uṣūl, beliefs), whereas women in their menses are mukhāṭab prior to their menses by consensus and that the khiṭāb of Ṣalāh is temporarily suspended due to an obstacle (menses) which will come to an end. This also suggests from one Mālikī perspective that the khiṭāb for women in their menses is stronger than the khiṭāb for non-Muslims. This is why some Mālikīs suggest that the travel of a woman in her menses constitutes travel unlike the travel of a non-Muslim, opposite to the opinion of most Ḥanafī scholars. 6. We have not come across this issue in the works of Imam Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī (d. 189/805). Based on the books cited in this document, Imam Abū Jaʿfar al-Hinduwānī (d. 362/973) appears to be from among the most senior and earliest scholars who has a view on this issue. This not withstanding the fact that ʿAllāmah Abū Bakr al-Ḥaṣīrī al-Bukhārī (d. 500/1107) and ʿAllāmah Ẓahīr al-Dīn al-Bukhārī (d. 619/1622-3) and others cited above are also senior jurists as clearly demonstrated by the fact that most Ḥanafī jurists have subsequently relied on their position. It is worth noting, as mentioned by Mufti Muḥammad Taqī ʿUthmānī (b. 1362/1943), that ʿAllāmah Ibn ʿĀbidīn (d. 1252/1836) did not have access to al-Muḥīṭ al-Burhānī wherein the view of Imam Abū Jaʿfar al-Hinduwānī (d. 362/973) is cited. If ʿAllāmah Ibn ʿĀbidīn (d. 1252/1836) was aware of it, he may have adopted it or at least cited it as a view. Further, it has already been mentioned that Imam Abū Jaʿfar al-Hinduwānī’s (d. 362/973) position is the same as the position of the Shāfiʿī and Ḥanbalī schools. Several Mālikī scholars also share this view. In conclusion, the preferred view appears to be that in this scenario the woman should shortern her Ṣalāh. However, as there is a difference of opinion among the Ḥanafī and Mālikī jurists regarding this issue, the obligation of Ṣalāh will be fulfilled by performing the full four Rakʿah Ṣalāh, even according to the Shāfiʿī and Ḥanbalī schools of thought as they do not regard shortening the Ṣalāh necessary. Thus, in this scenario, if a woman shorterns the Ṣalāh or performs the full four Rakʿah Ṣalāh, there is no need to repeat the Ṣalāh. Allah knows best Yusuf Shabbir 3 Shaʿbān 1438 / 30 April 2017 Approved by: Mufti Shabbir Ahmad and Mufti Muhammad Tahir www.nawadir.org Download PDF
  21. Walaikum us salam warahmatullahi wabarakatuh Yes yes I will add further information. I have posted it after consulting a number of reputable muftis. Also I wanted to attach a pdf file but I have no idea how to do it on the forums. I will email you that file inshaAllah.
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