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MUSLIM WOMAN

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  1. Q: Is it permissible for men to wear gloves in the state of Ihraam? If not will damm become waajib? A: It is impermissible for men to wear gloves in the state of Ihraam. If a man wore gloves in the state of Ihraam for an entire day or night (i.e 12 hours) or more, then one damm becomes waajib upon him. If he wore it for less than one day or night then Sadaqah becomes waajib on him. This law applies to men only. ( ولبس قميص وسراويل ) أي كل معمول على قدر بدن أو بعضه كزردية وبرنس… قال الشامى: قوله ( أي كل معمول الخ ) أشار به إلى أن المراد المنع عن لبس المخيط وإنما خص المذكورات لذكرها في الحديث وفي البحر عن مناسك ابن أمير حاج الحلبي أن ضابطه لبس كل شيء معمول على قدر البدن أو بعضه بحيث يحيط به بخياطة أو تلزيق بعضه ببعض أو غيرهما ويستمسك عليه بنفس لبس مثله إلا المكعب اه قلت فخرج ما خيط بعضه ببعض لا بحيث يحيط بالبدن مثل المرقعة فلا بأس بلبسه كما قدمناه وأفاد قوله أو بعضه حرمة لبس القفازين في يدي الرجل وبه صرح السندي في منسكه الكبير وتبعه القاري في شرح اللباب وأما المرأة فيندب لها عدمه كما في البدائع وتمامه فيما علقناه على البحر ( شامى ج 2 ص 489/ 547) (معلم الحجاج ص 110, 233) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach) --
  2. Performing Salaah sitting on a chair or bedQ: If a person can offer Salaah on a namaz bed by facing his legs towards the qiblah, then should he offer Salaah like this or by sitting on a chair? A: If one is unable to perform the Salaah standing and carrying out all the postures in the correct manner with sajda on the ground and similarly one is unable to perform the Salaah sitting on the ground and making sajda on the ground, then one may perform the Salaah with signs while sitting on the chair or while sitting on the bed facing the qiblah. And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best. ( من تعذر عليه القيام ) أي كله ( لمرض ) حقيقي وحده أن يلحقه بالقيام ضرر وبه يفتى ( قبلها أو فيها ) أي الفريضة ( أو ) حكمي بأن ( خاف زيادته أو بطء برئه بقيامه أو دوران رأسه أو وجد لقيامه ألما شديدا ) أو كان لو صلى قائما سلسل بوله أو تعذر عليه الصوم كما مر ( صلى قاعدا ) ولو مستندا إلى وسادة وقال زفر كالمتشهد قيل وبه يفتى ( بركوع وسجود وإن قدر على بعض القيام ) ولو متكئا على عصا أو حائط ( قام ) لزوما بقدر ما يقدر ولو قدر آية أو تكبيرة على المذهب لأن البعض معتبر بالكل ( وإن تعذرا ) ليس تعذرهما شرطا بل تعذر السجود كاف ( لا القيام أومأ ) بالهمز ( قاعدا ) وهو أفضل من الإيماء قائما لقربه من الأرض ( ويجعل سجوده أخفض من ركوعه ) لزوما ( ولا يرفع إلى وجهه شيئا يسجد عليه ) فإنه يكره تحريما ( فإن فعل ) بالبناء للمجهول ذكره العيني ( وهو يخفض برأسه لسجوده أكثر من ركوعه صح ) على أنه إيماء لا سجود إلا أن يجد قوة الأرض ( وإلا ) يخفض ( لا ) يصح لعدم الإيماء ( وإن تعذر القعود ) ولو حكما ( أومأ مستلقيا ) على ظهره ( ورجلاه نحو القبلة ) غير أنه ينصب ركبتيه لكراهة مد الرجل إلى القبلة ويرفع رأسه يسيرا ليصير وجهه إليها ( أو على جنبه الأيمن ) أو الأيسر ووجهه إليها ( والأول أفضل ) على المعتمد (الدر المختار 2/ 95) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  3. I shared the dua with others . Minimum 2 read these regularly.
  4. Q: I would like to ask, if I made one sajda only by mistake and forget the second one, is my prayer valid? I heard that the first sajda is fardh only and the other is mustahab. A: This is incorrect. Both sajdahs are fardh. Since you have left out a fardh of Salaah, the Salaah is not valid and will have to be repeated. And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best. ومنها السجود السجود الثاني فرض كالأول بإجماع الأمة كذا في الزاهدي (الفتاوى الهندية 1/ 70) فتاوى محمودية 9/ 266 Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  5. Daughter of Italian Politician Reverts To Islam Italian former parliamentarian has reverted to Islam and donned Islamic hijab, a decision which sparked uproar across Italy. “The hijab is my way, the way that Allah has chosen for me,” Manuela Franco Barbato, now Aysha, wrote on her Facebook account, Il Giornale daily reported on May 26. “I am proud of the purity of my soul. This is the divine law, who am I to object?” Aysha is the daughter of a former MP for Italy of Values party Franco Barbato. The young woman decided to revert to Islam while studying in the Università L’orientale of Napoli. aboutislam
  6. MUSLIM WOMAN

    A Sunnah

    Qur’aanic Advice Allaah says in the Qur’aan, “Do not ascribe any partner to Him and be kind towards your parents. (Allaah has also commanded) That you do not kill(abort) your children for fear of poverty (fearing that you will become poor by providing for them). We provide for you and for them as well (even though you may be poor). And (Allaah commands) that you do not draw near to immoral acts that may be open and secret (such as secretly looking at or meeting with a member of the opposite sex or intermingling of sexes)”. [surah An’aam, verse 151]
  7. MUSLIM WOMAN

    A Sunnah

    Cures from the Qur’aan and Rasulullaah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) A cure for any illnesses A person once came to Hadhrat Anas (RA) and complained of an illness he was suffering. “Should I not recite and blow a Du’aa upon you which Rasulullaah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) used to recite?” Hadhrat Anas (RA) asked. When the man agreed, Hadhrat Anas (RA) recited the following Du’aa: اَللّٰهُمَّ رَبَّ النَّاسِ مُذهِبِ البَأْسِ اِشْفِ أَنْتَ الشَّافِي لَا شَافِى إِلّا أَنْتَ شِفَاءٌ لَّا يُغَادِرُ سَقَمًا “Allahumma Rabban-nasi, adhhibil-ba’sa, washfi, Antash-Shafi, la shifa’a illa shifa’uka, shifaan la yughadiru saqaman” TRANSLATION: O Allah! the Rabb of mankind! Remove this disease and cure (him or her)! You are the Great Curer. There is no cure but through You, which leaves behind no disease. [bukhaari 5742]
  8. MUSLIM WOMAN

    A Sunnah

    The Aakhirah The food of the people of Jahannam Allaah says in the Qur’aan, “He shall enter the blazing fire where he will be given water to drink from boiling springs. The only food for them (the people of Jahannam) shall be thorny trees which will neither nourish (their bodies) nor satisfy (their extreme) hunger”. [surah Ghaashiya, verses 4-7]
  9. MUSLIM WOMAN

    A Sunnah

    This World The enjoyment of this world is short-lived Allaah says in the Qur’aan, “The comfort (enjoyment) of this world is short. The Aakhirah is best for those who have Taqwa. You shall not be oppressed even to the extent of the string of a date seed”.[surah Nisaa, verse 77]
  10. MUSLIM WOMAN

    A Sunnah

    A Sin Using silver utensils Rasulullaah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) said that when a person eats or drinks from a silver utensil, he is really filling his belly with the fire of Jahannam. [Muslim 5634, from Hadhrat Ummu Salamah (RA)
  11. MUSLIM WOMAN

    A Sunnah

    An Important Act and its Virtue Visiting a Muslim brother Rasulullaah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) said that when a person visits the ill or his Muslim brother for the pleasure of Allaah, an angel announces from the heavens, “May you remain well, and may your walking be blessed. You have certainly attained a lofty status in Jannah.” [Tirmidhi 2008, from Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah (RA)]
  12. MUSLIM WOMAN

    A Sunnah

    The Du’aa when seeing someone in difficulty Rasulullaah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) said that when one sees another suffering from some difficulty (or handicap) and he recites the following Du’aa, Allaah will protect him from the same predicament: اَلْحَمْدُ لِلهِ الَّذِيْ عَافَانِيْ مِمَّا ابْتَلَاكَ بِهٖ وَفَضَّلَنِي ،عَلٰى كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقَ تَفْضِيْلًا TRANSLATION: All praise belongs to Allaah Who has granted me safety from this affliction and has favoured me tremendously over so many of His creation. [ibn Maajah 3892, from Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Umar (RA)]
  13. MUSLIM WOMAN

    A Sunnah

    A Sunnah Taken from Al-Islam "Just 5 Minutes" this topic will be regularly updated with "A Sunnah" Index 1. Index post 2. The Du’aa when seeing someone in difficulty 3. An Important Act and its Virtue - Visiting a Muslim Brother 4. A Sin - Using Silver Utensils 5. This World - The Enjoyment of this World is Short-Lived 6. The Aakhirah 7. Cures from the Qur’aan and Rasulullaah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) 8. Qur'anic Advice
  14. Eating Forgetfully whilst Fasting Q: If a person forgetfully eats whilst fasting does his fast break? A: The fast will not break by forgetfully eating or drinking. (Bahishti Zewar vol.3 pg.10/11) (إذا أكل الصائم أو شرب أو جامع) حال كونه (ناسيا) في الفرض والنفل (در المختار ج2 ص394) (إذا أكل الصائم أو شرب أو جامع ناسيا لم يفطر ولا فرق بين الفرض والنفل كذا في الهداية (الفتاوى الهندية ج1ص203) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  15. Bleeding Gums whilst Fasting Q: Whilst fasting, if the gums begin to bleed and the blood flows down the throat will the fast break? If so will both Qadha and Kaffarah be Waajib or only Qadha? A: If the blood which was swallowed with the saliva was more than the saliva or equal to it then the fast will break and only qadha will be waajib. If the blood was less than the saliva then the fast will not break. (Ahsanul Fataawa vol.4 pg.436, Fataawa Raheemiyyah vol.7 pg.258, Bahishti Zewar vol.3 pg.13) ولو أكل دما في ظاهر الرواية عليه القضاء دون الكفارة لأنه مما يستقذره الطبع كذا في الظهيرية، الدم إذا خرج من الأسنان ودخل حلقه إن كانت الغلبة للبزاق لايضره وإن كانت الغلبة للدم يفسد صومه وإن كانا سواء أفسد أيضا استحسانا(الفتاوى الهندية ج1 ص203) خرج الدم من بين أسنانه ودخل حلقه يعني ولم يصل إلى جوفه أما إذا وصل فإن غلب الدم أو تساويا فسد وإلا لا … قال الشامي: قلت ومن هذا يعلم حكم من قلع ضرسه في رمضان ودخل الدم إلى جوفه في النهار ولو نائما فيجب عليه القضاء (رد المحتار على در المختار ج2 ص396) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  16. Use of eye-drops, ear-drops and nose-drops whilst fasting Q: Is it permissible to use eye-drops, ear-drops and nose-drops whilst fasting and will they nullify the fast? A: It is permissible to use eye-drops whilst fasting. The fast will not be nullified. However, using ear-drops and nose-drops whilst fasting is impermissible and will nullify the fast. (Fataawa Raheemiyyah vol.7 pg.246, Fataawa Mahmoodiyyah vol.15 pg.167/168, Ahsanul Fataawa vol.4 pg.439) (أو ادهن أو اكتحل أو احتجم) وإن وجد طعمه في حلقه قال في الشامية : أي طعم الكحل أو الدهن كما في السراج و كذا لو بزق فوجد لونه في الأصح بحر قال في النهر لأن الموجود في حلقه أثر داخل من المسام الذي هو خلل البدن والمفطر إنما هو الداخل من المنافذ (رد المحتار على در المختار ج2 ص395) (أو احتقن أو استعط) في أنفه شيئا (أو أقطر في أذنه دهنا …) فوصل الداء حقيقة إلى جوفه أو دماغه (در المختار ج2 ص402) ولو أقطر شيئا من الداء في عينه لايفطر صومه عندنا وإن وجد طعمه في حلقه وإذا بزق فرأى أثر الكحل ولونه في بزاقه عامة المشايخ على أنه لايفسد صومه كذا في الذخيرة وهو الأصح كذا في التبيين (الفتاوى الهندية ج1ص203) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  17. Sajdah Tilaawat from a sitting position Q: Can Sajdah Tilaawat be made from a sitting position or does one need to stand up and then go into sajdah? A: Sajdah Tilaawat can be made from a sitting position. وركنها السجود أو بدله كركوع مصل وإيماء مريض وراكب ( وهي سجدة بين تكبيرتين ) مسنونتين جهرا وبين قيامين مستحبين ( بلا رفع يد وتشهد وسلام وفيها تسبيح السجود ) في الأصح. (الدر المختار 2/106) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  18. Sajdah-e-Tilaawat when memorising Q: If I am learning a Surah with a sajdah off by heart, then do I have to do the same amount of sajdah tilawat as the amount of times I recite the aayat of sajdah? If I am making more than one sajdah tilawat then how would I do it? Is it the same as in namaz or do I have to do them all separately with intentions in between all of them because I have quite a few to do from before as well? A: 1. If you have recited a specific aayat of sajdah many times in one sitting, then only one sajdah is waajib upon you. However if you recited two different aayaat of sajdah, then two sajdahs will be compulsory upon you despite how many times you recited the both aayaat in the same sitting. 2. You should make the intention that you are making sajdah for the aayaat of sajdah that you had previously recited and thereafter you should perform the sajdahs. You can make any amount of sajdahs at one time. You will say the takbeer and fall into sajdah and thereafter repeat the takbeer and come up from sajdah. It is mustahab to make the sajdah from the standing posture. However if this is difficult, then it is permissible to perform the sajdah from the sitting posture. And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best. ( ولو كررها في مجلسين تكررت وفي مجلس ) واحد ( لا ) تتكرر بل كفته واحدة وفعلها بعد الأولى قنية وفي البحر التأخير أحوط والأصل أن مبناها على التداخل دفعا للحرج بشرط اتحاد الآية والمجلس قال الشامي : قوله ( بشرط اتحاد الآية والمجلس ) أي بأن يكون المكرر آية واحدة فلو تلا آيتين في مجلس واحد أو آية واحدة في مجلسين فلا تداخل ولم يشترط اتحاد السماع لأنه إنما يكون باتحاد المسموع فيغني عنه اشتراط اتحاد الآية وأشار إلى أنه متى اتحدت الآية والمجلس لا يتكرر الوجوب وإن اجتمع التلاوة والسماع ولو من جماعة ففي البدائع لا يتكرر ولو اجتمع سببا الوجوب وهما التلاوة والسماع بأن تلاها ثم سمعها أو بالعكس أو تكرر أحدها ا هـ وفي البزازية سمعها من آخر ومن آخر أيضا وقرأها كفت سجدة واحدة في الأصح لاتحاد الآية والمكان ا هـ ونحوه في الخانية فعلى هذا لو قرأها جماعة وسمعها بعضهم من بعض كفتهم واحدة (رد المحتار 1/ 566) ( وكيفيتها أن يسجد سجدة واحدة ) كائنة ( بين تكبيرتين ) تكبيرة للوضع وتكبيرة للرفع ( هما سنتان ) كذا قال في مبسوط فخر الإسلام التكبير ليس بواجب وصححه في البدائع ( بلا رفع يد ) إذ لا تحريم لها والتكبير للانحطاط ( ولا تشهد ) لعدم وروده ( ولا تسليم ) لأنه يستدعي سبق التحريمة وهي منعدمة وتسبيحها مثل الصلاتية سبحان ربي الأعلى ثلاثا وهو الأصح قال الكمال ينبغي أن يقال في ذلك غير النفل وفيه يقول ما شاء مما ورد كسجد وجهي للذي خلقه وصوره وشق سمعه وبصره بحوله وقوته اللهم اكتب لي عندك بها أجرا وضع عني بها وزرا واجعلها لي عندك فخرا وتقبلها مني كما تقبلتها من عبدك داود وإن كان خارج الصلاة قال كل ما أثر من ذلك (مراقي الفلاح ص 498) وركنها السجود أو بدله كركوع مصل وإيماء مريض وراكب ( وهي سجدة بين تكبيرتين ) مسنونتين جهرا وبين قيامين مستحبين ( بلا رفع يد وتشهد وسلام وفيها تسبيح السجود ) في الأصح. (الدر المختار 2/106) امداد الفتاوى 1/372 Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  19. Q: Is zakaat waajib on redundant stock? A: If redundant stock refers to that stock which one is unable to sell quickly but is kept with the intention of resale, then zakaat is waajib on such goods. And if redundant stock refers to that stock which one no longer intends to sell, then this wealth no longer remains stock of trade. Hence, zakaat will not be compulsory upon it. ( لا يبقى للتجارة ما ) أي عبد مثلا ( اشتراه لها فنوى ) بعد ذلك ( خدمته) (شامي 2/272) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  20. Q: Upon which wealth does a person have to pay zakaat? A: Zakaat will be paid on the following: Cash (including the balance of your bank deposits). The market value of the merchandise contained in the share of the company i.e. one will be obligated to discharge the Zakaat of the company’s Zakaatable assets (merchandise) contained in the share excluding the non-Zakaatable items e.g. fixtures and fittings, transport vehicles, etc. which are not part of the merchandise of the company. The value of all these things will be evaluated in the share and will not be taken in account when discharging the zakaat. If it is difficult to differentiate between the zakaatable and non-Zakaatable assets of the company, then as a precautionary measure one should discharge the Zakaat on the market value of the entire share. Face value of the financial papers like bonds loaned to the government, etc. It should be noted that when the loan is paid back by the government, it will only be permissible for one to retrieve the original amount of the loan given. The interest amount paid out by the government will be impermissible. It will have to be given in sadaqah without the intention of receiving reward. Similarly, it should be known that it is impermissible for a believer to deal in any form of interest (usury) whether it be receiving or giving an interest bearing loan. The market rate of the balance of stock in trade (including raw material). Receivable amounts i.e. debts owed to a person, monies loaned to people, etc. Foreign currencies. Gold and silver. (لا زكاة في اللآلىء والجواهر ) وإن ساوت ألفا اتفاقا ( إلا أن يكون للتجارة ) والأصل أن ما عدا الحجرين والسوائم إنما يزكى بنية التجارة (ج2 ص 273) أو المستفاد ولو بهبة أو إرث وسط الحول يضم إلى نصاب من جنسه فيزكيه بحول الأصل (شامي 2/288) نصاب الذهب عشرون مثقالا والفضة مئتا درهم ، كل عشرة دراهم وزن سبعة مثاقيل … إلخ (شامي 2/295) (و) اعلم أن الديون عند الإمام ثلاثة قوي ومتوسط وضعيف (فتجب) زكاتها إذا تم نصابا وحال الحول لكن لا فورا بل (عند قبض أربعين درهما من الدين) القوي كقرض (وبدل مال تجارة) فكلما قبض أربعين درهما يلزمه درهم (و) عند قبض (مائتين منه لغيرها) أي من بدل مال لغير تجارة وهو المتوسط كثمن سائمة وعبيد خدمة ونحوهما مما هو مشغول بحوائجه الأصلية كطعام وشراب وأملاك ويعتبر ما مضى من الحول قبل القبض في الأصح ومثله ما لو ورث دينا على رجل (و) عند قبض (مائتين مع حولان الحول بعده) أي بعد القبض (من) دين ضعيف وهو (بدل غير مال) كمهر ودية وبدل كتابة وخلع قوله (في الأصح) قد علمت أنه ظاهر الرواية وعبارة الفتح و البحر في صحيح الرواية قلت لكن قال في البدائع إن رواية ابن سماعة أنه لا زكاة فيه حتى يقبض المائتين ويحول الحول من وقت القبض هي الأصح من الروايتين عن أبي حنيفة اهـ ومثله في غاية البيان وعليه فحكمه حكم الدين الضعيف الآتي (شامي 2/305) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  21. Is digital photography the same as picture making? Q: I wish to know what Islam says regarding digital photography. I hear that some scholars regard it as permissible arguing that it is totally different from a normal picture due to it having more resemblance with the reflection of a mirror. Based on this, it is permissible for one to capture digital photos of animate objects and store them on one’s phone. Is this viewpoint correct? Could you please clarify the issue for me and explain the correct Islamic viewpoint on this matter to me, as well as provide me with the answers to the arguments of those who claim that digital photography is permissible? I would appreciate if you could also explain the view of the four Imaams regarding photography. A: The religion of Islam is a complete and perfect way of life that provides man with guidance in all situations and spheres of human living. Allah Ta’ala says in the Holy Qur’aan: الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا “Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favour upon you and I am pleased with Islam as your religion.” (Surah Maa’idah, Aayah 3) When the Deen of Islam is complete and perfect, it is virtually impossible for one to imagine that any problematic situation could arise regarding which there would not be any solution available in the Deen of Islam. Therefore, whenever a newly developed situation arises, it is the responsibility of the Fuqahaa to analyse it in the light of Shar’ee principles in order to ascertain the category in which the newly developed situation fits and thereafter apply the correct ruling to it. As far as creating pictures of animate objects is concerned, the Sahaabah, Taabi’een, the four Imaams of Fiqh and the majority of the Ummah are of the view that it is not permissible for one to create a picture of any animate object. This prohibition is on account of the grave warnings and admonishments that have been sounded in the Mubaarak Ahaadith for all those involved in the sin of picture making. In Saheeh Bukhaari alone, Imaam Bukhaari (Rahimahullah) has dedicated ten chapters to explaining the evil of picture making. Below are some of the Ahaadith reported regarding the grave warnings for the one involved in picture making. Hadith 1 عن مسروق عن عبد الله قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إن من أشد الناس عذابا يوم القيامة المصورون وقال أحمد المصورين (سنن النسائي رقم 5364 ، صحيح البخاري رقم 5606) Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas’ood (Radiyallahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “Those involved in picture-making will be subjected to the worst forms of punishment on the Day of Qiyaamah.” Hadith 2 عن سعيد بن أبي الحسن قال جاء رجل إلى بن عباس فقال إني رجل أصور هذه الصور فأفتني فيها فقال له ادن مني فدنا منه ثم قال ادن مني فدنا حتى وضع يده على رأسه قال أنبئك بما سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول كل مصور في النار يجعل له بكل صورة صورها نفسا فتعذبه في جهنم وقال إن كنت لا بد فاعلا فاصنع الشجر وما لا نفس له. (صحيح لمسلم 2/202) Sa’eed bin Abil Hasan (Rahimahullah) reports that a man once came to Ibnu Abbaas(Radiyallahu Anhuma) and said, “I am a picture maker. Explain the Islamic verdict regarding picture making to me.” When Ibnu Abbaas (Radiyallahu Anhuma) heard this question, he asked the man to come forward. The man accordingly came forward after which Ibnu Abbaas (Radiyallahu Anhuma) asked him to come even closer. The man drew closer until Ibnu Abbaas (Radiyallahu Anhuma) placed his hand on his head. Ibnu Abbaas (Radiyallahu Anhuma) then told him, “I will inform you of what I heard from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). I heard Nabi(Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saying, ‘Every picture maker will dwell in the fire of Jahannum. Allah Ta’ala will create one creature for every picture he made and it will then punish him in Jahannum.’ If you wish to draw a picture, then draw the picture of a tree or a lifeless creation (for this is permissible for you).” Hadith 3 حدثنا سعيد قال سمعت النضر بن أنس بن مالك يحدث قتادة قال كنت عند ابن عباس وهم يسألونه ولا يذكر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى سئل فقال سمعت محمدا صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول من صور صورة في الدنيا كلف يوم القيامة أن ينفخ فيها الروح وليس بنافخ (صحيح البخاري 2/881 ، صحيح لمسلم 2/202) Qataadah (Rahimahullah) said, “I was once in the company of Ibnu Abbaas(Radiyallahu Anhuma) when someone posed a question regarding picture making. Ibnu Abbaas (Radiyallahu Anhuma) said that he heard Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saying: “The one who creates a picture (of an animate object) will be commanded on the Day of Qiyaamah to infuse the soul into it, and thereby give life to it. However, he will never be able to give life to it (hence he will face severe torment and punishment in the fire of Jahannum).” Hadith 4 عن ابن عباس عن أبي طلحة رضي الله عنهم عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال لا تدخل الملائكة بيتا فيه كلب ولا صورة (صحيح البخاري رقم 3144) Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbaas (Radiyallahu Anhuma) narrates from Hazrat Abu Talha (Radiyallahu Anhu) who heard Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saying: “The angels of mercy do not enter a home wherein there is a dog or a picture (of an animate object).” Hadith 5 عن عبد الرحمن بن القاسم عن أبيه أنه سمع عائشة تقول دخل علي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وقد سترت سهوة لي بقرام فيه تماثيل فلما رآه هتكه وتلون وجهه وقال يا عائشة أشد الناس عذابا عند الله يوم القيامة الذين يضاهون بخلق الله قالت عائشة فقطعناه فجعلنا منه وسادة أو وسادتين (صحيح مسلم رقم 2107 ، سنن النسائي رقم 5356) Hazrat Aaishah (Radiyallahu Anha) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) once returned from a journey and I had hung a curtain with pictures over the doorway. When Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saw it, he tore the curtain and his face began to change colour. Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “O Aaisha! The people who will be subjected to the worst forms of punishment on the Day of Qiyaamah will be those who imitate Allah Ta’ala’s attribute of creation (through picture making).” Aaisha (Radiyallahu Anha) said: “We thereafter cut it and made it into one or two pillows.” Hadith 6 عن القاسم بن محمد عن عائشة أم المؤمنين رضي الله عنها أنها أخبرته أنها اشترت نمرقة فيها تصاوير فلما رآها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قام على الباب فلم يدخله فعرفت في وجهه الكراهية فقلت يا رسول الله أتوب إلى الله وإلى رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ماذا أذنبت فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما بال هذه النمرقة قلت اشتريتها لك لتقعد عليها وتوسدها فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إن أصحاب هذه الصور يوم القيامة يعذبون فيقال لهم أحيوا ما خلقتم وقال إن البيت الذي فيه الصور لا تدخله الملائكة (صحيح البخاري رقم 2105) Hazrat Aaishah (Radiyallahu Anha) reports: “I had once purchased a cushion with pictures of animate objects on it. When Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saw it, Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) stood at the door way and refused to enter the house. I noticed displeasure on his face and I thus said, ‘O Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) I immediately repent to Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). Have I committed any sin?’ Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)then asked, ‘What is this cushion?’ I replied, ‘I purchased it for you so that you may sit on it and use it as a cushion.’ Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, ‘The makers of these pictures will be punished on the Day of Qiyaamah and it will be said to them, ‘instil life into what you have created’. Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)thereafter mentioned, ‘Indeed, the angels do not enter a home wherein there are pictures.’” Hadith 7 عن عون بن أبي جحيفة عن أبيه أنه اشترى غلاما حجاما فقال إن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن ثمن الدم وثمن الكلب وكسب البغي ولعن آكل الربا وموكله والواشمة والمستوشمة والمصور (صحيح البخاري رقم 5962) Aown bin Abi Juhaifah reports from his father that he had purchased a slave who would carry out the procedure of cupping; he thereafter said that Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) prohibited earning through cupping, through selling dogs and the earnings of a prostitute and Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) cursed the one who receives interest, the one who gives interest, the tattooist, the tattooed and the picture maker. On account of these abovementioned, authentic Ahaadith, which have been reported regarding the prohibition of picture making, the Sahaabah, Taabi’een, the four Imaams of Fiqh and the majority of the Ummah are of the view that it is not permissible for one to create a picture of any animate object. As far as the issue of digital photography is concerned, we should understand that it is a modern form of photography. In the last five to six decades, the picture making industry has advanced in leaps and bounds through these modern day inventions and has finally perfected the art of photography. Initially, man was in need of ink, a paint brush and other such implements in order to produce a picture. Thereafter came the film and camera age where man, through the aid of the film and camera, was able to produce a picture. Eventually the digital age dawned where the picture is now produced through an array of light sensitive sensors. In essence, through the birth of technology, man no longer needs to manually sketch or paint a picture. The device he has engineered in the name of digital photography automatically fulfils this task. Hence, although the means utilized to produce the picture differ, however the outcome is the same. Apart from this, the name “digital photography” itself reveals its true identity and position. Any person viewing a digital photo will accept that the image he is viewing is a photo. This also indicates that there should be no difference in the Shar’ee ruling between the picture that is produced through digital photography and the picture that is produced through conventional photography. The same ruling that applies to conventional photography should also apply to digital photography. These digital pictures cannot be excluded from the law of picture making. The most that can be said is that instead of the old, conventional method of picture making, technological advancement has brought about a new means of picture making. Although the pictures captured by a digital camera, cellphone, video recorder or television equipment are not physically tangible (like a normal printed picture), however they are captured, stored and are able to be displayed on the screen. Therefore, when Sharee’ah has declared picture making as haraam, then no matter which methods or means are invented, the picture will remain haraam. Below we will present the proofs of those who claim that digital photography is permissible as well as present the responses to their proofs. Proof of the view that digital photography is not a picture The claimants of digital photography being permissible contend that it is unlike a normal picture. A normal picture has a physical form and remains existent all the time on a paper, wall or any other durable object, whereas the images appearing through digital photography do not possess any physical form. Hence, the prohibition that came from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) regarding pictures does not apply to this modern day invention. Instead, these digital images (appearing on the screen) have a closer resemblance to the reflection of a mirror than a physical picture. Just as the reflection of a mirror does not possess stability and nor does it remain existent all the time, similar is the case with digital photography. In short, those who declare that digital photography is permissible base their view on three points: Digital photography resembles the reflection of a mirror. Digital photography differs from the physical picture that existed in the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). Digital photos differ from conventional photos since they neither have substance nor stability as opposed to a normal picture. Hence, both are different. Response to the first proof Resembling digital photography to a reflection of a mirror, merely because both are unstable and do not remain existent all the time, is incorrect. A close examination of both will reveal the noticeable differences between them. Firstly, the reflection on a mirror occurs naturally without any action of man. Hence, man will not be accountable for that which he does not have any control over. As far as digital photography is concerned, it is a creation of man and operates through his actions. Therefore, he will be accountable for it. Secondly, the reflection on a mirror is subject to the original object being before the mirror. Once the original object moves away, the reflection no longer remains. This is not the case with digital photography. It does not require any object to remain before it. Thirdly, the reflection of a mirror is not preserved for a moment on the mirror after the original object moves away from it. Conversely, a photo/image captured and stored digitally can be made to appear on the screen whenever one wishes, long after the object has moved away. Hazrat Mufti Muhammad Shafee’ Sahib (Rahimahullah) states: A reflection of a mirror is only a representation of the object before it from which it cannot be detached. Therefore, the reflection that appears on a mirror, water, etc., remains only for the duration that the original object remains before it. The moment it moves away, the image disappears as well. The shadow of a person standing out in the sun is seen on the ground beside him. The existence of the shadow is subject to the person. In whichever direction he moves it will follow him. Response to the second proof It is an accepted fact that digital photography never existed in the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). Therefore, no explicit law regarding it is found in the Qur’aan or in the Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). At the same time, we should understand that the religion of Islam is a complete way of life that provides man with guidance in all spheres of life. Whenever a newly developed situation arises, it is the responsibility of the Fuqahaa to correctly analyse the situation and through qiyaas and ijtihaad determine in which category the newly developed situation enters. Qiyaas and ijtihaad is the science by means of which the Faqeeh (the one qualified in this science) will be able to establish laws for newly developed situations based on common underlying reasons and factors found in the textual proofs (Qur’aan and Hadith). When a masa’ala cannot clearly be found in the Qur’aan and Hadith, the Faqeeh will search for a similar situation recorded in the Qur’aan or Hadith in order to establish a ruling for the newly developed situation. His ruling will be based upon common factors found in both. Merely claiming that since digital photography never existed in the Mubaarak era of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), therefore it will be excluded from picture making is insufficient grounds to prove its permissibility. There are many things that never existed in the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), yet the Fuqahaa, after ascertaining their correct position and status through ijtihaad and qiyaas declared them as impermissible. Consider the different types of drugs that exist nowadays such as cocaine, ecstasy, heroin, etc. All these drugs never existed in the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), yet the Fuqahaa have issued the ruling of impermissibility upon them. The Fuqahaa had closely examined the Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) wherein liquid intoxicants (wine, etc.) have been declared haraam. They had found that the underlying factor for the prohibition of liquid intoxicants mentioned in the Hadith is the factor of iskaar (intoxication). Due to these liquids intoxicating a person, the Hadith has declared them haraam. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: "كل مسكر حرام" “All intoxicants are haraam.” (Abu Dawood #3689) After carrying out a thorough examination regarding drugs, the Fuqahaa ascertained that this very same factor found in liquid intoxicants is also found in drugs. Hence, the law of prohibition that applies to all liquid intoxicants will also necessarily apply to drugs. Therefore, they declared that taking drugs is also impermissible as it falls within the purview of the Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam): "كل مسكر حرام" “All intoxicants are haraam.” Accordingly, we should understand that though digital photography never existed in the Mubaarak era of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), in order to come to know its ruling, one will have to ascertain whether the underlying factor for the prohibition of normal pictures is found in it or not. The underlying factor for the prohibition of normal pictures is مضاهاة لخلق الله i.e. the one drawing an animate object is trying to resemble Allah Ta’ala in His quality of creating. When we closely examine digital photography, we find that this very same factor also exists in it. Hence, just as normal pictures have been declared haraam through the Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), similarly, digital photography will also enter under the purview of picture making and will also be declared haraam. The Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is explicit. Nabi Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: كل مصور في النار “Every picture maker will be in the fire of Jahannum.” (Muslim #2110) Numerous Fuqahaa of the various mazaahib have stated that the basis of the prohibition of picture making is مضاهاة لخلق الله. Among these Fuqahaa are: Allaamah Nawawi (Rahimahullah) (commentary of Muslim Shareef, vol. 2, pg. 199), Allaamah Shirbeeni (Rahimahullah) (Mughnil Muhtaaj, vol. 3, pg. 303), Allaamah Aini (Rahimahullah) (Umdatul Qaari, commentary of Bukhaari Shareef, vol. 22, pg. 77), Allaamah Shaami (Rahimahullah) (Raddul Muhtaar, vol. 1, pg 647), Mufti Shafee’ Sahib (Rahimahullah) (Tasweer ke Shar’ee Ahkaam, pg 57), Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah) (Sharhul Umdah, vol. 1, pg. 505) and this can also be understood from the statement of Imaam Maalik (Rahimahullah) which also alludes towards the basis of the prohibition of picture making being مضاهاة لخلق الله (Al Mudawwanatul Kubra 1/213). Response to the third proof Those who make a distinction between digital photography and conventional photography base their argument upon the fact that in the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) the prohibition of picture making applied to a picture which had a physical form and remained existent all the time (on a paper, wall or any other object) whereas the images appearing through digital photography do not have any physical form. Hence, the prohibition that came from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) regarding pictures does not apply to this modern day invention. However, confining the prohibition of picture making to this definition is nowhere to be found in the Ahaadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). Thus how can one on the basis of a definition coined long after the era of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) be able to exclude the digital picture from the ambit of the prohibition of picture making? On the contrary, in many Ahaadith, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) explained the main factor and cause for picture making being forbidden in Islam, i.e. resembling Allah Ta’ala in the act of creation. All the Ulama of the past accept that this is the underlying factor for the prohibition of picture making, as is clearly established from the Ahaadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). In a digital picture the same factor is glaringly evident. When Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) has declared all pictures as haraam in the Hadith when he said كل مصور في النار (Every picture maker will be in the fire of Jahannum), then the manner and method of producing the picture will not bring about any change to the law. The argument that “in order for it to be a picture it has to have substance and stability which we are able to physically hold and stick on a wall, etc.” is not substantiated from any clear nass (textual proof, viz. Qur’aan and Hadith). Hence, how could one rely upon this definition of a picture which is not established in the Qur’aan and Hadith to exclude a digital photo from the ambit of the prohibition of general picture-making? Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is reported to have said: عن مسروق عن عبد الله قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إن من أشد الناس عذابا يوم القيامة المصورون وقال أحمد المصورين (سنن النسائي رقم 5364 ، صحيح البخاري رقم 5606) Hazrat Abdullah bin Masood (Radiyallahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “Those involved in picture-making will be subjected to the worst forms of punishment on the day of Qiyaamah.” Conclusion After studying the general Ahaadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and viewing the statements of the four great Imaams of Fiqh viz. Imaam Abu Hanifah, Imaam Maalik, Imaam Shaafi’ee and Imaam Ahmad (Rahimahumullah), we understand that photography in whichever form it may be, whether digital photography or conventional photography is totally prohibited and impermissible in Islam. For further details on the topic of digital photography refer to our kitaab Photography & Modern Challenges. To view the opinions and fataawa of our pious predecessors on the topic of digital photography and television refer to http://ihyaauddeen.co.za/?p=8574 And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best. وفي التوضيح قال أصحابنا وغيرهم تصوير صورة الحيوان حرام أشد التحريم وهو من الكبائر وسواء صنعه لما يمتهن أو لغيره فحرام بكل حال لأن فيه مضاهاة لخلق الله وسواء كان في ثوب أو بساط أو دينار أو درهم أو فلس أو إناء أو حائط وأما ما ليس فيه صورة حيوان كالشجر ونحوه فليس بحرام وسواء كان في هذا كله ما له ظل وما لا ظل له وبمعناه قال جماعة العلماء مالك والثوري وأبو حنيفة وغيرهم (عمدة القاري شرح صحيح البخاري 22/70) وظاهر كلام النووي في شرح مسلم الإجماع على تحريم تصوير الحيوان وقال وسواء صنعه لما يمتهن أو لغيره فصنعته حرام بكل حال لأن فيه مضاهاة لخلق الله تعالى وسواء كان في ثوب أو بساط أو درهم وإناء وحائط وغيرها ا هـ فينبغي أن يكون حراما لا مكروها إن ثبت الإجماع أو قطعية الدليل بتواتره (رد المحتار 1/647) وكذا النهي إنما جاء عن تصوير ذي الروح لما روي عن علي رضي الله عنه أنه قال من صور تمثال ذي الروح كلف يوم القيامة أن ينفخ فيه الروح وليس بنافخ فأما لا نهي عن تصوير ما لا روح له لما روي عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنه أنه نهى مصورا عن التصوير فقال كيف أصنع وهو كسبي فقال إن لم يكن بد فعليك بتمثال الأشجار (بدائع الصنائع 1/116) والحاصل أنه يحرم تصوير حيوان عاقل أو غيره إذا كان كامل الاعضاء إذا كان يدوم إجماعا، وكذا إن لم يدم على الراجح كتصويره من نحو قشر بطيخ ويحرم النظر إليه إذ النظر إلى المحرم حرام ... وغير ذي ظل كالمنقوش في حائط أو ورق فيكره (حاشية الدسوقي على الشرح الكبير 3/201) (قال) ابن القاسم: وسألت مالكا عن التماثيل تكون في الأسرة والقباب والمنار وما اشبهه؟ (قال): هذا مكروه قال: هذه لان خلقت خلقا (المدونة الكبرى 1/213) قال أصحابنا وغيرهم من العلماء تصوير صورة الحيوان حرام شديد التحريم وهو من الكبائر لأنه متوعد عليه بهذا الوعيد الشديد المذكور في الأحاديث وسواء صنعه بما يمتهن أو بغيره فصنعته حرام بكل حال لأن فيه مضاهاة لخلق الله تعالى وسواء ما كان فى ثوب أو بساط أودرهم أو دينار أو فلس أو اناء أو حائط أو غيرها وأما تصوير صورة الشجر ورحال الابل وغير ذلك مما ليس فيه صورة حيوان فليس بحرام هذا حكم نفس التصوير وأما اتخاذ المصور فيه صورة حيوان فان كان معلقا على حائط أو ثوبا ملبوسا أو عمامة ونحوذلك مما لايعد ممتهنا فهو حرام وان كان في بساط يداس ومخدة ووسادة ونحوها مما يمتهن فليس بحرام ولكن هل يمنع دخول ملائكة الرحمة ذلك البيت فيه كلام نذكره قريبا إن شاء الله ولافرق في هذا كله بين ماله ظل وما لا ظل له هذا تلخيص مذهبنا في المسألة وبمعناه قال جماهير العلماء من الصحابة والتابعين ومن بعدهم وهو مذهب الثوري ومالك وأبي حنيفة وغيرهم (شرح النووي على المسلم مع صحيح لمسلم 2/199) ( ويحرم ) ولو على نحو أرض وما مر من الفرق إنما هو في الاستدامة ( تصوير حيوان ) وإن لم يكن له نظير كما مر بل هو كبيرة لما فيه من الوعيد الشديد كاللعن وأن المصورين أشد الناس عذابا يوم القيامة (تحفة المحتاج بشرح المنهاج 7/540) ( ويحرم تصوير حيوان ) للحديث المار ولما فيه من مضاهاة خلق الله تعالى قال المتولي وسواء أعمل لها رأسا أم لا خلافا لأبي حنيفة رضي الله تعالى عنه وقال الأذرعي إن المشهور عندنا جواز التصوير إذا لم يكن له رأس لما أشار إليه الحديث من قطع رؤوسها اه وهذا هو الظاهر تنبيه قضية إطلاق المصنف أنه لا فرق في تصويره على الحيطان أو الأرض أو نسج الثياب وهو الصحيح في زيادة الروضة (مغني المحتاج 3/303) (ويحرم) ولو على نحو أرض وبلا رأس إذ ما مر بالنسبة للاستدامة وما هنا في الفعل (تصوير حيوان) وإن لم يكن له نظير كما مر للوعيد الشديد على ذلك (نهاية المحتاج إلى شرح المنهاج 6/376) يحرم تصوير ما فيه الروح ولا يحرم تصوير الشجر و نحوه. والتمثال مما لا يشابه ما فيه روح على الصحيح من المذهب ، ... يحرم تعليق ما فيه صورة حيوان, و ستر الجدار به ، و تصويره على الصحيح من المذهب (الإنصاف 1/334) وصنعة التصاوير محرمة على فاعلها لما روى ابن عمر عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أنه قال : الذين يصنعون هذه الصورة يعذبون يوم القيامة يقال لهم أحيوا ما خلقتم و عن مسروق قال دخلنا مع عبد الله بيتا فيه تماثيل فقال لتمثال منها تمثال من هذا قالوا تمثال مريم قال عبد الله قال رسول الله : إن أشد الناس عذابا يوم القيامة المصورون متفق عليهما والأمر بعمله محرم كعمله (المغني لابن قدامة 10/199) ولأن الصور قد تعبد من دون الله وفيها مضاهاة لخلق الله فالصلاة عندها تشبه بمن يعبدها ويعظمها (شرح العمدة 1/505) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  22. This May Be Your Last Ramadaan...! All praise is due to Allah Ta'ala, may peace and salutations be upon His Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), his household and companions. We are once again blessed with the Honourable month of Ramadaan. A month for renewing our faith, strengthening our willpower, and seeking forgiveness, a unique opportunity to strengthen the bond of love with our Creator, through fasting, recitation of the Quran, Taraweeh salaah, and through acts of charity. People approach Ramadaan in different ways. Ramadaan means different things to different people. Some people view Ramadaan as a period of expressing their undying love for the Beloved. For them, Ramadaan is a valuable, precious, and rare occasion. They spend all their time doing good, convinced that the reward of each act is multiplied manifold. Patience, sympathy, and generosity beautify the demeanour. They guard their tongues and remain preoccupied in chanting Laa ilahaa illallah, seeking forgiveness, begging for Jannah, and seeking protection from Jahannam. They are driven by the words of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) that say: “The fish in the sea, seek forgiveness for them until they break their fast. Everyday Allah decorates Jannah for them and says to it: The time is near when my faithful servants shall cast the great trials (of the world) and come to you... On the last night of Ramadaan they are forgiven..." (Ahmad) There are others who 'welcome' Ramadaan with sighs of reluctance. To them Ramadaan is an unfair imposition, a month of deprivation and hardship. They grudgingly keep fast and drag themselves to the Masjid for the Taraweeh prayer. Their concept of fasting is limited to physical abstention of food, drink, and sexual relationship. They spend their time in gossip, watching sport, and wasting their nights parked at cafe corners and restaurants. They are hardly ever stirred to Tilawah, Zikr, and dua, nor are they careful of their salaah. Their goal in Ramadaan IS to prepare for Eid. The words of Rasulullah(sallallanu alayhi wa sallam) aptly describes their spiritless endeavours: " Many are the ones who fast attaining nothing by such fasting except hunger , and many perform salaah by night attaining nothing by it except the discomfort of staying awake." (Ibn Majah) Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) further stated that: " Allah does not require the discarding food and drink of the person who fasts but does not refrain from bad speech and action." (Sahih Bukhari) There is yet a third group who is hardly ever moved by Ramadaan. They neither read salaah, nor fast. They continue living recklessly in sin. They neither have the will or the time to make any sort of change in their dai Iy routines. The following words of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) should serve as a grim reminder to them: " ...Jibraeel (alayhis salaam) appeared before me and said: " Woe to him who found the blessed month of Ramadaan and let it pass by without gaining forgiveness." Upon that I said: Aameen. (Sahih Bukhari) He also said: "Whoever does not fast for even one day in Ramadaan, without a valid excuse, shall never be able to repay that day even if he fasts for the rest of his life" (Ahmad) Brothers and sisters in Islam! Fear Allah Ta'ala and beware of wasting your life away in futile activities. Make use of your time by being positive and constructive, for it is by doing so you can achieve the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala. This may well be your last Ramadaan, your last opportunity to benefit from the special blessings and forgiveness that accompanies this month. Know that Ramadaan is a manifestation of Allah Ta'ala's bountiful blessings on His slaves. Use it as a turning point in your life; a time for transformation towards a better way of life; a change from the ignominy of sins to the glory of obedience; from weakness and laziness to strength and vigour; from bad customs and detestable habits to righteousness and upright conduct. Resolve 0' Honourable Muslim! To perform the five daily salaah with the congregation, To perform the Taraweeh salaah diligently. To spend as much time as possible in dua, Tilawah, and Zikr To take part in the various Ramadaan programmes at your Masjid. To protect your fast by guarding your tongue, eyes, and thoughts. To beautify your fast by sharing your iftaar with your neighbours and the needy. To be patient, tolerant, and sympathetic. Especially to your parents and spouse. To be kind and generous to the poor and needy. Especially to our destitute Muslim brothers and sisters from foreign countries. To serve at least one sick, aged, or disabled person during this Ramadaan. To make dua for the Ummah daily before iftaar. May Allah Ta' grant us the faith, strength, and spirit to make this a unique and special Ramadaan. May He grant us the ability to be consistent in our endeavours. May He protect and preserve our faith. Taken from Jamiat Kzn Courtesy: www.everymuslim.net
  23. Ramadaan : Understanding Television What Can Be Done? By Khalid Baig Television has spread like a wild fire in the world, including the Muslim world. It seems to have overcome the limitations of space and time. Consider place. In Saudi Arabia, one can find the imprints of Hollywood only a few yards away from the Haram, the most sacred of all sanctuaries of Islam. Videocassettes are easily available at stores. A hotel attendant, at a walking distance from the Haram al-Sharif in Makkah can be found busy watching English movies on the television in his office even as the prayers are going on. At the Jeddah airport, the Umrah pilgrims can watch a European beauty contest courtesy of an Egyptian TV channel being broadcast to the airport television sets. Consider time. Ramadan is the most sacred month in the Islamic calendar, a period of time that is to be devoted to direct acts of worship of Allah. Yet, during Ramadan, believers around the world can be found glued to their television sets when they should be busy making dua, doing dhikr and tilawa or offering nafl prayers. Or consider the time of suffering. Hardly a day goes by when we do not get the news of pain and suffering from Palestine, Kashmir, Iraq, Chechnya, Afghanistan, or a dozen other hot spots around the globe. Yet, between all the suffering and grieving that accompanies the tragedy, the dish antennas on the rooftops have been flourishing. In the past at times of catastrophes people would turn to Allah, would stop going to the cinema houses, and would repent from sins, even though temporarily. Today, there is an ever-increasing appetite for the television fun. This is also true in the lands closest to the areas of suffering. On days when a strike is called to protest Indian atrocities in Kashmir, the video stores in Karachi run out of videos of Indian movies. Throughout the world religious, moral and social values have been drastically undermined by this great "technological gift" of the century. And entire nations seem to be helplessly "enjoying" the invasion. When people are doing nothing, they watch television. When they are doing something else, they still have television in the background. The device has contributed to the addition of a new space in the architecture of the private home: the TV lounge. It is a space where perfect strangers come to pedal nudity, immorality, and hedonism. This is the space, which increasingly controls the entire house. It is fashionable to complain about "excessive" sex and violence on television. Even those who make money from this enterprise willingly do that. CNN tycoon Ted Turner said in July 93 before a U.S Congressional subcommittee: "I don't need experts to tell me that the amount of violence on television today and its increasingly graphic portrayal can be harmful to children. Television violence is the single most significant factor contributing to violence in America." And a poll released in February 95 in the U.S. by Children Now, whose directors include TV producers and Warner Brothers Chairman, reported that most children believe that what they see on television encourages fornication, disrespect for parents, telling lies, and aggressive behavior. The most significant thing here is that what the TV industry wants us to discuss (and we willingly follow) is what is ON television, not television itself. Everyone will wholeheartedly agree with the problems with TV programs and offer all kinds of advice. (Watch the programs with your children. Tell them what is wrong. Be critical. Be creative.) Irrational and meaningless as it is, this exercise will nonetheless soothe your irritation. In the meantime, keep on watching. It is fun. It is also unavoidable. In about two decades, this "wonderful" technical development has played havoc with societies around the globe. But what is even more unprecedented is the ambivalence with which these societies face this greatest of all invasions. Underlying this is a strongly held belief that television is a neutral tool that can be used with equal facility for good or evil. Unfortunately, this position has been taken without any critical examination of the facts. It is about time that we approached the subject with an open mind.Neutral Tool? Is technology ever neutral? "[Every technology] has within its physical form a predisposition toward being used in certain ways and not others," writes Niel Postman, chair of the department of Communication Arts at New York University. "Only those who know nothing of the history of technology believe that a technology is entirely neutral." (Amusing Ourselves to Death, 1985). What about television? It reflects the idea that serious discourse can be carried out through pictures instead of words. As Postman explains: "The single most important fact about television is that people watch it, which is why it is called ‘television.' And what they watch, and like to watch, are moving pictures?? millions of them, of short duration and dynamic variety. It is in the nature of the medium that it must suppress the content of ideas in order to accommodate the requirements of visual interest." Words and pictures do not occupy the same universe of discourse. A piece of writing requires one to go beyond the shape of the letters to read them. It requires thought to understand what is being said. Television does not require reflection, in fact it does not even permit it. That is why little children can spend hours in front of the mini screen. Television can titillate, it cannot teach. It can bring images into our heart, not ideas into our mind. It appeals to the emotions, not the intellect. But isn't a picture worth a thousand words? Is it? It is important to note that this claim itself is made in words. A picture cannot make any claims. For reason, arguments, claims, and judgment belong in the universe of words not pictures. That is why advertisers love pictures. Consider an ad for, say, Coca-Cola, that just shows young people singing, dancing, having fun, and enjoying the drink. The audiences make the connection between happiness and Coke. This ad cannot be refuted. It makes no claim, so there is nothing to refute.Medium Is The Message The above explains Marshal McLuhan's famous aphorism. The inherent, built in biases of a medium allow certain types of messages and not others. The communication is conditioned by the medium. It is enhanced or distorted by it. The medium is the message. And when the medium is TV, the message is Entertainment. As Postman notes: "Entertainment is the supra ideology of all discourse on television." Whether it is news, science, religion, or education, if it is happening on TV, it must follow the dictates of entertainment. In fact, a new term has been coined indicating a blend of education and entertainment: Edutainment. It smells like the language problem of a TV baby. But remember that it is already being used by the serious press. Which suggests that edutainment will produce even more edutainment!Like A Drug Actually, TV is not just another kind of entertainment either. As a project by the National Institute of Mental Health in the U.S. involving 1200 subjects in nine studies over a 13 year period found in 1990, television is like a drug. The researchers asked the subjects, ages 10 to 82, to note down their activities and moods every time a beeper was activated, which was done randomly. The researchers found that when people sit down to watch TV, particularly for long periods, they tend to be in low moods. The longer they watch, the less able they are to concentrate. As time goes on, they grow sadder, lonelier, more irritable, and more hostile. Although people are relaxed when the television set is on, when they turn it off, they are less relaxed than before they began, "much like a drug that makes people feel better while they are doing it but worse afterward." And just like a drug the weaker segments of the society are its greatest target. Thus in the U.S. blacks tend to watch more TV than whites. And now thanks to satellite TV transmissions over which the poor countries have no control, the rest of the world is being turned into the U.S. black under class.Islamic Work And Television Can this dangerous drug be somehow converted into a medicine? Not too long ago, a young professional in the U.S. approached prominent Muslim scholar and Deputy Cairman of the Jeddah based Islamic Fiqh Council of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), Justice Taqi Usmani to inquire about his profession. He produced computer graphics for the television and motion picture industry. This is the age of the media, and the only effective way to spread Islam today is through television and movies, he argued. If we do not learn the trade how shall we be able to produce such programs and if we don't who will, he inquired. Yet, some people had told him that it was not a good profession. "I have given a lot of anxious thought to this issue," replied Justice Usmani in his characteristic measured tone, weighing every word. "And I have reached the conclusion that the cause of Islam cannot be served through television, especially under the current circumstances. You should seek another line of work." Frankly, there are lot of enthusiasts who may be totally bewildered by this answer for it challenges both conventional wisdom as well as some dearly held dreams. They may even consider anyone making this suggestion as belonging to the Flat Earth Society: backward, anti-progress, ignorant of today's realities. Let us grant them their day in court and look at their case objectively. The enthusiasts have shown interest in three primary areas. The first deals with propagation of Islam. There are lots of sincere Muslims putting lot of hope in a yet-to-be-released video that will attract the people of the world to Islam by the thousands. They are simply confusing Dawah with propaganda! Dawah means inviting people to the Straight Path by relaying the True Message to them without any distortion. It is a very serious message and requires a serious medium to deliver it. The message is for their own benefit and what they do with it is their own business. Our job is done once we have communicated the message correctly. Our job is not to manipulate people into submission to Allah any more than it is to coerce them into it. A Dawah worker is a teacher, a propagandist is a manipulator. Television is a good tool for manipulating, not for teaching. The second area deals with the education ("edutainment") of children. Many videos have already been produced for this purpose. In one program from a popular series of such videos, a puppet named Adam drives a skateboard to the mosque. Scenes of Adam doing his antics are mixed with the videos of real children praying. But there is no doubt that Adam is the hero of this story. Here is a clear case of the medium distorting the message. The children who learn to pray this way may learn the mechanics of Salat, but they would have paid a terrible price for it. The idea of Salat will be associated in their mind with the images of puppets, skateboards, and the idea of fun. Missing will be the spiritual dimension of prayer, the solemnness and grace of this pillar of Islam. Such videos are very popular as they help assuage the guilt feelings of parents over their failure to control the TV in the first place. To be fair there is a useful role for these videos but it is not normally perceived. Doctors use nicotine patches to help their patients stop smoking. Nicotine is not a medicine, but it becomes therapeutic under the circumstances. Similarly, the TV addicts may be helped by such videos to get over their addiction. It might work if that is the goal. But this is very different from the view that here is a Brave New Way of teaching Islam. The children and their parents must realize that ultimately they have to learn their religion the old fashioned way: read books, listen to lectures, work hard. The third type of videos are used by relief organizations showing the terrible situation of Muslims in Kashmir, Bosnia, Palestine and elsewhere. The intentions are noble, the results look great. But someone must ask the hard question: Why should the Muslims need disaster pornography before they can come to the help of their brothers and sisters? What are the implications of this practice for both present and future? There are, of course, cases where the TV is being used against its grain, where the only video is that of a talking head. Such Islamic programs in Egypt or Saudi Arabia, as elsewhere, may not contain all the dangers cited above, solely because there the TV is being used just as an expensive radio. The problem is such programs will not be able to withstand the onslaught of CNN or MTV, of dazzling colors and dynamic pictures. The question remains how long can you use a tool against its grain? The simple fact is that no one buys a TV and VCR because they desperately wanted to learn about Islam and it was the best way of doing it. The TV lounge is not a study room and all the Islamic videos in the world are not going to make it one. It is a peace of Hollywood. The rest is camouflage or self-deception. The earlier we get out of it, the better.What Can Be Done?Television is powerful. It is everywhere. Is there anything that us mortals can do about it? The answer is yes. Things can be done at individual, as well as collective levels. At the individual level, try using the ON/OFF switch. It takes some effort and will power, but the device can be turned off. The key is to involve the entire family. Those nervous about the idea may rest assured that there is no known disease linked to lack of exposure to TV! Also those who have tried it know that it becomes easier with time. Community Organizations and Islamic Schools can help by educating the people about the perils of watching TV, countering the social pressures, and providing healthy alternatives. Ramadan: The TV Free Month. Our best chance of kicking the television habit comes in Ramadan every year. It is the time of year when every Muslim who has any trace of Iman in his or her heart, is naturally inclined toward doing good and staying away from evil. And it should be like that. Did not the Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, curse the Muslim who finds Ramadan but does not use it to seek forgiveness for his previous sins? If we cannot leave sins or vain activities during Ramadan, when can we? We not only have the strongest moral and religious reasons to do so, it is also easy because the regular activities of Ramadan leave little time to be wasted in front of television. Muslim organizations and communities will do a great service by launching a campaign to declare Ramadan as the TV free month. Urge all the Muslims in your community to turn it off for at least one month. And who knows, after one month many may decide to stay away from it because of the personal insights they got through the experience. Of course, if you are convinced, do not wait until the next Ramadan. Start today. By Khalid Baig Courtesy: www.everymuslim.net
  24. Q: I heard that using a tasbeeh is bid'ah, is this true? A: This is incorrect. It is permissible to recite zikr on a tasbeeh. Its permissibility is established in the Hadith. And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best. رقم 3554 - حدثنا محمد بن بشار حدثنا عبد الصمد بن عبد الوارث حدثنا هاشم وهو ابن سعيد الكوفي حدثني كنانة مولى صفية قال سمعت صفية تقول : دخل علي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم وبين يدي أربعة آلاف نواة أسبح بها فقلت لقد سبحت بهذه فقال ألا أعلمك بأكثر مما سبحت ؟ فقلت علمني فقال قولي سبحان الله عدد خلقه (ترمذي 2/195) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
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