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    Website: http://www.spirituallight.co.za/
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    There are various learning resources available online. Please refer to this section and see if they are offering Arabic course inshaAllah. http://www.islamicteachings.org/forum/category/169-online-learning-resources/
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    Rectified motives and reformed children The Honourable Hadith expert of our times, Al-Muhaddith, Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwamah (may Allah protect him) often states that the residents of Madinah Munawwarah regularly make the following du’a: اللّٰهُمَّ أَصْلِحِ النِّيَّةَ والذُّرِّيَّةَ Allahumma aslihin niyyah wadh dhurriyyah Translation O Allah, rectify my intentions and reform my progeny. This brief yet profound du’a is much needed in the world today. Ponder: One who is bereft of the above two bounties will suffer in both Worlds! Intentions and the Selfie Age Unfortunately we live in an era where almost nothing is done without an ulterior motive. It’s an era wherein everything is ’selfied’, be it with a picture or even in text. Without the correct motive, no deed is accepted by Allah Ta’ala, even if that deed be as noble as it gets. We should still be focused on our intentions, instead of broadcasting our achievements! A Rare Breed The need for ‘reformed’ offspring is understood by one and all. Especially in an age where such a blessing is of a rare kind. Fortunate are those who have already achieved this. While many of us still only yearn for that blessing. Let’s include this du’a in our daily supplications, in addition to the physical effort that is needed to achieve the above. Keeping the company of the pious is very effective in achieving these two bounties. Insha Allah we will see great results. May Allah Ta’ala‬‎ accept all our efforts and du’as. Amin al-miftah
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    Aoudhubillahi minahs shaitan nirrajeem Bismillahirrahmanirraheem Two Characteristics of Nafs or Ego Why do the man like prohibited acts? It can be observed that the man normally develops yearning towards the forbidden acts. There is an online game because of which many youth are committing suicide. Effective measures are being taken to stop this game but people watch with more vigor. The zeal towards the forbidden acts is in proportion to the strength to prevent these acts. Adam (AS) was prohibited from eating the fruit of a certain tree. There were many trees that he (AS) could eat from but he chose to eat from the forbidden tree. When a man is prevented from an act, he becomes greedier of that act. Careful observation show two reasons behind this human behavior: 1) The nafs or ego does not tolerate imprisonment. The nafs is already imprisoned by the physical body and when it is further constrained spiritually, it becomes furious. Voluntarily a man will stay in a house for a month but the moment he was ordered to not come out of the house, he would find it difficult to oblige even for a day as his nafs would become enraged feeling imprisoned and will pressurize him to move out of the house. 2) It is not the tendency of the nafs to obey others and it finds submission and obedience very difficult. Physically it can do the most strenuous acts but mentally it finds it very difficult to submit to any simple command. This is why the biggest religion in this world is worshiping nafs whereby people obey the nafs. In fact the people of this world can be broadly divided into two groups: One group who live by the command of the Lord and the other group who live by the command of their nafs. It is because of these two characteristics of the nafs, the man finds pleasure in forbidden acts but not in permitted acts. Growing beard is very easy and it does not utilize man’s time, energy or money and it does not even hurt his skin but he finds it difficult to grow whereas he will take much effort and spend time, money and go through the pain to cut off the beard which is forbidden. Shariah has freed man from following unnecessary customs in getting married making it easy for him but he finds it difficult to oblige. On the other hand, the man will spend time, energy and waste his hard earned money which he laboriously saved for years in following the customs to please the people suiting the desires of his nafs. Do people really get pleased? Nay! He only earns up jealous people who will harm him. He finds it easy to do the most strenuous acts which will make one wonder because it pleases nafs but the simple easy acts become difficult for him as it goes against his nafs. This is the tendency of the nafs. Go Against the Nafs and Enjoy the Jannah Right in this World Irrespective of the difficulty endured by the nafs, the struggle we put to go against the nafs to please Allah SWT is what will make us attain Jannah. When we struggle against our nafs, Allah SWT will ease our path. If we go after the desires of nafs, there is hell behind its veil and if we abide by Allah’s SWT commands, definitely it is difficult for the nafs but there is Jannah behind its veil. I am not just talking about the Jannah awaiting in the akhirah but we will be able to taste the Jannah right in this world after a period of time if we go against our nafs. When we apply medicine to the wound, initially there will be stinging pain but later we will enjoy the health. Similarly, tolerate the displeasure of nafs in the beginning and later you will enjoy the Jannah of this world. If you do not apply medicine for the wound fearing the momentary pain, the wound will start rotting from inside leading to intolerable pain. Know that if you tolerate the difficulty and displeasures of nafs for Allah SWT, it will bring in the taste of Jannah like how the medicine brings health. Sins will make the Life Hell If you want to see the life of hell, look at the lives of sinners. Depending on the depth of the sin committed, deep is the hell life of the sinner. There are countries which are called paradise of this world but their inhabitants are committing suicide. Why do they commit suicide? Their anxiety, worries and difficulties are so severe like those of inmates of hell who will cry, “Alas! We wish we are dead and become dust and extinct”. Just like these inmates of hell, the sinners of this world become exasperated desiring for death and commit suicide. Can you imagine the level of desolateness, anxiety, insecurity and worries they are experiencing in their lives? In spite of having beautiful weather, house and comforts, why do they commit suicide? Depending on the severity of sins in one’s life, he will feel the heat of the hell in his life. The heat will be less when sin is small and will be more if the sin is big but for certain sins make the life that of the hell. This is as clear as a day brought out by the sun. One cannot be deceived by huge houses, factories or cars as for sure the sins committed by a person would make his life hell. Forbear the Stinging Pain of the Nafs The Quran commands one to save himself, his women and children from the fire. This command was descended on the most intellectual people that ever came on the earth, i.e. the companions of the Prophet SAW. They were commanded to save themselves from the fire of the sins. This fire is not good for your women or children and you cannot overlook their sins. Children are unaware and ignorant of the consequences of sins meted out by their environment but they are heading towards the fire. Believing in Allah SWT and following His SWT commands will definitely be difficult for the nafs but there is health behind this stinging pain and the taste of worldly Jannah behind this difficulty. Those people who are blessed with tahajjud salah or solitude worship in the late nights and in the mornings find them more pleasurable than the tastiest food. The coolness, the tranquility and the pleasure that one feels from these ibaadat (worship) are incomparable. When Hazrat ibn Taymiyyah (RA) was imprisoned and taken towards the prison, he exclaimed, “How wonderful it would be to spend my time in prison in solitude! Now I will enjoy my time of Jannah here.” When the prison guard wondered at his words, he said, “My Jannah is in my heart and it is with me wherever I go.” Who can snatch away Jannah from the hearts granted by Allah SWT? When Allah SWT bestows one deen and purity outwardly and inwardly, he has attained the Jannah of this world. Allah SWT says that such people will have tranquility in their hearts and tranquility is experienced in Jannah too. In the Jannah of this world, the man remains peaceful all the time and in every single state. This is pleasure. So have patience over the difficulty of the nafs when obeying Allah SWT for this pain is only temporary like applying medicine on the wound which will be followed by the enjoyment of eemaan (faith). The heart might desire to backbite and see forbidden things but stop the tongue from maligning others honor through backbiting and stop the eyes from seeing forbidden things. Definitely the nafs would find it tormenting but soon you will feel the coolness. How to control the Nafs? Deal with the nafs just like how a smart patient would deal with the medicine. He aims for good health and eats the bitter medicine and if it is too bitter, he still convinces himself to consume it by adding little sweetness to it or eats something sweet immediately after the medicine so his body accepts it. Do not obey the nafs but deal with it like a smart patient. It also happens that the nafs itself would not like eating certain delicious food because it knows well that it will prevent him from enjoying all other delicious foods. So teach the nafs about the severe loss it would incur if it commits a sin and losing the blessings it is enjoying. This is how a smart believer will hold his nafs. He will fully have the control of the bridle and will not lose the rope from his hand. Sometimes he loosens the rope but will have control over it. As long as the nafs is on the straight path, he will be lenient with it and when it tries to deviate from the path, he tries to bring back with a soft approach and if it doesn’t respond well, he will bring back sternly. He will deal with the nafs like how he would deal with an ignorant wife. When she shows her weakness intellectually, he entertains her by being very considerate. When a wife becomes disobedient, the husband first advices her gently and if the advice fails, he keeps her away from him on the bed and if she still persists in her behavior, he becomes little stern on her. There is no whip greater than firm determination to control the nafs. Be determined that you will not disobey Allah SWT and there is no better whip than determination for the nafs. Let Allah SWT grant His divine help to lead a life pleasing to Him SWT. Ameen -Sheikh Maulana Abdus Sattar (DB): Morning Tarbiati Majlis-29th September 2017.
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    As you shed Those warm tears, Crying for the past Sinful years, You just can’t utter A comprehensible sentence Yet; truthful is your repentance. Strange Is that vibration You feel As you fall On bended knees, Before He who spread darkness Into the depth of the seas. Sublime Is the sensation You get After a prostration You make In true contrition For the sake Of forgiveness, From He Who Inspired the bees. Subhaaan Al Ghafour! Rochdi Bouille March 15, 2012
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    DU’AA FOR GOOD EXPECTATIONS FROM AND SINCERE RELIANCE ON ALLAH TA’AALA اَللّٰهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ شُكْرًا وَّلَكَ الْمَنُّ فَضْلًاـ اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أَسْأَلُكَ اتَّوْفِيْقَ لِمَحَابِّكَ مِنَ الْأَعْهَالِ، وَصِدْقَ التَّوَكُّلِ عَلَيْكَ، وَ حُسْنَ الظَّنِّ بِكَ ـ Allaahumma lakal-hamdu shukran wa lakal-mannu fadla(n). Allaahumma innii as’alukat-tawfiiqa limahaabbika minal-‘a’maal(i), wa sidqat-tawakkuli ‘alayk(a), wa husnaz-zanni bik. (Composite: Ka’b ibn ‘Ujrah and Abu Hurayrah. Kanz al-‘Ummal #3653, 3654) O Allah, to You is due all praise with thanks; it is only Your domain to do favors with grace. O Allah, I beseech You to enable me to perform the deeds loved by You, develop sincere reliance on You, and hold good expectations from You. ~~~Ameen~~~ It is important to hold good expectations from Allah Ta’aala, for Allah Ta’aala deals with a person according to his expectations. When a servant of Allah sincerely puts his trust and hopes in Him, Allah Ta’aala does not disappoint him. (Source: Khalid Baig’s transliteration, translation and commentary of du’aa #122 from the Accepted Whispers: Munajat-e-Maqbul)
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    New Zealand Attack 5 Things Muslims Must Know Everyone has heard of the atrocity that took place in New Zealand on Friday the 8th of Rajab 1440, corresponding to 15th March 2019. The harrowing terrorist attack on two Masājid left at least 50 innocent Muslim worshippers killed and scores more injured. As the dust begins to settle and the world begins to come to terms with this egregious event, below we outline some key lessons to equip Muslims around the world and particularly in the West with the appropriate mind-set moving forward. 1. We have to have Active Patience We begin by offering our heartfelt condolences to the families of those who were killed and injured. We exhort Muslims to embrace active patience (Sabr), rather than passive patience. The latter is to passively accept the news of a calamity because one is left with no choice; whereas active patience is to internally accept and be content that it happened by Allāh’s pre-ordained decree, thereby attaining the fullest reward. On that form of patience, Allah says in the Qur’ān: “We will test you with a certain amount of fear and hunger and loss of wealth and life and fruits. But give good news to the steadfast: Those who, when disaster strikes them, say, ‘We belong to Allāh and to Him we will return.’ Those are the people who will have blessings and mercy from their Lord; they are the ones who are guided.” (2:155-157) All communities are likewise affected by tests of this nature. Shootings at the hands of extremists are sadly commonplace in the world, harming Muslims and non-Muslims. Each and every community has borne a share of this pain. It is, however Allah’s blessing on us that we enjoy comforting hopes of immense rewards and compensation in the hereafter we believe in, something many other communities may not internalise. As Allah says: “…If you feel pain, they too are feeling it just as you are, but you hope for something from Allah which they cannot hope for. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (4:104) New Zealand’s victims were killed in the Masjid, the most beloved place to Allah, on a Friday (Jumu’ah), the most beloved day to Allah, during the Salah beloved to Allāh. May Allah shower them with His immense mercy and elevate their status in Jannah. We also ask Him to give them the best recompense for their families and loved ones. 2. Islamophobia is not new The first point to note is as the Australian Federation of Islamic Councils elucidated precisely, moments after the event: “This massacre today is the product of the ever-increasing Islamophobia and marginalisation of Muslims and is a reminder to all concerned, including political leaders and media commentators, of the horrific consequences that an atmosphere of hate and division can lead to.” Those same white supremacist structures and trends have for decades forced the international community to scapegoat and focus on so-called “Islamic extremism” as a fosterer of terrorism. Countless programmes, schemes, curriculums, conventions and even large-scale military operations have been conducted on the back of this current iteration of the ancient Orientalist myth. Is there an equivalent amount of focus on the driving forces of terrorism committed against Muslims internationally, despite being on the receiving end of most terrorism? Are such anti-Muslim atmospheres and catalysts being criminalised in the same way? Clearly not. 3. We fear only Allah Despite the first point above, we should not allow fear to penetrate our hearts and reside therein. Such fear is of the worst enemies of man and is a sensation that can destroy them even before anything transpires. Apart from natural, temporary fear, we as Muslims should strive to drive out every other fear existing in our hearts save that for Allah the Almighty: “Those to whom people said, ‘The people have gathered against you, so fear them.’ But that merely increased their Iman and they said, ‘Allāh is enough for us and the Best of Guardians.’” (3:173) We should never allow our emotions to take control of our reactions. On the one hand, we should not behave as if we were anticipating such events in order to continue mourning. Some Muslims treat mourning as an objective and presume that the more we mourn, the better and this absolutely wrong. 4. They are not all the same We should not presume, that all white non-Muslims approve of or celebrate this crime, or allow our words or reactions to emit such an assumption. Yes, there are indeed white supremacists, Christian extremists, Neo-Nazis and others today who hold considerable jealousy and ancient hatred for Islam and Muslims, that has precipitated in acts and policies of barbarism for hundreds of years. But just as there is a long tradition of hatred of Islam and Muslims in western Europe, there have also been a number of enlightened thinkers, policy makers and average citizens who opposed this shameful history, who are neutral (if not warm to Islam) and desire justice for all—including Muslims. In the Qur’an, Allah confirms this diversity and cultivates in us this lens of justice when forming our presumptions about members of wider society: “And among the People of the Scripture is he who, if you entrust him with a great amount [of wealth], he will return it to you. And among them is he who, if you entrust him with a [single] silver coin, he will not return it to you unless you are constantly standing over him [demanding it]. That is because they say, “There is no blame upon us concerning the unlearned.” They tell a lie against Allah while they know [it].” (3:75) 5. Now is the time to reach out We should utilise this challenge as an opportunity to give Da’wah to non-Muslims. Many are now sympathising with Muslims, others want to know more about Islam; why we gather for sermons and Allah’s worship on Fridays, why we are calling those killed ‘martyrs’ and why we strengthen one another as to their going to a ‘better destination’ despite the grave worldly losses. Now is the opportune time to address this curiosity. We ask Allah to forgive us and those who preceded us in faith and to shower his mercy and forgiveness on the victims of this horrific atrocity and all of those killed unjustly around the world. Ameen. https://jamiat.org.za/new-zealand-attack-7-things-muslims-must-know/ Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
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    Yes one day is 24 hours so from Monday 6pm to Tuesday 6 pm is one day and yes exact amount should be noted
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    Detailed Fiqh of Menstruation Course Mufti Abdur-Rahman Mangera will be teaching an advanced course on the Fiqh of Menstruation. The course will cover ‘Allama Ibn ‘Abidin’s commentary of Imam Birgivi’s detailed menstruation manual (Dhukhr al-Muta’ahhilin). The class will facilitate a solid understanding of the issues related to menstruation and is well-suited for those who have found the subject elusive and difficult to fully comprehend. The course is aimed at creating a specialisation in this field and help provide the ability and expertise to assist others. Classes will begin on Monday 25th February 2019 and will run from Monday to Thursday for approximately 4 to 6 weeks. Instructor: Mufti Abdur-Rahman Mangera Start Date: Monday 25th February 2019 Duration: 4 to 6 Weeks Students will have access to the course material and recordings until 5 May 2019 Cost: £49.00 Times: Mondays to Thursdays from 11.30am to 1:00pm British Standard Time (6.30am to 8am US Eastern Time) Venue: Whitethread Institute 329-333 High Street (2nd floor) Stratford London E15 2TF (former site of Interlink College) The course is available online and onsite with recordings available for students in different time zones who cannot attend live. REGISTER HERE
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    Desperate plea from a regretting son Salam. Please do not do curse me after reading this. I had been a very disobedient child for my parents. I was the only son and they had hopes that I will treat them well in their old age. But I turned out to be exactly the opposite. When both of them were alive, I avoided talking to them and if I did, I was very rude. I hurt them a lot. I told them all kinds of unwanted things that hurt them a lot. I even physically pushed my mother around. When they asked for help, I would tell them to do it themselves. My father’s joints hurt a lot but I never showed any mercy on him. I would tell him he was faking. I was the worst son anyone could have. Now, when I remember all that I did with them, I feel very bad. I am pained thinking of my parents. Is there any way that will forgive me and also get me the forgiveness of my parent? I am very ashamed of all that I did. I wonder how I would face my parents after my death. And, how will I face Allah? Please advice, please help, please pray for me. In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh. Brother in Islaam, We take note of the contents of your query. We make du’aa that Allaah Ta’aala rewards your parents for undergoing the hardships of life and tolerating you. May Allaah grant your parents Jannatul Firdaws. Aameen. Shari’ah has greatly emphasized on being dutiful to one’s parents[1]. In regards to the father, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, رِضَى الرَّبِّ فِي رِضَى الوَالِدِ، وَسَخَطُ الرَّبِّ فِي سَخَطِ الْوَالِدِ. Translation: “The pleasure of the Lord is in the pleasure of the parents, and the displeasure of the Lord is in the displeasure of the father.” (Tirmidhi 1899)[2] In regards to the mother, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, الوالدة أوسط أبواب الجنة فأضع ذلك أو احفظه[3] Translation: “The mother is the middle door of Jannah. So (the choice is yours) either discard it (by disrespecting your mother) or protect it (by honoring and obeying her).” (Haakim 7251) Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said in regards to disobedience of the parents, لعن الله العاق لوالديه[4] Translation: “May Allaah curse the one who is disobedient to his parents.” (Haakim 7254) Your behavior with your parents during their lifetime was unfortunate. However, it is apparent that you are remorseful for what you did. Your sense of realization of your bad behavior towards your parents is perhaps due to the du’aas of your parents for you and the barakah of their sabr. Generally, parents still love and care for their children despite the pain caused to them by their children. Turn to Allaah Ta’aala and beseech Him for His forgiveness for the wrong you have done. Ask Allaah Ta’aala to spare you from the punishment of ill-treating your parents in this life and the next. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, كل الذنوب يؤخر الله ما شاء منها إلى يوم القيامة إلا عقوق الوالدين فإن الله تعالى يعجله لصاحبه في الحياة قبل الممات[5] Translation: “Allaah may delay the punishment of all sins as He wishes until the Day of Judgment except showing disrespect to one's parents; for indeed Allaah will hasten the punishment of that sin to its perpetrator prior to his death.” Do righteous deeds and send the thawaab to your parents. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) was once asked if there was any good a person can do to his parents after their demise. He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) replied, نعم، الصلاة عليهما والاستغفار لهما، وإيفاء بعهودهما من بعد موتهما، وإكرام صديقهما، وصلة الرحم التي لا توصل إلا بهما[6] Translation: “Yes, making du’aa for them, seeking forgiveness on their behalf, fulfilling their promises after their passing away, honoring their friends and joining ties which are only joined by their relationship.” (Ibn Maajah 3664) Do something on behalf of your parents that has a perpetual reward (sadaqah jaariah) such as giving sadaqah or assisting in building a masjid or Islaamic institute. Send the rewards of your daily worship to them. Always keep them in your du’aas. You may recite the following du’aa: رب ارحمهما كما ربياني صغيرا Translation: “My Lord! Have mercy upon them both as they have raised me up as a little one.” (Al-Israa v.24) The greatest reward to your parents will be to change your lifestyle. Fear Allaah Ta’aala and be Allaah-conscious in all your matters. Perform the five daily salaahs on time. Recite a portion of the Qur’aan daily. Be from amongst the saaliheen, the righteous. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, إذا مات الإنسان انقطع عنه عمله إلا من ثلاثة: إلا من صدقة جارية، أو علم ينتفع به، أو ولد صالح يدعو له[7] Translation: “When a person passes away, all his actions come to an end save three: a charity that has perpetual reward (sadaqah jaariah), beneficial knowledge and a righteous child that prays for him.” Link yourself to a spiritual guide and inculcate in you the qualities of the righteous. You may listen to the discourses of my honorable teacher, Mufti Ebrahim Desai (Hafizahullaah) on the Qaseedah Burdah for spiritual enhancement. The discourses are available on the following link: https://daruliftaa.net/qaseeda-burdah/[8]. And Allaah Ta’aala Knows Best. Muajul I. Chowdhury Student, Darul Iftaa Astoria, New York, USA Checked and Approved by, Mufti Ebrahim Desai. [1] http://askimam.org/public/question_detail/32474 [2] سنن الترمذي (3/ 374) 1899 - حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو حَفْصٍ عَمْرُو بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ الحَارِثِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ يَعْلَى بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: رِضَى الرَّبِّ فِي رِضَى الوَالِدِ، وَسَخَطُ الرَّبِّ فِي سَخَطِ الْوَالِدِ. الترغيب والترهيب (3768) وعن عبد الله بن عمرو رضي الله عنهما قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رضا الله في رضا الوالد وسخط الله في سخط الوالد رواه الترمذي ورجح وقفه وابن حبان في صحيحه والحاكم وقال صحيح على شرط مسلم ورواه الطبراني من حديث أبي هريرة إلا أنه قال طاعة الله طاعة الوالد ومعصية الله معصية الوالد ورواه البزار من حديث عبد الله بن عمر أو ابن عمرو ولا يحضرني أيهما ولفظه قال رضا الرب تبارك وتعالى في رضا الوالدين وسخط الله تبارك وتعالى في سخط الوالدين [3] المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم (4/ 168) 7251 - أخبرنا الشيخ أبو بكر بن إسحاق، أنبأ بشر بن موسى، ثنا الحميدي، ثنا سفيان، عن عطاء بن السائب، عن أبي عبد الرحمن، قال: تزوج رجل فكرهت أمه ذلك فجاء يسأل أبا الدرداء، فقال: طلق المرأة وأطع أمك فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: «الوالدة أوسط أبواب الجنة فأضع ذلك أو احفظه» رواه شعبة، عن عطاء بن السائب، مفسرا بالشرح [التعليق - من تلخيص الذهبي] 7251 – صحيح [4] المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم (4/ 169) 7254 - حدثنا أبو سعيد أحمد بن يعقوب الثقفي، ثنا أحمد بن يحيى بن إسحاق الحلواني، ثنا إبراهيم بن حمزة، ثنا عبد العزيز بن أبي حازم، عن العلاء، عن أبيه، عن هانئ، مولى علي بن أبي طالب، أن عليا، رضي الله عنه، قال: يا هانئ ماذا يقول الناس؟ قال: يزعمون أن عندك علما من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تظهره، قال: دون الناس؟ قال: نعم. قال: أرني السيف فأعطيته السيف فاستخرج منه صحيفة فيها كتاب، قال: هذا ما سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «لعن الله من ذبح لغير الله ومن تولى غير مواليه ولعن الله العاق لوالديه ولعن الله منتقص منار الأرض» [التعليق - من تلخيص الذهبي] 7254 - سكت عنه الذهبي في التلخيص [5] المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم (4/ 172) 7263 - حدثنا علي بن حمشاذ، العدل - رحمه الله تعالى - وعبد الله بن الحسن القاضي، قالا: ثنا الحارث بن أبي أسامة، ثنا محمد بن عيسى بن الطباع، ثنا بكار بن عبد العزيز بن أبي بكرة، قال: سمعت أبي، يحدث عن أبي بكرة، رضي الله عنه قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: «كل الذنوب يؤخر الله ما شاء منها إلى يوم القيامة إلا عقوق الوالدين فإن الله تعالى يعجله لصاحبه في الحياة قبل الممات» هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه " [التعليق - من تلخيص الذهبي] 7263 - بكار بن عبد العزيز ضعيف [6] سنن ابن ماجه (4/ 632) 3664 - حدثنا علي بن محمد، حدثنا عبد الله بن إدريس، عن عبد الرحمن ابن سليمان، عن أسيد بن علي بن عبيد مولى بني ساعدة، عن أبيه عن أبي أسيد مالك بن ربيعة، قال: بينما نحن عند النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وجاءه رجل من بني سلمة (3) فقال: يا رسول الله، أبقي من بر أبوي شيء أبرهما به من بعد موتهما؟ قال: "نعم، الصلاة عليهما والاستغفار لهما، وإيفاء بعهودهما من بعد موتهما، وإكرام صديقهما، وصلة الرحم التي لا توصل إلا بهما" [7] صحيح مسلم (3/ 1255) 14 - (1631) حدثنا يحيى بن أيوب، وقتيبة يعني ابن سعيد، وابن حجر، قالوا: حدثنا إسماعيل هو ابن جعفر، عن العلاء، عن أبيه، عن أبي هريرة، أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال: " إذا مات الإنسان انقطع عنه عمله إلا من ثلاثة: إلا من صدقة جارية، أو علم ينتفع به، أو ولد صالح يدعو له " [8] Alternative link: http://tasawwuf.daralmahmood.org/i-tikaaf-2015.html
  11. 1 point
    Assalamu alaikum The mats will not become impure simply because non-Muslims walk through them. There should be a proper reason to consider it impure. As Mufti Abu Hajira states: I have also forwarded the question to a Mufti.
  12. 1 point
    As-Salaam alaikum, Says Allah Ta'ala in ayat 28 of Surat Ra'ad of the Holy Qur'an:-- "Verily, in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find rest/satisfaction." (13:28) And in Hadith, we have learnt it that the Prophet, Sallallahu alaihi Wasallam, said:- "There is a piece of flesh in the body, if it becomes good (reformed), the whole body becomes good but if it gets spoiled, the whole body gets spoiled and that is the heart." Sheikh Abu Abdullah at-Tirmidhi Hakeem, may Allah be Merciful to him, said:-- "The Zikr [Remembrance ] of Allah moistens the heart and cultivates tenderness in it. When the heart is bereft of Zikrullah, the heat of the nafs overtakes it; the fire of lust reaches it; and it becomes barren and hard." Indeed, the life of the heart (qalb) is related to Allah's Remembrance. Man has only to implant Allah's Name firmly in his heart, what follows is amazing. So, be engaged in Zikr always... or most of the time. With that, you find out that even though our hands cannot feel Allah Ta'ala, the mind cannot grasp Him but the heart would vividly recognize Him... Tabaraka Wa Ta'ala. With regular, constant Zikr, the heart can discern Allah, Jallah-Jalalahu, hear Him, entreat, Obey and act according to His Will.
  13. 1 point
    The Remedy for Pride Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (rahmatullahi ‘alaih) once mentioned: If any person sees some good quality in himself and finds that quality lacking in another person, due to which he begins to regard himself to be better than that person, then he should immediately think to himself, “It is possible that this person does not have this good quality in him which I have, but he has some other praiseworthy quality in him which is lacking in me, due to which he is better than me in the sight of Allah Ta‘ala.” Hazrat Thanwi (rahmatullahi ‘alaih) then mentioned, “If a person trains himself to think in this way, it will assist him to remove self-admiration and pride from his heart and it will save him from regarding himself to be better than others.” (Malfoozaat Hakeemul Ummat 23/55)
  14. 1 point
    Part Twenty Five The Simplicity and Humility of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) Hazrat Shurahbeel bin Muslim (rahimahullah) mentions that Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) would feed the people the food of rulers (i.e. food of a superior quality). After feeding the people, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) would enter his home and partake of simple foods such as vinegar and olive oil.” (Hilyatul Awliyaa vol. 1 pg. 98) Hazrat Maimoon bin Mahraan (rahimahullah) narrates from Hamdaani that he had seen Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) mounted on his mule while his slave, Naa’il, was mounted on the same mule behind him. This incident occurred at a time when Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was the Khalifah of the Muslims. (Hilyatul Awliyaa vol. 1 pg. 99)
  15. 1 point
    An Exclusive Honour for the Ummah of Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) عن ابى هريرة رضى الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم خرج الى المقبرة فقال السلام عليكم دار قوم مؤمنين وإنا إن شاء الله بكم لاحقون وددت أنى قد رأيت إخواننا قالوا يا رسول الله ألسنا إخوانك قال بل انتم أصحابى و إخوانى الذين لم يأتوا بعد وأنا فرطهم على الحوض قالوا يا رسول الله كيف تعرف من يأتى بعدك من امّتك قال أرأيت لو كان لرجل خيل غرّ محجّلة فى خيل بهم دهم ألا يعرف خيله قالوا بلى قال فانهم يأتون يوم القيامة غرّا محجّلين من الوضوء و أنا فرطهم على الحوض (الترغيب والترهيب 1/208) Hazrat Abu Hurayrah (Radhiyallahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) once entered the graveyard and recited the following Du’aa: اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيكُم دَارَ قَومٍ مُّؤمِنِينَ وَإنَّا إنْ شَاءَ اللهُ بِكُم لاَحِقُونَ “O (inmates of) the resting abode of the believers, may peace descend upon you from the side of Allah Ta’ala, Insha Allah soon we will be joining you.” Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) then said: “I wish I had met our brothers.” The Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) enquired: “Are we not your brothers, O Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)?” Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied: “You are my companions (you have a greater position than the rest of the ummah. You are my brothers and are also blessed with my companionship). My brothers are those who have not yet come in the world (i.e. they will still be born and appear in the world after my demise). The Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) further enquired: “O Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), how will you recognize those of your followers who come after you?” Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied: “If a person owns black horses whose foreheads and feet are white and they are mixed with completely black horses, will he not recognize his own horses from among them?” The Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) replied: “Certainly he will recognize them, O Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).” Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied: “They (my followers) will come on the day of Qiyaamah with their foreheads and limbs illuminated with special noor on account of them performing wudhu for salaah (and it is through this sign that I will recognize them from others) and I will precede them (in reaching the Hereafter) and I will serve them water at the haudh of Kauthar (when they meet me on the day of Qiyaamah).” Ihyauddeen.co.za
  16. 1 point
    Walaikumus Salam The floor will be considered pure unless you've seen some impurity and you are certain that it is impure. There is a maxim in jurisprudence: اليقين لا يزول بالشك "Certainty is not dispelled by doubt." Also a similar question was asked in this thread to which Mufti Abuhajira answered: Allah ta'ala knows best.
  17. 1 point
    Du’a for a New Year At the approach of a New Year or month, the Sahabah (radiyallahu ‘anhum) would recite the following du’a. Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn Hisham (radiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that the Sahabah (radiyallahu ‘anhum) would learn the following du’a for when the new month or New Year would begin: اللّٰهُمَّ أَدْخِلْهُ عَلَيْنا بِالأَمْنِ وَالإِيمان وَالسَّلامَةِ وَالإسْلام وَرِضْوَانٍ مِّنَ الرَّحْمٰن وِجوارٍ مِّنَ الشَّيْطان Allahumma adkhilhu ‘alayna bil amni wal iman, was salamati wal islam, wa ridwanim minar Rahman, wa jiwarim minash Shaytan Translation: O Allah, bring this [month or year] upon us with security, iman, safety, Islam, your pleasure and protection from Shaytan. (Al-Mu’jamul Awsat of Tabarani, Hadith: 6237) ‘Allamah Haythami (rahimahullah) has ruled the chain as sound (hasan). (Majma’uz Zawaid, vol. 10 pg. 139-140) Hafiz Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah) has graded the chain that was quoted by ‘Allamah Baghawi for this narration as authentic (sahih). (Al-Isabah, no. 5007) Lets learn this du’a and teach it to others. The Ummah is in dire need for every part of this du’a. Download the PDF here al-miftah
  18. 1 point
    Part Twenty Two The Hayaa of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) Hazrat Anas (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, “The most merciful of my ummah towards my ummah is Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and the most staunch in (upholding) the command of Allah Ta‘ala is Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and the most true in hayaa is Hazrat ‘Uthmaan bin ‘Affaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and the most knowledgeable regarding halaal and haraam is Hazrat Mu‘aaz bin Jabal (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and the most knowledgeable regarding the masaa’il of inheritance is Hazrat Zaid bin Thaabit (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and the most knowledgeable regarding the recitation of the Qur’aan Majeed is Hazrat Ubayy bin Ka‘b (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and every Ummah has a trustee, and the trustee of this ummah is Hazrat Abu ‘Ubaidah bin Jarraah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).” (Sunan Tirmizi #3790)
  19. 1 point
    Protecting Oneself in the Time of Fitnah Hazrat Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Daamat Barakaatuhu) mentioned: In this time of fitnah (trial), there seems to be evil prevailing everywhere. Hence, how will one protect himself from the fitnah? One will be able to protect himself from the fitnah by creating a safe-haven for himself. This will be possible by doing three things as explained in the hadeeth: 1. Control the tongue at all times. Controlling the tongue is not confined to speech, but also includes writing which is also a form of communication. 2. Do not leave the home unnecessarily. Though it is not haraam, but if one knows that a certain place is infested with malaria, will he go there unnecessarily? 3. Focus towards your weaknesses and cry over your sins.
  20. 1 point
    Repentance The Ulama have stated: “It is necessary to repent from every sin. If the offense involves the Rights of Allah, not a human, then there are three conditions to be met in order that the repentance be accepted by Allah: 1. To desist from committing it. 2. To feel sorry for committing it. 3. To make firm intention not to recommit the sin Any repentance failing to meet any of these three conditions would not be sincere. However, if the sin involves a human's right, it requires a fourth condition, i.e., to absolve oneself from such right. If it is a property, it should be returned it to its rightful owner. If it is slandering or backbiting, one should ask the pardon of the offended.” Allah, the, Exalted says: § “And beg Allah to forgive you, O believers, that you may be successful.” (24:31) § “Seek the forgiveness of your Rabb, and turn to Him in repentance.” (11:3) § “O you who believe! Turn to Allah with sincere repentance!” (66:8) Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam has stated: “Turn in repentance to Allah and beg pardon of Him. I turn to Him in repentance a hundred times a day!” (Muslim) Compiled from: Riyaadus-Saaliheen (Source: Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) newsletter)
  21. 1 point
    Aameen to the Du'a! Eid Mubarak to all our members!
  22. 1 point
    The Night Before Eid Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) has said; The night of Eidul Fitr, the night that is called Laylatul Jaa’izah (The night of prize giving), comes along. On the morning of Eid, Allah Ta’ala sends down the Malaaikah, to all the lands of the earth, where they stand at the entrance of roads, calling out with a voice that is heard by all except man and jinn: “O Ummah of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), come out of your houses towards a Lord that is noble and gracious, who grants much and pardons the big sins.” When they go towards the places for their Eid Salaah, Allah Ta’ala says to the Malaaikah: “What is the reward of that worker who has completed his work?” The Malaaikah reply: “O Lord and master, it is only right that he should receive his reward in full.” Allah Ta’ala then says: “I call you to witness, O My Malaaikah, that for their having fasted during the month of Ramadhaan, and for their having stood before Me in prayer by night, I have granted to them as reward My pleasure and have granted them forgiveness.O My servants ask now of Me, for I swear by My honour and My greatness, that whatsoever you shall beg of Me this day in this gathering of yours for the needs of the Hereafter, I shall grant you, and whatsoever you shall ask for your worldly needs, I shall grant it. I swear by My honour that, as long as you shall obey My com­mands, I shall cover up your faults. By My Honour and My Greatness do I swear that I shall never disgrace you together with the sinful people and disbelievers. Go now from here, you are forgiven. You have pleased Me and I am pleased with you.” The Malaaikah on seeing this great reward given by Allah Ta’ala upon the ummah of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) on the day of Eidul Fitr become greatly pleased and happy. (As reported in Targheeb.)
  23. 1 point
    The Guidance Al-Huda Academy Aims: To educate muslims from all walks of life, especially young Muslims, in all aspcts of their spiritual and religious development. To support the Muslim community (and by doing so the wider community) by promoting good morals & conduct and addressing areas of social concerns, such as anti-social behaviour, criminality, substance abuse and family breakdown. To faciliate a greater awareness and understanding of Islam. To address misinterpretation, misunderstanding and misrepresentation of the Islamic faith. To assist present and future generations of Muslims to preserve and perfect Islam in their lives. Magazines Leaflets
  24. 1 point
    Leaking bucket! By Abdurrahmaan Umar “I’m going to complete three Qurans”, said Omar, folding his mouth into a tight-lipped smile. “Insha Allah!” he added as an afterthought, “That’s my goal for this Ramadaan!” Shaheed rubbed his temples, contemplating his words carefully as if they would turn into a promise if they escaped his lips, “I think I am going to focus on Zikr. Sheikh is always talking about the value of zikr, so I decided…” he ruminated a little more, “I am going to praise Allah by reading at least 500 times ‘La illaha ilallah’ every day, and I will increase that, Allah willing.” “Guys, guys!” shouted Moosa as he clambered over the shoulders of those at the back struggling to get to the center of the discussion, “Ramadaan is a month of caring, a month when we supposed to feel empathy for our fellow Muslims,” pointing an accusing finger at Shaheed, he blurted out, “You can’t just worry about your own self and your Ibadat(worship). You have to worry about others…. that’s Ramadaan.” Omar leant forward, almost crouching, “Yeh, yeh, but what about earing rewards in this month. We all know the amount of extra reward we get in this month” “I can see the Shaytaan (devil) is still not tied up. Look at us! Having a squabble on the virtues of deeds right in front of Sheikh. Let’s ask Sheikh.” Cried Shaheed as he turned to Sheikh Hammad, lowered his voice and asked, “Sheikh, what would be the best action to do in the month of Ramadaan?” Some of the group floated away from the front, embarrassed that they had forgotten that Sheikh was still sitting in his regular place sipping his jasmine tea. Sheikh Hammad smiled broadly and continued quietly reciting on his Tasbih (Praising Allah). “How long does it take to fill a bucket with holes?” Sheikh asked softly, stroking his now almost white beard. His hands bore the hallmarks of his aging body, the skin soft and wrinkled, the veins that once stood taut, were now tortuous lines of blue. Farid shifted his thick spectacles as he pondered the question, he glanced around to see if anyone else was going to venture a reply. The rest of the group sat silent, trying to fathom the reasoning in the question. He adjusted his specs once more and ventured, “Sheikh, it depends on how big the holes are…big holes then it will never fill. Small holes…well maybe it will fill, but won’t stay filled. So, we have to see the holes, and, oh yes, the rate of flow of …” Omar rolled his eyes and nudged Farid into silence. They waited in anticipation for Sheikh to explain. “You see, Ramadaan is not only about filling our buckets of deeds with lots of Qur’an, zikr, extra Salaah, charity and all the other good things you mentioned. If we do these deeds, and they are all beneficial and valuable, but we often forget to plug the holes in the bucket.” Scratching his head, Farid began, “But... Sheikh…why….” Omar didn’t allow him to carry on before nudging him hard enough to understand that continuing may be harmful to his health. “Before you ask me what are the holes in the bucket,” Sheikh continued, taking a long sip of his tea, “Our sins are the holes! If we do all the good that we intend to do, but don’t make efforts to avoid sins then it’s like trying to fill a holey bucket,” Sheikh’s lips creased into a faint smile at his little pun. “Together with doing good, we have to,” Sheikh emphasised, “we have to…., have to, give up sin. Any sin, small sin, big sin, open sin, secret sin, Allah knows them all! This is a month of Taqwa – as Allah mentioned in Surah Baqarah in the Qur’an: “O You who have attained to faith! Fasting is ordained for you as it was ordained for those before you, so that you may become of those who have Taqwa.” Sheikh took another small sip of his tea, and continued, “Taqwa is many things, and the one definition that applies here is to get close to Allah. Ramadaan is a month of drawing close to Allah. And for that…Allah removed all the obstacles that obstruct us on this noble path – so the Shayateen, the rebellious devils, are locked up; and our base desires are suppressed through fasting. We just have to give up sinning, do good deeds and we will move closer to Allah.” Farid nodded his head energetically in support of what Sheikh was saying, almost dislodging his topee from his head until a sharp nudge from Omar steadied him. “It doesn’t help we read lots of Qur’an and then spend the rest of our time backbiting others or swearing or lying…then we lose out on the benefit of the Quran... it just leaks out of the holes and we don’t get the “Taqwa” that Allah Ta’ala wanted us to get in this blessed month.” “And… this is the what Rasulallah, Salallahu Alaihi wa salam meant when he said as recorded by Imam Bukhari (RA): "Whoever does not give up false statements (i.e. telling lies), and evil deeds, and speaking bad words to others, Allah is not in need of his (fasting) leaving his food and drink.” Shiekh a long sip of his tea, watching as the young men nodded to one another as the cloud of puzzlement lifted from their heads. Farid chirped, “Got it! Stop the sins, plug the holes… and we fill the bucket and get to Allah. Easy peasy!” He scurried out of the way before Omar’s nudge could reach him. “So now you understand why you have to plug the holes,” Sheikh emphasised, “Don’t just do good – avoiding sin as important, if not more important.” www.eislam.co.za
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    Covering Feet Hanafi Fiqh > Tafseer Raheemi Question: Salam mufti Saab, When women pray salah do they have to cover their feet. I.e. with socks Kind regards Jazakhalah Answer: No, they don’t have to wear socks. However, if the feet can be covered by wearing a long cloak, it would be better. This is due to showing respect to the opinion of the other madhaahib. The Madhahib (on this mas’alah) go as follows: 1) Imam Shafiee, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal (Rahimahumullah) class the feet (of women) as satr and according to their research, they have to be covered in Salah. 2) Imam Abu Hanifa’s Mufta bihi Qawl (the opinion upon which the ruling has been given) is that they don’t have to be covered. Al-Fiqh Alal Mazahib al-Arba’ah lil Jaziry p.167/1 It is also stated in Nurul-Idah (The Light of Clarification) p.159: ’Her feet are not awrah, according to the most correct of two narrations, whether the surface or the sole, because of the general nature of the necessity.’ Source
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    Women: Covering Feet Hanafi Fiqh > Qibla.com Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani When do we have to cover feet? Answer: The fatwa position in the Hanafi school is that a woman’s feet are not `awra. As such, it is not legally obligatory to cover them in the prayer or outside the prayer. [As mentioned in Radd al-Muhtar and elsewhere.] However: 1. Caution and scrupulousness would entail covering the feet, because it is obligatory according to other sunni schools (such as the Shafi`is), and it is a strong position within the Hanafi school that they are `awra. This is especially true for prayer, but it is best even outside the prayer when in the presence of those one must cover in front of. 2. It is only allowed to uncover the feet up to the ankles. Anything above the ankles is from one’s `awra. Many women wear skirts or dresses (such as jilbabs) that normally cover the ankles, but reveal the leg area above this while walking (especially in the wind, etc). There is nothing like safety. In general, the scholars remind us that one should not apply the Shariah as a dry list of do’s and don’ts. Rather, we should have the intention that we are following Allah’s commands and the guidance of His Messenger (Allah bless him & give him peace), out of love and thanks. And Allah alone gives success. Wassalam, Faraz Rabbani Source
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    Sterling advices of Sayyiduna 'Umar (radiyallahu 'anhu) on interaction In the following report, Sayyiduna 'Umar (radiyallahu'anhu) has offered sterling guidelines on interaction with fellow humans. Lets read them carefully with the intention of implementing. The famous Tabi’i; Sayyiduna Sa’id ibn Musayyab (rahimahullah) reports that Sayyiduna ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhu) laid eighteen guidelines for the people, each one filled with wisdom: 1. When someone disobeys Allah in matters that impacts on you, you can retaliate in no better way than obeying Allah in matters that impact on him. 2. Always assume the best about your brother unless you learn something about him that you cannot reconcile. 3. Never assume the worst about any statement that a Muslim makes as long as you are able to make a good interpretation. 4. One who exposes himself to suspicion must never blame anyone who holds a bad opinion of him. 5. Whoever guards his secrets will retain the choice [and control of it] in his hands. 6. Ensure that you keep true friends to stay under their wings because they are a source of beauty during times of prosperity and a means of protection during times of hardship. 7. Ensure that you speak the truth even if it leads to your death. 8. Never delve into matters that do not concern you. 9. Do not ask about matters that have not occurred because that which has already taken place is enough to keep you occupied from that which has not. 10. Never seek your needs from one who does not love to see your success. 11. Never keep the company of a sinner, as you will learn his sinful ways. 12. Keep away from your enemy. 13 & 14. Beware even of your friends, except for the trustworthy one and none can be trustworthy unless he fears Allah. 15. To be humble in speech. 16. Lower yourself in obedience of Allah. 17. Stand firm against His disobedience. 18. Consult in your matters those who fear Allah, indeed Allah says: انما يخشى الله من عباده العلماء It is those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allah. (Surah Fatir, Verse: 28) (Rawdatul ‘Uqala of Imam Ibn Hibban (rahimahullah), pg.82-83 with a chain of reliable narrators) Each of these advices are of much pertinence on our era. May Allah Ta'ala guide us to implement them. And Allah Ta’ala Knows best al-miftah
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    Seeking the Shade of the Arsh - Guidance for the Youth Book by Maulana Yunus Patel RA This book is a revised edition of a compilation of advices that was prepared especially for a three day Youth Programme, hosted by Madrasatus Sawlehaat in Rajab 1431 / June 2010. Alhamdulillah, the first edition comprised of fifteen Malfuzaat, taken from the talks and lessons of Hazrat Maulana Yunus Patel Saheb (rahmatullah alayh) and was proof-read and edited by Hazrat Maulana. This second edition has been prepared with more of Hazrat Maulana's advices and includes standard prescriptions and guidelines towards giving up common weaknesses. Alhamdulillah, Hazrat Maulana (rahmatullahi alayh) had a unique way of presenting different analogies and lessons by which the message and importance of Taqwa and obedience to Allah Ta'ala and Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) were impressed in the heart and mind. These advices offered constant encouragement and motivation. The repetition of some advices is retained due to the diverse angles from which Hazrat Maulana would explain them. Download Book Now
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    I like how you use smiley after every sentence mashaAllah. Keep smiling sis :) Pleased to meet you too dear :)
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    Listening Attentively A Requisite for ‘Ilm and Hidāyah By Shaykh-ul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh The great muhaddith and faqīh, Sufyān Ibn ‘Uyaynah rahimahullāh states: The first step towards acquiring ‘ilm is istimā‘ i.e. listening attentively, then to understand, then to memorise/remember, then to act upon it and propagate. The importance of listening with full attention is the first step and an essential requisite for success in acquiring ‘ilm, which is the prerequisite to acting according to the Wishes of the Creator. It is for this reason Allāh ta‘ālā used the word istimā‘ (listening with intent) instead of sam‘ (merely to listen with or without intention), followed by the word insāt (to become silent), when stating the adab of listening to the Qur’ān in the following verse: When the Qur’ān is recited, listen to it attentively and be silent, so that you may be showered with mercy. (7:204) Allāh ta‘ālā has promised to bestow His Mercy upon those who listen attentively, which will manifest in the form of the ability to abstain from wrong and engage in good deeds. Allāh ta‘ālā states: ..those who listen to the word attentively (of Allāh ta‘ālā and His Rasūl sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, and follow (it, knowing that it is) the best of it (of all speech). These are the ones whom Allāh has guided, and these are the ones who possess (true) intelligence (wisdom). (39:18) The importance of istimā‘ can be further understood by how Allāh ta‘ālā addressed Mūsā ‘alayhis salām when sending revelation to him. Allāh ta‘ālā states: I have chosen you (for prophethood), so listen attentively to what is revealed. (20:13) The commentators of the Qur’ān have mentioned that when Mūsā ‘alayhis salām was commanded that he should listen attentively to what is revealed to him, he stood on a rock, leaning against another, placed his right hand over his left, dropped his chin on his chest and stood listening attentively. From the above it is clear how important it is to listen attentively when seeking knowledge or listening to a discourse: only those people will genuinely benefit who listen attentively with sound understanding. How to Listen Attentively The pious predecessors have defined the term istimā‘ in detail. Wahb Ibn Munabbih rahimahullāh further explains the essence of istimā‘ by stating that it comprises of the following: a. Keeping the body motionless. A person should not engage any part of his body in anything whilst listening. He should become motionless. Fidgeting, playing around with clothes and other such actions dilute the concentration one needs when listening to religious discourses and lessons. The Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum, when in the company of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, would sit so still that they were described with the phrase, “as if birds were sitting on their heads.” If a bird was to sit on a person and he desired that it does not fly away, he will need to be extremely still. This was the condition of the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum whilst sitting in the company of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam and listening to him. b. Lowering the gaze. In essence, lowering the gaze means that one should not be distracted by anything and be totally focused towards the lesson being imparted. Hence, a person needs to abstain from looking here and there. Focussing in a manner which will prevent one from being distracted is essential to listening attentively. This can be achieved by either looking down or at the speaker. Furthermore, it portrays interest to the speaker which will further enhance the quality of delivery. c. Attention of the ears. During the discourse or lesson, a person should lend his ears only to the speaker. d. Attention of the mind. Whilst listening, the mind should also be alert and attentive. Being preoccupied or thinking about other things will be a hindrance in giving the required attention. It is for this reason students are advised to disengage from all such activities and devices which occupy the mind. e. Firm intention to act. If a person does not intend to act upon the knowledge being imparted, his attention will not always be completely focused. Having a firm intention to practice will motivate a person to focus on everything being said. When a person adopts such a manner of listening then he will fulfil the requisites of istimā‘ and gain the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. Allāh ta‘ālā will in return, grant him the correct understanding of knowledge and enlighten his heart with a special Nūr. Consequently, he will become from those who have been guided and granted a deep level of understanding, i.e. wisdom, as stated in the verse of the Glorious Qur’ān: ..those who listen to the word attentively (of Allāh ta‘ālā and His Rasūl sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, and follow (it, knowing that it is) the best of it (of all speech). These are the ones whom Allāh has guided, and these are the ones who possess (true) intelligence (wisdom). [39:18] May Allāh ta‘ālā grant us the tawfīq to implement the act of listening attentively so that we may acquire true benefit from religious discourses and lessons. Āmīn. © Riyādul Jannah (Vol. 25 No. 9, September 2016)
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    Ibn Majah, ad-Daraqutnee and others. It was also related by Malik in al-Muwatta This Hadith of our Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلّم tells us we should not be the cause of any harm and nor should it be reciprocated. It is not just physically harming people but includes every form of harm. Wasiyyah (will) – if a person has some money and he wants to give it to someone who is no related to him. He is allowed but he must not exceed the limits (one third). If he exceeds the limits, he will cause harm to the immediate inheritors. Marriage and relationship between husband and wife. As stated in Surah Al-Baqarah Ayah 231 – someone divorces his wife and then he reconciles with her, but his intention in reconciliation is so that he can cause her harm. · Traveling or being away from the family for a long time and without a good reason – this can cause harm to the wife and family. Breastfeeding – in the case of divorce, the husband tries to take the baby away from the mother and not allow her to feed him. This is prohibited. [See Surah Al-Baqarah : Ayah 233] Selling and trading – when someone is in great need of something, the seller (who knows this) sells him at a very high price – this is not allowed. Someone who wants to buy is not good at bargaining, and because of this the seller sells at a very high price, more than it is worth. Burning rubbish on your property on a windy day. This will cause harm to your neighbours. It may cause harm to the environment and the people in the neighbouring countries. This kind of harm should be brought to an end. Building a high building, as mentioned above. Building a high building where it will obstruct air, sunlight, and moonlight, is not allowed because it will cause harm. Digging a well that will cause damage to the well of one’s neighbour. If one needs to dig a well, he should position it a little further away from his neighbour’s. Behaving on one’s property in a way that will harm his neighbours. Causing bad smell to spread from one’s property to his neighbours.
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    السلام علیکم Just wanted to share that fatwaa.com (website of Mufti Ismail Moosa HA) has become alive again.
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    Protection from Dajjal Question Is the recital of the first ten (10) and last ten (10) verses of Surah Kahf described as protection from the fitnah of Dajjal in the Hadith? Also, if yes / no, what a’maal are mentioned in the ahadith for protection from the fitnah of Dajjal? Answer Sayyiduna Abud Darda (radiyallahu’anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu’alayhi wasallam) said: ‘Whoever memorises the first ten verses of Surah Kahf, will be saved from the trial of Dajjal.’ There are a few narrations of this Hadith. Some mention the first ten (10) verses and others, the last ten (10). Both have been recorded by Imam Muslim in his Sahih (Hadith 1880, 1881). As a precaution, one should recite/memorise both sets, the first ten as well as the last ten verses. This (reciting the beginning and end of Surah Kahf) has actually been recorded in a narration of Musnad Ahmad, without any mention as being protection from Dajjal. The reward in this version is that one will be blessed with light (nur) from one’s feet till the sky. (Musnad Ahmad, vol.3 pg.439) Reciting the entire Surah In one narration of Nasa’i, there is no specification of the first ten (10) or last ten (10). (Mukhtasar Abi Dawud of Hafiz Mundhiri vol.6 pg.176; Hadith: 4154, 4156) Some commentators have recommended reciting the entire surah, as is recorded in the above version, as well as in the narration of Mustadrak Hakim (vol.1 pg.511). They explain that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayi wasallam) probably initially mentioned the first ten verses, followed by the last ten to gradually encourage its complete recital. (Al-Mufhim, Hadith: 683) Another recital for protection from Dajjal Sayyidatuna ‘Aaishah (radiyallahu’anha) reported that Rasulullah (sallallahu’alayhi wasallam) would recite the following du’a before the salam in his salah Allahumma inni a’udhu bika min ‘adhabil Qabr, wa a’udhu bika min fitnatil masihid dajjal, wa a’udhu bika min fitnatil mahya wa fitnatil mamat. Allahumma inni a’udhu bika minal ma-thami wal maghram ‘O Allah I seek you refuge from the punishment of the grave, and from the trial of Dajjal, and the trials of life and death. O Allah I seek your protection form sin and debt.’ (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 832) And Allah Ta’ala Knows best. Answered by: Moulana Muhammad Abasoomar Checked by: Moulana Haroon Abasoomar hadithanswers
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    Question Can we follow more than one scholar in islam? Answer Bismillahi Ta'ala, Walaikum Assalam Warahmatullah, There is a statement in arabic which says, "For every field has its people". While we understand that it is most safe to restrict oneself to one scholar and follow him, yet if one has access to multiple scholars then there is nothing wrong with seeking a scholar of expertise in that particular field. For example, if one has to go to a doctor, then one cannot simply stick to one General Practitioner. Instead, one will need to seek out the doctor who specializes in the field for which a medical advice is needed. Hence for a heart disease, it would not serve to seek out a neurologist. In other terms, if you are looking for guidance in food items and their halal and haram status then it would be beneficial to seek out scholars who do not only understand the fiqhi aspects of halal and haram food, but also has the ability review his judgement based on industrial practices in that field. Similarly, if you are looking for guidance in marital dispute, it will best help if you approach a scholar who specializes in mediation and dispute counseling. Do not confuse this with the issue of following only one madhab (school of methodology). There are four major schools of methodology; Hanafiyyah, Malikiyyah, Shafi'iyyah and Hanbaliyyah. It is best to restrict oneself in following one of these schools and not mix and match. To understand this restriction, revert to the same example given above about seeking out a doctor for medical guidance. While you choose specific specialists to guide you in your medical diagnosis, you stick to the same methodology of medicine. If you choose a mode of medical treatment such as allopathy (general secular medical treatments) for your ailment, then you do not mix it with homeopathy or acupuncture medicine. Similarly, if you have chosen to follow one of four schools in fiqh, then it is equally detrimental to mix and match for your soul as it would be to mix and match medical treatments for your body. So while within the hanafiya school, you may choose different scholars based on their expertise or base on your reliance on those scholars within the hanafiya school. Wallahu A'lam, Mufti Faisal al-Mahmudi Fatwa.ca
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    Listening to Quran Listening to recitation is the perfume of the souls, the calmer of hearts, and the food of the spirit. Is is one of the most important psychological medicines. It is a source of pleasure, even to some animals – and pleasure in moderation purifies inner energy, enhances the functioning of the faculties, slows down senile decay by driving out its diseases, improves the complexion, and refreshes the entire body. Pleasure in excess, on the other hand, makes the illnesses of the body grow worse. Abu Nu’aim states, in his Tib an-Nabbi, that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said that the benefits of listening to recitation are increased when it is understood – that is, when its meaning is understood. Allah Himself says: …so give good news to My slaves, those who listen to the word and then follow the best of it…(Qur’an: 39.17-18) Source: As-Suyuti’s Medicine of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) Haqislam
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    Is it wrong to cry over the deceased? Question Please clarify if someone cannot control his tears while remembering his beloved child who has passed away, is there anything wrong with this? I have read that when tears flow, it is a kind of mercy from Allah and it is not haram. Answer Crying over a deceased is certainly allowed. There were numerous instances wherein Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) himself cried over a deceased or someone who was in the throes of death. Among them are the following: 1) Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik (radiyallahu ‘anhu) says, “We visited Abu Sayf, the blacksmith, with Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). He was the father of the wet-nurse of Ibrahim [the son of Nabi -sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam-]. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) held Ibrahim, kissed him and smelt him. Then later we visited him when Ibrahim was breathing his last. The eyes of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) began to flow with tears. Sayyiduna ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf (radiyallahu ‘anhu) asked [out of astonishment], ‘Even you, O Rasulullah!’ [Why are you crying?] Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘O Ibn ‘Awf, it is mercy.’ Then more tears followed and he said, ‘The eye weeps and the heart grieves and we say nothing except what pleases our Rabb. O Ibrahim, we are grieved at your departure.” (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 1303 and Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2315 with variation in the wording) 2) Sayyiduna Usamah ibn Zayd (radiyallahu ‘anhu) reports, “The daughter [Zaynab -radiyallahu ‘anha] of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sent a message to him saying, ‘One of my sons is in the throes of death, so come.’ He sent his greetings to her and said, ‘Indeed what Allah takes is his and what He gives is his. Everything has a fixed term with Him, so she should adopt patience and anticipate reward.’ She again sent for him taking an oath that he should certainly come. He got up with Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah, Mu’adh ibn Jabal, Ubayy ibn Ka’b, Zayd ibn Thabit and some other men (radiyallahu ‘anhum).The child was brought to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and he was shuddering. (I think he said, “Like an old water skin.”). Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)’s eyes began flowing with tears. Sa’d (radiyallahu ‘anhu) said, ‘O Rasulullah, what is this?’ He said, ‘This is mercy which Allah has put in the hearts of His slaves. Allah is merciful to His slaves who are merciful [to others].” (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 1284 and Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 923) 3) Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) reports, “Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah fell ill. So Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), came to visit him with ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas and ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (radiyallahu ‘anhum). When he arrived, he found him surrounded by his family and asked, ‘Has he passed away?’ They said, ‘No, O Rasulullah’. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) then began to weep. When the people saw Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) weeping, they also wept. Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) then said, ‘Listen, Allah does not punish for the tears of the eyes nor for the sorrow of the heart, but he punishes or shows mercy on account of this,’ and he pointed to his tongue” (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 924 and Sahih Bukhari, with slight addition in the wording, Hadith: 1304) The above narrations illustrate the permissibility of crying over a deceased as well as when remembering the deceased. However wailing and screaming has been prohibited, as explained in the following Hadiths: 1) Sayyiduna ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The deceased is punished in his grave for the wailing done over him.” (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 1292 and Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 927) 2) Sayyiduna ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhu) said, Leave [the daughters of Khalid ibn Walid -radiyallahu ‘anhu] to cry over him, as long as they do not throw sand on their heads or shout. (Sub heading of Sahih Bukhari, before Hadith: 1291) And Allah Ta’ala Knows best. Answered by: Moulana Suhail Motala Approved by: Moulana Muhammad Abasoomar Checked by: Moulana Haroon Abasoomar hadithanswers
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    Flowers for Women by Daughter of Khalid A. Qureshi Translation edited by Mufti A. H. Elias Special-Laws-For-Females.pdf
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    "Still studying? Come on!" A man entered upon a gathering where a Shaykh was teaching Sahih Al-Bukhari to his students. In mockery of that gathering, the man said, "People in the West have managed to land on the moon whilst you're still teaching Sahih Al-Bukhari!" The Shaykh responded, "Why does that surprise you? They are a creation who've reached another creation, whilst we are a creation who want to reach the Creator. But I tell you this; you are the most hopeless person in this gathering, for you've both failed to reach the moon with them and failed to study Al-Bukhari with us" If Allah has inspired you to pursue a path of knowledge, then you've been inspired with a blessing that's beyond the planets. وَمَنْ سَلَكَ طَريقًا يَلْتَمِسُ فِيهِ عِلْمًا سَهَّلَ اللهُ لَهُ طَريقًا إِلَى الجَنَّةِ "Whoever pursues a path to gain knowledge, Allah will ease for him a path that leads to Paradise." Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم (copied)
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    Part Nineteen Hazrat Sa‘eed bin Musayyib (rahimahullah) narrates: A certain person was once speaking ill of Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat Zubair (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). Seeing that this person was speaking ill of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), Hazrat Sa’d (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) immediately tried to stop him saying, “Do not speak ill of my brothers!” However, the person refused to desist. Hazrat Sa’d (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) thus stood, performed two rakaats of salaah, and made du‘aa against this person who was speaking ill of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum). Shortly thereafter, a camel arrived, pushing its way through the people. The camel seized this person and trapped him between its chest and the ground, crushing him to death. Hazrat Sa‘eed (rahimahullah) concludes saying, “I then saw the people walking behind Hazrat Sa’d (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) saying, ‘Congratulations, O Abu Ishaaq! Your du‘aa was accepted (in defense of the Sahaabah)!’” (Siyar min A’laam min Nubalaa 3/73) Source: Whatisislam.co.za
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    Thank you for correcting me. :) I updated my comment.
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    Ibn al-Qayyim (رحمه الله) said, “Go on the path of truth and do not feel lonely because there are few who take that path, and beware of the path of falsehood and do not be deceived by the vastness of the perishers.”
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    Prescription | Quit Smoking Bismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem By Hazrat Maulana Yunus Patel Saheb (Rahmatullahi 'alayh) There are many who write to me, complaining of their addiction to smoking, and sincerely wanting to quit the bad habit. The prescription I give, which Alhamdulillah many have found effective as a remedy, is as follows : 1.) As Muslims, we are always taking the purename of Allah Ta’ala and praising Him in some way or the other. Consider the Salaam (or greeting) that we are encouraged to offer to others, in abundance: Beside the fact that it is a Dua and a form ofIbaadah (worship), it contains the pure name of Allah Ta’ala: ‘As-Salaam’. Hazrat Mufti Muhammad Shafi (رَحْمَةُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ), had quoted the following Hadeeth in his Tafseer (commentary) of the Qur`aan Shareef, ‘Ma’ariful Qur`aan’: Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood(رَضِىَ الله عَنْهُ) related that Rasulullah ﷺ said: Salaam is one of the names of Allah Almighty with which He has blessed the people of the earth. So make Salaam a common practice among you because, when a Muslim goes to a gathering of people and offers his salaam to them, he is blessed with a station of distinction in the sight of Allah Ta’ala as he reminded everyone of Salaam; that is, reminded everyone of Allah Ta’ala… Does it then befit a Mu’min(Believer) to utter the name of Allah Ta’ala with the accompanying odour of tobacco? …No. 2.) In relation to the above point, we should keep in mind that the Qur`aan Shareef as well as the Ahaadeeth encourage us to occupy the tongue in the Zikr of Allah Ta’ala. Allah Ta’ala states in Surah Ahzaab: يٰٓأَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا اللّٰهَ ذِكْرًا كَثِيْرًا ◌ “O you who believe, remember Allah abundantly.” [Surah Ahzaab 33 : 41] Rasulullah ﷺ mentioned in one of numerous Ahaadeeth relating to the Zikr(Remembrance) of Allah Ta’ala: “Keep your tongue always moist (i.e. busy) with the Zikr of Allah.”[1] We have to read Duas when wearing clothes, before and after leaving the toilet, when driving, entering and leaving home, before and after eating and drinking, etc. …On different occasions, Duas are to be recited. All of these contain the name and ‘Hamd’(praise) of Allah Ta’ala. Often,Aayaah (verses) of the Qur`aan Shareef are read in the form of Dua. Furthermore, a Muslim has to sometimes say, regarding a future action: ‘Insha-Allah’[2],or sometimes congratulate by saying : ‘Masha-Allah’[3]; in his grief and sorrow he will say: ‘Inna Lillah…’[4] and for the bounties which he is blessed with, he will say:‘Alhamdulillah’[5], when thanking someone, he will say: ‘JazakAllah’[6], etc. We have also been encouraged by Rasulullah ﷺto read Durood[7] and Salaam[8] upon him in abundance. In fact, the practice of conveying Durood is rendered by Allah Ta’ala, Himself. Allah Ta’ala mentions: إِنَّ اللّٰهَ وَمَلٰٓئِكَتَهٗ يُصَلُّوْنَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ط يٰٓأَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا صَلُّوْا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوْا تَسْلِيْمًا ◌ “Verily, Allah and His angels send blessings on the Nabi: O you who Believe, send (you) blessings on him and salute him with all respect.” [Surah Ahzaab 33 : 56] 3.) Consider the fact that when in the mother’s womb, Allah Ta’ala preserved our mouths from being polluted, by having us nourished with our mother’s blood, through the medium of the umbilical cord attached to the navel, and not the mouth. Why? …Because the Shari'ah classifies and catergorises blood asnajis (filth). Thus, from the inception of our physical creation, Allah Ta’ala preserved the mouth from impurity and reserved it for the Tilawah (recitation) of the Qur`aan Shareef, Zikrullah, Durood Shareef upon Rasulullah ﷺ as well as Nasihah (advice) tended for the benefit and goodness of others. When Allah Ta’ala took such care in protecting our mouths from filth, we too should take care in preserving the cleanliness of our mouths. 4.) Added to this, we should abstain from smoking out of respect for the Malaa`ikah(angels) who are exceptionally and extremely sensitive to smell. Our Beloved Nabiﷺ instructed that a person who has eaten garlic and onions stays away from the Masjid (mosque), until he rids his mouth of the odour, due to the fact that annoyance is caused to the angels as well as Musallies[9]. What then would be said of the smell of cigarettes and tobacco? Some of the Sunnats of the Ambiyaa[10] (عَليْهِمُ السَّلام) arehayaa (modesty), itr (scent) and siwaak (tooth-stick). Why the ‘siwaak’ or miswaak? …Nabi ﷺ used the miswaak in abundance, even though there was never any bad odour emitted from the mouth or even the body of Rasulullahﷺ. Beside the fact that Hazrat Jibra`eel[11] (عَليْهِ السَّلام)was delivering Wahi(revelation) from Allah Ta’ala, this practice of miswaak was to also teach us the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of the mouth. 5.) Moreover, we should consider the fact that we generally cause distress and inconvenience to so many non-smokers, who find smoking a very disagreeable habit. This then is a violation of their rights. So many women endure this offensive and bad habit of their husbands. Had these women been the smokers and the husbands, non-smokers, then they would know how unpleasant and disturbing the habit is. I, personally, get a headache if I have to sit in a car, in which the driver or passengers or even the ashtray has a cigarette smell. Although I adopt Sabr (patience), the truth is that I feel like stopping the driver and getting off. If, in the Masjid, I happen to stand next to a person with the filthy smell of cigarettes, I feel like moving away if the Salaah has not commenced. …Just imagine how many others must be feeling the same way. …An important branch of Shari'ah is Islamic Social life (Mu’aasharaat). Simply explained, it is to consider others before ourselves – i.e. by refraining from annoying, inconveniencing and hurting others. This is one of the branches of Shari'ah which the true Walis (friends) of Allah Ta’ala greatly emphasize and impress upon. It is unfortunate that we do not give importance to such matters. Due to scant regard for Mu’aasharaat, we are losing the Noor of our Zikr and Ibaadat[12]. 6.) I always tell the persons interested : So much of money is saved in giving up smoking. …Consider as to how many Hajj you have already burnt. How many widows, orphans, poor and needy could have been sustained with that which you burnt... And the fact of the matter is that all those cigarettes were of no benefit to your physical health and well being. When so many have given up drug addictions, what then are cigarette addictions? The next time you take a cigarette, reflect over the following: I am burning money, harming my health, inconveniencing others, and my mouth is so filthy that no angel or human being wants to be near me. Make Dua to Allah Ta’ala: I have got this weakness. Give me the strength to give it up. Request the pious ones to make Dua for you. Virtue and acceptance are realized with the Duas of the pious. May Allah Ta’ala make it easy for us and all brothers and sisters to give up all bad and evil habits. [The above advice will, insha-Allah, make a Muslim,conscious of Deen, quit the habit. To the others, all the arguments by anti-smoking activists should be sufficient.] [1] Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah [2] Insha-Allah : Allah Willing (This is said when intending to do something) [3] Masha-Allah: As Allah willed (This is said when expressing appreciation or congratulation) [4] To Allah we belong and to Him is our return. (This is said when some loss occurs) [5] Alhamdulillah: All Praise is due to Allah [6] JazakAllah: May Allah reward you. (This is said when expressing gratitude to someone) [7] Durood: Seeking Allah’s Blessings on Nabi ﷺ. [8] Salaam: Salutation to Nabi ﷺ . [9] Musallies: The persons performing the Salaah. [10] Ambiyaa: Messengers of Allah Ta'ala [11] Jibra`eel: The Archangel who conveyed Divine Revelation to Rasulullah ﷺ [12] Ibaadat : Worship Source
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    Seeking fame: Bishr ibn al-Haarith said: لا يَجِدُ حَلاوَةَ الآخِرَةِ رَجُلٌ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يَعْرِفَهَ النَّاسُ "A man who loves to be known by the people will not taste the sweetness of the hereafter" Source: Siyar A`lam al-Nubala' May Allah سبحانه وتعالى grant us sincerity in our sayings and actions.
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    Introduction Verbs & Methodology: In this chapter we introduce the student to Arabic verbs, Insha’Allah. These lessons are primarily based on the book of Shaykh (Dr) Husain Abdul Sattar (HA) and then gradually advance to higher levels. Insha’Allah it is intended that this single page will teach the student which is usually taught to an average Darul-uloom student as far as the science of Arabic verb conjugation is concerned. In the traditional Darul-uloom system (in India) an average student was expected to recite each table 5 times (in one minute) without breaking his breath! You MUST MASTER these tables through sheer practise and pick up speed to the point where your mind is on “Auto-Pilot” and conjugating at the speed of lightening; there is NO short-cut! The modern students (of today) severely lack the skills to recite and decipher classical text on the fly which inhibits their levels of understanding. The classical system of reciting, reciting and reciting these tables until you can do so on “Auto-Pilot” still works. Shaykh Abul-Hasan Ali Nadwi (RA) who is considered as one of the Masters of Arabic language of our times used to say that the student should not move on UNLESS & UNTIL he can recite a table of a given verb 5 times (in one minute) without breaking his breath! Test yourself against the method given by one of the Masters of the Arabic language. http://www.central-mosque.com/index.php/Arabic/gateway-to-arabic-verbs.html
  48. 1 point
    Why is Your Answer about Hijab with Non-Mahram In-Laws so Lenient? Question I was reading one of your answers regarding the obligation of Hijab with one’s non-mahram in-laws titled: ‘Interacting and Hijab with my Sister in-Law.’ With all due respect, I do not agree with the Hijab concession given by yourself (and the Fatwa given by the scholars of Dar al-Uloom Karachi) for a woman in front of her non-Mahram in-laws, such as the brother in-law! There is so much Fitna out there these days. There are many cases of marital affairs taking place between in-laws. Didn’t the Prophet of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) compare the in-laws to death? Please elaborate. ANSWER In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, May Allah reward you for bringing this important issue to my attention. It seems that there has been some sort of misunderstanding, or the issue was not explained properly. Nevertheless, in order to correctly understand the Shari’a ruling, the matter needs to be explained in somewhat detail. It is a known fact that Islam has laid down certain restrictions in regards to interacting with a non-Mahram (marriageable kin) member of the opposite gender, even if he or she may be a close relative. These restrictions are not limited to covering certain parts of the body; rather, they go much beyond that. In fact, the Qur’an and Sunna have put in place a set of rules relating to male-female interaction, which can be collectively termed the ‘Rules of Hijab’. Some aspects of these rules are as follows: 1) The Prohibition of Khalwah Being alone with a non-Mahram of the opposite sex in a room or place where a third person is not easily able to enter upon them, or it is not usually accessible to others (khalwah), is categorically forbidden (haram) and hence must be avoided. There are many Hadiths of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) indicating this, for example: Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, ‘A man must not remain alone in the company of a woman, and a woman must not travel except that her Mahram is accompanying her.’ (Sahih al-Bukhari 2488) Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, ‘A man does not be alone with a woman except that the third amongst them is Satan.’ (Sunan al-Tirmidhi 1171) For more details on the rules of Khalwah, please refer to the answer posted previously on our website titled: ‘Being alone with someone of the opposite sex in a work situation’. 2) Covering the Awra It is a categorically established ruling of Islam that both men and women must dress modestly such that their nakedness (awra) is covered properly with loose and non see-through clothing. A man’s Awra is from his navel up to and including his knees, whilst a woman’s Awra in the presence of non-Mahram men consists of her whole body except the face, hands and feet. As such, it is a grave sin to expose one’s Awra in the presence of Non-Mahrams. For more details, please refer to the answer posted previously on our website titled: ‘A Comprehensive Guide to a Woman’s Nakedness (awra)’ . 3) The Prohibition of Informal Interaction Informal interaction between those who are not Mahram to one another, meaning talking freely and casually, joking around, being flirtatious in the conversation, is also categorically forbidden and a major sin. In Surah al-Ahzab (v: 32), Allah Most High commands the wives of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) in particular, and all Muslim women in general, to abstain from conversing with non-Mahram men in a soft and sweet tone. As such, when the need arises to talk, both the content and manner of conversation must be appropriate and free of anything enticing. The dialogue must be in a modest and restrained manner, and limited to the extent of need. For more details, please refer to the answer posted previously on our website titled: ‘Mixed Gatherings’. 4) The Prohibition of Wearing Perfume It has been categorically forbidden in rigorously authenticated Hadiths for a woman to wear perfume when she is in the presence of a non-Mahram man. Sayyiduna Abu Musa (Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, ‘If a woman wears perfume and passes by a group of [non-Mahram] men, and they smell her perfume, she is such and such.’ The narrator says that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) used stern words. (Sunan Abi Dawud 4170) 5) Lowering the Gaze Allah Most High in Surah al-Nur commands both believing men and believing women to lower their gazes and guard their private parts (v: 30-31). As such, one important aspect of the ‘Rules of Hijab’ is for both genders to avoid casting lustful gazes at one another. All four mainstream Sunni Schools of Islamic law (madhhabs) agree that it is unlawful and sinful for a man to gaze at a woman if there is certainty, strong possibility or even a doubt of being attracted to her (shahwa). As for when he is convinced that there is no possibility of attraction, the early Hanafi jurists did permit him gazing at her face. However, many later jurists ruled that this was close-to-impossible, especially in later times, hence even when there is no possibility of attraction; it is not permitted for him to look at the face of a young woman. Yes, if the woman is old, then there is some leeway. As for the woman, if she is convinced that she will not be attracted to the man and does not fear Fitna, it is permitted for her to gaze at a non-Mahram man. (See: Radd al-Muhtar, Mughni al-Muhtaj, Hashiyat al-Khurshi ala Mukhtasar al-Khalil and Al-Mughni) 6) Covering the Face (Niqab) Scholars disagree whether it is necessary for a woman to cover her face from non-Mahram men. However, my position and the position of most of my teachers is that it is necessary (wajib) for a woman to cover her face in ‘normal’ situations. The transmitted and authoritative position of the Hanafi School, as mentioned in virtually all the major fiqh books, is that even though the face is not part of a woman’s nakedness (awra), it is still necessary for her to cover it, due to the many evidences found in the Qur’an and Sunna, and due to the fitna involved in not doing so. (Radd al-Muhtar 1/406) However, due to the texts obligating the Niqab not being categorical, scholars state that if there is a genuine need (hajah) to expose the face; for example, a woman fears physical or extreme verbal abuse, or she fears harm unto herself when walking in a crowded area such as in Hajj, then it is permitted for her not to wear the Niqab, but she should try keeping her face away from non-Mahram men as much as possible. Note that the level of ‘need (hajah)’ which allows her to expose her face is not the absolute situation of dire necessity (dharura) – which makes all prohibitions lawful such as eating pork and drinking alcohol to save one’s life. A level of ‘dire necessity’ is required for categorically-established prohibitions to become lawful, so one would have to be in danger of losing their life in order to eat pork or drink alcohol. In the case of uncovering the face, however, a lesser level termed ‘Hajah’ is enough to earn the concession. So a woman does not have to fear for her life; but rather, undue hardship and difficulty is sufficient. This distinction comes about due to the fact that the prohibition of uncovering the face is not categorically established like the prohibition of eating pork or drinking alcohol. (See: Takmila Fath al-Mulhim 4/261 and Usul al-Iftaa by Mufti Taqi Usmani) It is clear from the above explanation that there are many aspects to the ‘Rules of Hijab’ between men and women. The first five rules – namely, the prohibition of being alone, the obligation of covering the Awra, the prohibition of interacting freely, the prohibition of applying perfume, and the obligation of lowering the gaze have all been categorically established from the sacred texts (with some minor differences in rule number five concerning the gaze). However, rule number six, concerning the obligation of a woman covering her face, is not categorically established from the texts of the Qur’an and Sunna. It is for this reason that some scholars do not consider covering the face to be Wajib, although our opinion, as discussed previously, is that it is Wajib for a woman to cover her face unless she fears genuine hardship. It is also clear that observing the five categorically-established rules is more important than covering the face/wearing a Niqab. Yet, unfortunately, some women restrict the ‘Rules of Hijab’ to the wearing of the Niqab. They wear the Niqab, but are casual and informal when interacting with non-Mahram men. Others emerge out of their homes immersed in perfume yet they wear the Niqab! This defeats the whole purpose of wearing the Niqab. As such, it is extremely important for Niqab-wearing women, and indeed all Muslim women, to take care of the first five rules mentioned above. Furthermore, as explained earlier, due to the first five rules being categorically established from the sacred texts, no concession is given except in situations of dire necessity. As such, the prohibition of being alone, for example, is not uplifted unless there is a situation of dire necessity similar to the situation which allows eating pork and drinking alcohol – where one fears for their life or risks losing an organ of their body. As for the obligation of covering the face, it is uplifted in lesser situations, and as such, if a woman finds genuine hardship in wearing the Niqab, then it is permitted for her to not do so. (One should consult a reliable scholar to check whether their situation is a ‘genuine’ situation of need). It is in this context that major scholars from the Subcontinent and the Arab world (who normally consider covering the face to be Wajib) issued their legal verdict (fatwa) that in the case of a joint family where non-Mahram family members (such as one’s brother-in-law or one’s sister-in-law) live together in the same house or they regularly come in and out of the house, and thus, a woman finds genuine difficulty in wearing the Niqab all the time, it is permitted for her to expose her face, hands (only up to the wrists) and feet. Imagine how difficult it can be for a woman to keep her face covered with the Niqab within the house all the time! However, this does not mean that all the other aspects of the ‘Rules of Hijab’ are also compromised. On the contrary, it will still be forbidden to be alone with the non-Mahram relative. It will still be obligatory for her to fully cover the rest of her body (awra). It will still be forbidden to interact freely. It will still be forbidden for the woman to apply perfume in the presence of the non-Mahram male. It will still be obligatory for the man to lower his gaze as much as possible. In other words, the previous answer is only compromising one non-categorically established ruling due to genuine hardship, but all the other categorically established rulings of Hijab must still be strictly adhered to, especially Khalwah and informal interaction. Finally, you referred to the Hadith in which the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) compared one’s in-laws to death. Let us first look at the translation of the Hadith and then seek to explain it. Sayyiduna Uqba ibn Amir (Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, ‘Beware of entering upon women.’ A man of the Ansar said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, what about in-laws?’ He (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, ‘In-laws are death!’ (Sahih al-Bukhari 4934 and Sahih Muslim 2172) This Hadith is not in relation to the covering of the face; but rather, the words of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace): ‘Beware of entering upon women’ themselves indicate that the prohibition is of being alone in privacy with a non-Mahram. It is for this reason that Imam al-Bukhari mentions this Hadith under the heading: ‘Chapter: A man should not be alone with a woman unless he is a Mahram, nor visit a woman whose husband is absent.’ The Hadith is mentioned in Sahih Muslim under the heading: ‘Chapter: On the prohibition of being alone with an unrelated woman and entering upon her.’ Commenting on this Hadith, Imam Nawawi (Allah have mercy on him) explains that this Hadith prohibits being in privacy with a non-Mahram woman – something which is agreed upon by all the scholars. He then quotes Layth ibn Sa’d (Allah have mercy on him) who says that the ‘in-laws’ in the Hadith refers to a relative of the husband other than his father and sons [who are considered Mahram to his wife), such as his brother, nephew and cousin. He further explains that as for his saying: ‘In-laws are death’, it means that one should be extra careful with non-Mahram in-laws since the possibility of mischief (fitna) is greater. Given the comfortable, social atmosphere that may exist within the home, it is very easy for him to approach the woman and be with her in private, without people blaming him for doing so. (See: Nawawi, Al-Minhaj Sharh Sahih Muslim, P: 1626) As such, this oft-quoted Hadith is actually warning against being alone with a non-Mahram relative. It is surely unlawful for a man to be alone in a room with his sister-in-law, for example. The Hadith is not discussing the issue of covering the face/wearing the Niqab. In conclusion, the concession given to a joint family, where one lives with a non-Mahram such as the brother-in-law, is limited to uncovering the face. However, all the other major aspects of the ‘Rules of Hijab’ such as not being alone in a room and not communicating freely must still be adhered to strictly. And Allah knows best [Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK Source
  49. 1 point
  50. 1 point
    In-depth Answer from Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam Is Allah Everywhere or is He on His Throne? Question #: 6810 Date Posted: 06-07-2012 <QUESTION> Some people say Allah is everywhere, some say He is above the heavens, some say He is on His throne; and everyone seems to present tons of evidences to prove their point. I am so confused about the whole issue. Where is Allah? Please explain! <ANSWER> In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, The short and simple answer to your question is that Allah Most High exists beyond time, space, location and ‘physical’ direction; He is where He has always been. Before detailing the above answer, it is important to realize that the issue ‘where is Allah?’ was never debated or made a matter of great dispute by the Companions (sahaba) and early Muslims (salaf). We seldom find within classical teachings of mainstream Muslim scholars that people went around asking and debating where Allah Most High is! And aside from the hadith of Sahih Muslim in which the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) asked the slave-girl (jariya) “Where is Allah?”, there seems to be no other text of the Qur’an and Sunna in which this question is asked. As for the hadith of the slave-girl, it has its own specific context, which will be explained later on, insha ‘Allah. The reason for this is simple: We have not been commanded to identify the exact ‘physical location’ of Allah; rather our responsibility is to recognize Allah (ma’rifa), build a strong relationship with Him, affirm His exaltedness (tanzih), affirm His Oneness (tawhid), learn about His attributes (sifat), worship Him, obey His commands and abstain from His prohibitions. Beyond that, there is no Islamic obligation to know where Allah Almighty exactly is; neither is it possible for the meager intellects of us created beings to fully grasp the reality and majesty of our Creator. We have not even fully understood the reality of our souls, bodies, the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the sky, and so forth; then how are we expected to comprehend the essence (kunh) of the Almighty. As such, it is important to note – at the outset – that we should avoid: 1) arguing about this topic, 2) considering it a fundamental part of belief (aqida), and 3) being hasty in declaring others as disbelievers or deviants if they happen to hold a different viewpoint. We should steer clear from trying to grasp the reality of Allah, and suffice by understanding that the human intellect is very limited in its reach. We must see our inability to fully understand Allah as being from our weakness and imperfection as humans. This will bring about a deeper sense of slave-hood and neediness towards the One who is in need of no one. Sadly, however, we live in a time where some Muslims constantly debate this issue and behave as though it is a fundamental part of one’s faith. They waste theirs and others’ precious time arguing for long periods about an issue that will not be questioned about on the Day of Judgment. As a result, much more important aspects of deen are neglected. Islamic forums and discussions are filled with arguments, counter-arguments, refutations, attacks and never ending debates about this one topic. Many are left confused and bemused with the whole experience, and some have even left Islam altogether due to their inability to fully comprehend this issue. As such, the first advice for my dear brothers and sisters – of whichever persuasion – is to take a step back, relax and not become over emotional about the issue at hand. Thereafter, with cool headedness, realize that this issue is not a foregone conclusion and that there is room for ‘valid’ disagreement and thus ‘agree to disagree’. By doing so, we would save ourselves and others from falling into major sins and even disbelief. To proceed with the answer: The central point of belief (aqida) with respect to Allah Most High – alongside affirmation of His Oneness (tawhid) – is His transcendence (tanzih), which has a clear Qur’anic basis and is unanimously agreed upon. Tanzih refers to affirming, in absolute and emphatic terms, that there is no similitude between Allah and His creation. Allah does not resemble His creation in any way, and there is no creation that is similar to Him in any way. No imagination can conceive of Him and no understanding can comprehend Him, as He is different from all created beings. Allah Most High says about Himself, “There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him.” (Qur’an 42:11) And He Most High says in Surat al-Ikhlas, “And there is none like unto Him.” (Qur’an 112: 4) This central belief has been outlined in almost all of the classical manuals on Islamic Creed. For example, Imam al-Nasafi (Allah have mercy on him) states, “He [Allah] is not a body (jism), nor an atom (jawhar), nor is He something formed (musawwar), nor a thing limited (mahdud), nor a thing numbered (ma’dud), nor a thing portioned or divided, nor a thing compounded (mutarakkab), and nor does He come to end in Himself. He is not described by quiddity (al-mahiyya), or by quality (al-kayfiyya), nor is He placed in a space (al-makan); and time (al-zaman) does not affect Him. Nothing resembles Him; that is to say, nothing is like unto Him.” (See: Sa’d al-Din al-Taftazani & Najm al-Din al-Nasafi, Sharh al-Aqa’id al-Nasafiyya, P: 92-97) To believe that Allah Most High resembles His creation in any way, or attribute human forms and qualities to Him (anthropomorphism/tashbih) constitutes disbelief (kufr). Imam al-Tahawi (Allah have mercy in him) states in his famous reference work on Muslim beliefs, “Anyone who describes Allah as being in any way the same as a human being has become an unbeliever. All those who grasp this will take heed and refrain from saying things such as the unbelievers say, and they will know that He, in His attributes, is not like human beings.” (Al-Aqida al-Tahawiyya, article 34) Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (Allah have mercy on him) states, “Whosoever thinks that Allah has a body made of organs is an idol-worshipper… Whosoever worships a body is considered a disbeliever by the consensus of all the scholars – both the early scholars (salaf) as well as the late ones (muta’akhirun).” (Iljam al-Anam an ilm al-Kalam, P: 6-8) Mulla Ali al-Qari states in his commentary of Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, “We are unable to comprehend Allah Most High. Whatever occurs in one’s mind [regarding Allah’s appearance], Allah is other than that, for Allah says: ‘But they shall not encompass Him with their knowledge.’” (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar, P: 117) Abu ’l-Fadl al-Tamimi al-Hanbali says, “Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah have mercy on him) condemned those who said that Allah is a body (jism)… since the term jism/body linguistically is used to indicate things that have length, width, depth, and a compound nature. (See the footnotes to Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar, P: 118) As such, this basic and central aqida in Allah’s transcendence is the only requirement from a believer (along with general affirmation of all of Allah’s attributes), and would be sufficient for one’s salvation. Thereafter, there is no need for a simple believer to scrutinize the technical details of Allah’s attributes, and there is definitely no need for disputes and arguments. Most Muslims – if not all – deny that Allah resembles His creation, thus argumentation and haste in declaring others as disbelievers must be avoided. Yes, if one clearly believes that Allah is ‘physically’ in a location or that He has organs – such as hands, feet, face, etc – that are similar to His creation, or one gives Allah attributes of created things, then that would entail disbelief. Beyond Time and Space Part of this central point of aqida is recognizing that Allah Most High is not confined to time (zaman) and space (makan), since He is the creator of both and absolutely free from needing anything (ghaniyy) that He has created. “Surely Allah is independent of all the worlds.” (Qur’an 29:6) He is not to be described with having a form, body, limits, directions and a material existence that occupies a particular space or location. Limiting Allah to time and space implies likening Him to His creation, because the one who exists in a physical place would, by nature, be a body; thus attributing a body to Allah. Sayyiduna Ali (Allah be pleased with him) says, “Allah existed when there was no place, and He is now where He has always been [i.e. without place].” (Al-Farq bayna al-Firaq, P: 333) Imam al-Tahawi (Allah have mercy on him) states, “He (Allah) is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions like all the created things.” (Al-Aqida al-Tahawiyya, Point: 38) It is stated in Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, attributed to Imam Abu Hanifa, “Allah is an entity unlike any other entity. The meaning of [Allah being a] entity [unlike any other] is that He is without body (jism), substance (jawhar), or accident (arad). He has no definition/limit, no opposite, no equal, and no peer...” (See: Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar, P: 117-120) Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah be pleased with him) also states in his Al-Fiqh al-Absat, “If it is asked, ‘Where is Allah?’ It will be said to him that Allah Most High existed when there was no place, before creating the creation. And Allah Most High existed when there was no ‘where’, no creation, nothing; and He is the Creator of everything.” (Al-Fiqh al-Absat, P: 21) Mulla Ali al-Qari states in his commentary of Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, “Allah Most High does not reside in a place from the places and neither in a time from the times, because place and time are from the created things whilst Allah Most High has existed eternally when nothing from the created things were in existence with Him.” (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar, P: 117) Qadi Abu Ya’la al-Hanbali says, “Indeed, Allah Most High is not to be described with [residing in a] place.” (Daf’ Shubah al-Tashbih, P: 43) Based on this, it is erroneous to say that Allah Most High is ‘physically’ in the sky or above the heavens on His Throne. Likewise, it is wrong to say that He Most High is ‘physically’ everywhere and in everything. The reason, as explained above, is that these things are created and limited. The Throne and heavens are restricted entities, and space is an area restricted within six dimensions. Allah Most High cannot be confined to things He has created, such as the heavens and the Throne. He is the creator of time and space, and thus is exalted beyond both. Furthermore; sitting, standing, rising over, ascending, descending, climbing, etc are all characteristics of created bodies, whilst Allah is pure from having any attributes of created things attributed to Him. Allah is not in need of a place in order to exist. Imam al-Tahawi sums this up by saying, “He [Allah] is independent of the Throne and that which is beneath it.” (Al-Aqida al-Tahawiyya, Point: 50) Dealing with texts whose meanings are not decisively known (mutashabihat) There are certain texts in the Qur’an and Sunna which indicate that Allah Most High is in the sky or above the heavens upon his Throne. For example: a) “The All-Merciful istawa [literal meaning: positioned Himself] upon the Throne.” (Qur’an 20:5) b) “Have you become fearless of Him who is in the sky if He makes you sink into the earth, and it starts trembling at once?” (Qur’an 67:17) c) Mu’awiya ibn al-Hakam relates, as part of a long hadith, that he came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and asked various questions about his practices before Islam. From among the questions he said that he had slapped his slave girl, and whether he should free her. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) asked that she be brought before him, and then asked her, “Where is Allah?” She replied, “In the sky (fi ‘l-sama).” The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) asked, “Who am I?” She replied, “You are the Messenger of Allah.” The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, “Free her, for she is a believer.” (Sahih Muslim 537 and others) d) Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, “Our Lord ‘yanzilu [literal meaning: descends]’ every night to the closest heavens…” (Sunan Tirmidhi 2414) Conversely, there are other texts which indicate that Allah Most High is everywhere and All-Encompassing. For example: a) “No secret consultation takes place between three, but He [Allah] is fourth of them; nor between five, but He is sixth of them; nor between fewer than that or more, but He is with them wherever they may be…” (Qur’an 58:7) b) “Indeed, We have created man, and We know whatever thoughts his inner self develops, and We are closer to him than [his] jugular vein.” (Qur’an 50:16) c) “When My servants ask you about Me, then [inform them that] I am near. I respond to the call of one when he prays to Me…” (Qur’an 2:186) d) “Allah encompasses everything.” (Qur’an 4:126) e) “He is with you wherever you are…” (Qur’an 57:4) These types of texts are known as mutashabihat i.e. their meanings are not decisively known by us. Their outward apparent meanings indicate location for Allah Most High or a similitude between Allah and His creation, and thus they go against the fundamental ‘agreed-upon’ belief in Allah’s transcendence (tanzih), mentioned in unequivocal verses such as “There is nothing like unto Him.” The question that arises, then, is how do you deal with such texts? 1) The most precautious and mainstream position in this regard is of the early Muslims (salaf), which includes the majority of the Companions, their followers (tabi’un), the majority of hadith scholars (muhaddithun), the four main Imams and the major scholars of their schools (Allah be pleased with them all). Their view is that the outward purport of such texts is not intended, and only Allah knows the real meanings of such texts; thus they consign their meanings completely to Allah Most High without attempting to interpret them – either literally or figuratively. This is known as the position of tafwid. It means that we fully believe in the texts, but owing to the fact that their meanings have not been decisively established and that they apparently contradict the decisive texts, we consign the knowledge of their reality to Allah Most High, and avoid delving into them. We understand that they have meanings befitting Allah, but it is impossible that they would have physical meanings, since they do not befit Allah; such as places, shapes, limbs, movements, sitting, colors, directions, smiling, laughter, and other meanings which are not permissible to be attributed to Allah. As such; we affirm the words indicating location and Throne for Allah, and also those which indicate Him being everywhere. However, we cannot comprehend the reality of Allah being on his Throne and neither can we comprehend the reality of Him being everywhere – although we fully negate that Allah is ‘physically’ in the heavens/on his Throne (tashbih), and also negate that He is ‘physically’ everywhere in everything (hulul). This is what the early scholars meant when they said regarding such texts, “Pass them by as they are, without asking how” (amirruha bi la kayf). (Some of the scholars from this group, however, interpret the second type of texts which indicate that Allah Most High is everywhere by saying, He is everywhere by His Knowledge, His Seeing, His Hearing and His Power). This position of tafwid is based on the following verse of the Qur’an: “He [Allah] is the One who has revealed to you the Book [the Qur’an]. Out of it there are verses that are muhkamat [of established meaning], which are the principal verses of the Book, and some others are mutashabihat [whose definite meanings are unknown]. Now those who have perversity in their hearts go after the mutashabih of it, seeking [to create] discord, and searching for its interpretation [that meets their desires], while no one knows its interpretation except Allah; and those well-grounded in knowledge say: We believe therein; all is from our Lord. Only the men of understanding observe the advice.” (Qur’an 3:7) Mulla Ali al-Qari states in his commentary of Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, “Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him) said in his Kitab al-Wasiyya, ‘We agree that Allah performed istiwa [literal meaning: positioned Himself] upon the Throne without Him having any need for it or resting on it. He is the Guardian of the Throne and all besides the Throne. If He were in need [of the Throne], He would not have been capable of bringing the universe into existence and administrating over its affairs, like the created beings [for created things are in need, and the one in need of others cannot create the universe]. If He [Allah Most High] was in need of sitting or settling [on the Throne], then before the creation of the Throne, where was He Most High? In effect, He is transcendent of all of this.’ (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar P: 126-127) Mulla Ali al-Qari further states, “How fitting is the response of Imam Malik (Allah have mercy on him) when he was asked about istiwa. He said, ‘istiwa is known [i.e. we know and accept that it has been mentioned in the Qur’an, because in another narration Imam Malik said, ‘istiwa is not unknown’], the ‘how’ (kayf) is unknown [this has also been transmitted as ‘the how is not comprehensible’], asking about it is an innovation, and belief in it [i.e. accepting it to be part of revelation] is obligatory.’ This is the way of the early scholars (salaf) and the safest path, and Allah knows best.” (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar P: 127) Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah have mercy on him) said, when asked about Allah’s istiwa on the Throne, “He performs istiwa upon the Throne, however He wills and as He wills, without any limit or any description that can be made by any describer.” (Daf’ Shubah al-Tashbih, P: 28) Imam Shafi’i (Allah have mercy on him) would simply say regarding the mutashabihat texts, “I believe in what has come from Allah as it was intended by Allah, and I believe in what has come from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) as it was intended by the Messenger of Allah.” (Ibn Qudama, Dhamm al-Ta’wil) Imam Sufyan ibn Uyayna (Allah have mercy on him) says, “All that Allah has described Himself with in His Book; its explanation is its reciting and keeping silent about it.” (Bayhaqi, Al-Asma’ wa ‘l-sifat 2/158) 2) The second position concerning such texts is of some later scholars; such as Imam Ibn Taymiya, Imam Ibn al-Qayyim and others (Allah have mercy on them). They also consign the knowledge of what is meant to Allah, but in a slightly different manner. They are of the opinion that we must affirm the apparent literal meaning that has been expressed in the text (tathbit), but then consign its details to Allah Most High. So for example, in relation to the verse of ‘istiwa’, we must believe in and affirm the apparent meaning which is ‘elevation’ and ‘rising over the Throne’. However, the modality (kayfiyya) of this ‘elevation’ or ‘rising’ is unknown, but it is certainly not like the rising of created things. (As for the second type of texts, they clearly interpret them by saying that Allah is everywhere by His Knowledge, His Seeing, His Hearing and His Power). The key difference between this position and the previous one is that in the case of the former, one recites the mutashabih text, accepts it to have been revealed by Allah, believes in it and affirms ‘whatever’ is intended by Allah through it, and then remains silent about it without saying whether the literal or figurative meaning is meant (pass them by as they are without asking how). In the latter position, however, after recital and acknowledgement of the text, one affirms that the apparent literal meaning is what is meant, but the details of this apparent meaning is only known by Allah. There is a very subtle difference between the two viewpoints! Even though this (latter) view – in of itself – can be considered acceptable, it can also potentially be highly dangerous, especially in our times. This is due to two reasons: Firstly; the human intellect is very limited, and thus it is very difficult for it to comprehend Allah being above the heavens upon His Throne without some sort of bodily figure coming to mind. The early Muslims had strong faiths, and may have been equipped to negate any thought of a bodily figure occupying a throne. This cannot be said for every simple believer today. In life, we are accustomed to only experiencing created things; and thus it may be difficult to fully realize the transcendent nature and majesty of Allah Most High – if we were to say that He is upon His Throne. Imam Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha’rani expresses this point in a very beautiful manner. He states that Allah’s attributes of ‘istiwa’, ‘elevation’ and ‘nuzul [descending] to the heavens’ are all eternal (qadim), for He is eternal with all His attributes; whereas there is a consensus that the Throne and everything surrounding it is created. As such, Allah Most High had the attribute of ‘istiwa’ and ‘nuzul’ even before He created the Throne and the heavens. So where was His ‘istiwa’ before creating the Throne, and upon what did He do ‘nuzul’ before creating the heavens and the sky? Therefore, the way you envisage Allah’s ‘istiwa’ upon the Throne and His ‘nuzul’ to the heavens before the creation of the Throne and the heavens, envisage it in the same manner after their creation. (Al-Yawaqit wa ‘l-Jawahir) Secondly, the discourse of the early Muslims was mainly in the Arabic language. As such, both approaches in consigning the mutashabihat texts to the knowledge of Allah seemed similar. The advocates of the first approach would, for example, merely recite the word ‘istawa’ and say “I affirm this istiwa as intended by Allah” and leave it to that, whilst those who took the second approach would also recite ‘istawa’ and then say that the meaning of this is literal ‘istiwa’ but in a manner befitting Allah. The difficulty arises when the word ‘istawa’ is translated into another language. If the second approach is taken, then one would translate it in English by saying “the meaning of this is that Allah rose over the Throne” and the like. This is when the thought of a bodily figure and human-like attributes come to mind. This also explains why the advocates of both approaches use the same evidences and statements of early Muslim scholars, such as the four Imams, in justifying their view. Using only the Arabic medium, it can be difficult to distinguish the clear difference between the two approaches. For example, Imam Abu Hanifa states in his Al-Fiqh al-Absat, “He who says that I do not know if my Lord is in the sky or the earth has indeed committed disbelief… Similarly, he who says that He is on His Throne, but I do not know whether the Throne is in the sky or the earth [has also committed disbelief].” (Al-Fiqh al-Absat, p: 14) This quote of Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him) is misunderstood by some, and incorrectly used to prove that the Imam believed in affirming a direction and location for Allah! The reality is that Imam Abu Hanifa was amongst the very early Muslims (salaf), and his position was in harmony with the mainstream popular opinion of that time – which is ultimate tafwid, as it is clear from his statements quoted earlier; such as, “If He [Allah Most High] was in need of sitting or settling [on the Throne], then before the creation of the Throne, where was He Most High?” However, the Imam was also against figurative interpretation of the mutashabihat texts, and firm on the position of consigning the meaning to the knowledge of Allah. As such, followers of Imam Abu Hanifa and commentators of his works have explained what he meant by the above text. They state that the reason why Imam Abu Hanifa declared a person who says these two phrases a disbeliever is because they contain attributing a direction and location for Allah. (See: Isharat al-Maram min Ibarat al-Imam, p: 168) Imam Izz al-Din ibn al-Salam says that the reason why Imam Abu Hanifa declared such a person a disbeliever is that by using such words, one suggests a place for Allah; and whosoever believes that Allah has a place is an anthropomorphist. (Minah al-Rawd al-Azhar fi sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar P: 115) Thus, Imam Abu Hanifa’s intention is not to prove that the heavens and the Throne are places for Allah, and the clearest evidence for this is the aforementioned saying of the Imam himself, “If He [Allah Most High] was in need of sitting or settling [on the Throne], then before the creation of the Throne, where was He Most High? In effect, He is transcendent of all of this.” And Allah knows best. 3) The third position in regards to these mutashabihat texts is that their apparent literal meaning is impossible for Allah; thus the texts will be interpreted figuratively/metaphorically in a manner befitting Allah, yet without affirming it with certainty since other meanings could also be correct. This position was held mainly by scholars of later generations (khalaf), who were forced to take this stance in order to safeguard the iman of the masses, since people were not satisfied with merely consigning the knowledge of mutashabihat texts to Allah, and thus began to understand them literally and read into meanings that do not befit Allah Most High. This position is known as the position of ta’wil. Ta’wil means to interpret, make sense of, assign a meaning to, and give an interpretation or explanation to a particular text or phrase. For example, interpreting the saying “the King defeated the enemy” that the defeat occurred at the hands of the King’s army and not the King himself. This is also a valid and acceptable view according to the vast majority of scholars as long as it remains within the boundaries of the Arabic language and spirit of Shari’ah. Even some early Muslims (salaf), including some of the Sahaba such as Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him), made ta’wil in some of the Qur’anic verses and hadiths, and the reality is that at times we have no choice but to assign figurative meanings, otherwise they will contradict the decisive and emphatically established texts (muhkamat), leading to many contradictions in the Qur’an and Sunna. For example, Imam al-Bukhari (Allah have mercy on him) interprets the verse “There is no god but He. Everything is going to perish except His wajh [literal meaning: face]” (Qur’an 28:88) by saying that the word ‘wajh’ means ‘mulk’ or ‘dominion.’ He also quotes another interpretation, “that which was done solely for the sake of Allah [i.e. righteous actions].” Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, in his Fath al-Bari, quotes Abu Ubayda as saying that the word ‘wajh’ in the verse means the ‘majesty (jalal)’ of Allah. (See: Fath al-Bari with Sahih al-Bukhari 8/641-642) Similarly, in regards to the hadith of Bukhari and Muslim wherein the attribute of Allah ‘dhik (literal meaning: laughing)’ has been mentioned, Imam Bukhari is quoted as saying that it means, “Allah’s mercy.” (Bayhaqi, Kitab al-Asma’ wa ‘l-Sifat, p: 433) In Surat al-Qalam, Allah Most High says, “On the Day when the saq [literal meaning: shin] will be exposed…” (Qur’an 68:42) Likewise, in the hadith of Bukhari, it is stated, “Our Lord will expose his saq [literal meaning: shin].” Many scholars from the salaf and khalaf; such as Abdullah ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Qatada interpret the term ‘saq’ with various different explanations. (See: Imam al-Bayhaqi’s Al-Asma’ wa ‘l-Sifat, p: 323) Imam Ibn Kathir (Allah have mercy on him) relates in his masterpiece Al-Bidaya wa ‘l-Nihaya quoting Imam al-Bayhaqi from his Manaqib through a sound chain that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah have mercy on him) interpreted the verse, “And your Lord shall come” (Qur’an 89:22) to mean, “His recompense (thawab) shall come.’ (Al-Bidaya wa ‘l-Nihaya, 10/327) There are countless other examples of this, but the above should suffice, insha‘Allah. Accordingly, scholars of later generations interpreted the mutashabihat texts which indicate Allah’s physical elevation above the heavens, and Allah being positioned in the sky or upon His Throne with various explanations. For example: a) Imam Ibn Jarir al-Tabari states in his well-known exegesis (tafsir) of the Qur’an, “Allah made himself exalted over the heavens with the exaltation of sovereignty and power, not that of dislodgment and movement.” (Tasir al-Tabari 1/430) Others who interpret the verses of ‘istiwa’ figuratively include: Imam al-Bayhaqi, Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni, Imam Raghib al-Isfahani, Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, Imam Abu ‘l-Faraj ibn al-Jazi al-Hanbali, Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Imam al-Baydawi, Imam al-Nasafi, Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki, Imam Ibn al-Humam al-Hanafi, Imam al-Suyuti and others (Allah have mercy on them all). They state that ‘istiwa’ does not mean Allah’s physical elevation over the Throne; rather, it refers to elevation of rank, status and dominion, and Allah’s subjugation of the Throne that is without a beginning like all of the attributes of Allah. b) In regards to the verse of Surat al-Mulk [“Have you become fearless of Him who is in the sky…”], the great Maliki exegete (mufassir) Imam al-Qurtubi (Allah have mercy on him) says in his twenty-volume commentary of the Qur’an, Al-Jami’ li ahkam al-Qur’an, “It is said that the meaning of the verse is, have you become fearless of Him whose power, authority, Throne and dominion is in the sky. The reason for specifying the sky – despite His authority being universal – is to assert that a God is One whose power is [also] manifest in the heavens, and not [only] one whom people venerate on the earth. Some others said that it refers to the angels, and some said that it refers to angel Jibra’il who is entrusted with punishing people. I [Qurtubi] say that the verse could mean, “Have you become fearless of the Creator of those in the sky...” (Al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Qur’an, tafsir of 67/17, 18/141) Imam al-Qurtubi further states in the commentary of the same verse, “The more exacting scholars hold that “in the heavens” is similar to Allah’s statement “Journey in the earth”, meaning over the heavens; but [not over it] by way of physical contact or spatialization, but by way of power (qahr) and control (tadbir). Another position is that it means, “Have you become fearless of Him who holds sway over (ala) the heavens” just as it is said, “So-and-so is over Iraq and the Hijaz”, meaning that he is the governor and commander of them. The hadiths on this subject are numerous, rigorously authenticated (sahih), and widely known, and indicate the exaltedness of Allah; only an atheist or a stubborn ignoramus would deny them. Their meaning is to dignify Allah and exalt Him above what is base and low, and to characterize Him by highness and grandeur, not by being in places, particular directions, or within limits, for these are the qualities of physical bodies. The hands are only raised towards the heavens when one supplicates because the sky is from where divine revelation descends and rain falls, the place of purity and the wellspring of the purified ones from the angels, and that the deeds of servants are raised to it; and over it is His Throne and His Paradise; just as Allah has made the Ka’ba the direction (qibla) of supplication and prayer. And also because He has created all places and has no need of them. He was in His beginning-less eternality before creating space and time, when there was no place or time, and is now as He was.” (Al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Qur’an, tafsir of 67/17, 18/141) Similarly, Imam Nawawi (Allah have mercy on him) states in his commentary on Sahih Muslim, “Al-Qadi Iyad said, ‘There is no disagreement among any of the Muslims – their jurists (fuqaha), their hadith scholars (muhaddithun), their theologians (mutakallimun), their polemicists (nuddhar) and their ordinary followers (muqallidun) – that the texts which outwardly indicate that Allah is in the sky – for example, the statement of Allah Most High, “Have you become fearless of Him who is in the sky if He makes you sink into the earth?” (Qur’an 67:17) – are not to be taken literally; rather, according to them all [that is, all the Muslims and experts of every field of Shari’ah as mentioned above], they are to be interpreted figuratively.’” (Al-Minhaj sharh Sahih Muslim) c) In regards to the hadith of the slave-girl whom the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) asked, “Where is Allah?”, and she responded by saying, “In the sky”, Imam Nawawi states, “This is one of the hadiths which deal with the attributes [of Allah]. There are two positions with regards to them, both of which have been discussed repeatedly in the chapter of faith (iman). The first position is to believe in them without delving into its meaning (tafwid); while maintaining categorically that there is nothing like unto Allah Most High, and that He transcends the attributes of created things. The second position is to interpret them figuratively (ta’wil) in a manner that befits Him. Those who hold this [latter] position [of figurative interpretation] say that [in the present hadith] the Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him & give him peace) intention was to examine her to see whether or not she was one of those who worshiped idols that are before them, or one of those who believed in the Oneness of Allah and maintained that Allah alone is the creator, disposer, and one who effects [all things] – for He is the One that when a person supplicates to Him, he turns [his attention, or hands] towards the sky; just as when a person performs Salat, he faces the Ka’ba. [What is mentioned in the hadith] is not because Allah is restricted in the sky, just as He is not restricted in the direction of the Ka’ba. Rather, it is because the sky is the direction (qibla) for supplication (dua’), just as the Ka’ba is the direction (qibla) for the ritual prayer. So when she said that “He is in the sky”, it became known that she was one of those who believed in the Oneness of Allah, and not a worshipper of idols.” (Al-Minhaj sharh Sahih Muslim) Mulla Ali al-Qari states in his commentary on Mishkat al-Masabih in relation to this hadith, “Al-Qadi Iyad al-Maliki said, ‘By asking this question, the Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him & give him peace) objective was not to ask about Allah’s location (makan), for verily He is above and beyond space, as He is above and beyond time. Rather the intent of his question to her was to find out whether she was a believer in His oneness (muwahhida) or someone who associated partners with Allah (mushrika), because the unbelievers of the Arabs used to worship idols, and each tribe used to have a specific idol in its midst which it worshipped and aggrandized; and it may be that the simple-minded and ignorant ones among them did not know any other object of worship than that idol. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) meant to determine what she worshipped. When she said, ‘In the heavens’ – and another narration says that she made a sign towards the heavens – it was understood that she was a believer in tawhid. His objective by this line of questioning was the disowning of the gods of the earth, which are the idols; not the establishment of the heaven as a location for Allah. Allah is greatly exalted from the sayings of the wrong-doers.’” (Mirqat al-Mafatih) Furthermore; Imam al-Ubbiy in his commentary of Sahih Muslim, Shaykh Muhammad al-Shanqiti, Imam Abu Bakr ibn al-Furak in his Mushkil al-Hadith, Qadi Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi in his commentary of Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Imam Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanbali in his Daf’ Shubah al-Tashbih, Imam Abu ‘l-Walid al-Baji, Imam al-Baydawi, Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki and countless other classical scholars also state that the Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him & give him peace) objective by the question was not to ask regarding the physical location of Allah (makan), but about His rank and status (makana); and the slave-girl’s response was not intended to describe Allah physically being in the sky, rather to express His tremendousness (adhama), superiority, nobility and elevation of status and rank. There are so many quotes of the Imams in this regard such that it is difficult to reproduce them here. As such, this group of scholars interpreted all such texts which indicate Allah’s physical elevation over the heavens and Throne by giving figurative meanings. Similarly, many of them interpreted the second type of texts which indicate that Allah Most High is everywhere by saying, He is everywhere with His knowledge, assistance and the like. Interpreting both types of texts is acceptable and valid as long as it remains within the known parameters of language and Shari’ah. Just as it is valid to interpret texts indicating Allah being everywhere or with His creation, it is likewise permitted to interpret the texts indicating Allah being above the heavens on His Throne. Sadly, some people consider the interpretation of ‘Allah above the heavens/upon His Throne’ texts to be deviation, yet they see no problem in interpreting the ‘Allah with His creation’ texts! This is an unjust approach. If interpreting the second type of texts is not deviation, then interpreting the first type of texts is also not deviation. Consistency demands that we hold the same stance with both types of texts. Conclusion and final thoughts In conclusion, the central point of aqida which every Muslim must firmly believe is of Allah’s transcendence (tanzih) – that is to say, Allah Most High is above and beyond having any resemblance with His creation. He Most High is not to be described with limits, organs and other such characteristics belonging to created things; and is not confined to time and space. “There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him.” (Qur’an 42:11) This much belief is sufficient for an average Muslim to attain salvation, insha Allah. Thereafter; with regard to the texts describing Allah to be everywhere or with His creation, most classical and later scholars interpret them to mean that Allah is everywhere with His knowledge, seeing and hearing; and this is not the real point of contention. Accordingly, one may interpret these texts, or consign their meaning to the knowledge of Allah. However, one must not believe that Allah Most High is ‘physically’ everywhere, since space is created whereas Allah is pre-existent and eternal. As for the texts describing Allah to be in the heavens/sky and above His Throne – which are the real point of contention, and apparently go against the above core belief in Allah’s transcendence – one may adopt any of the following positions; and all of them are valid positions and none of them can be considered outright deviation: a) Consigning their meanings and details completely to the knowledge of Allah. This position, known as tafwid, was chosen by the majority of early scholars (salaf), and by far the best and safest approach. b) Affirming their literal meanings (tathbit) – with emphatic rejection of a similitude between Allah and His creation – and then consigning the modality (kayfiyya) of such texts to the knowledge of Allah. This position, chosen by scholars such as Imam Ibn Taymiya, can be risky for an average believer. c) Interpreting such texts figuratively in a manner that befits Allah. This is known as ta’wil, and was chosen by some later scholars. None of the above three standpoints can be considered deviation or departure from the Ahl al-Sunna wa ’l-Jama’ah. One of my respected Shaykhs, Mufti Taqi Usmani (may Allah preserve him) states in his monumental commentary of Sahih Muslim, “All four positions [he mentioned one other position which can be incorporated in the three I have mentioned) are feasible. Large numbers of verifying scholars have taken every one of these positions, since the important thing in creed (aqida) is declaring Allah to be beyond having a similitude [with His creation], and not negating His attributes (ta’til); and every one of these four paths is firmly convinced of this. The difference between them is not a difference in creed, for indeed the creed is declaring Allah beyond tashbih and ta’til; it is only a difference of opinion in expressing that creed and basing them on the texts. So not one of these paths is entirely baseless or absolutely misguided, even if theoretical debates and arguments have not ceased to run between them for many centuries. Occasionally, exaggeration and excess occurred in them from the various sides, and occasionally one of them steered in the direction of trespassing the limits of moderation, but the truth is that the basis of the dispute is nothing but a judgmental (ijtihadi) dispute, akin to the differences of the jurists in juristic matters which are open to interpretation. For this reason, outstanding scholars of the Umma, adherent devotees to the Book and the Sunna, of whose being from the people of truth and from the Ahl al-Sunnah wa l-Jama’ah is not in doubt, took every opinion from these four opinions. It is apparent that the path of the majority from the predecessors (salaf) was tafwid, and this is the safest, most prudent and most in accordance with His statement (Most High), “No one knows its interpretation except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: we believe therein’” (3:7) (Takmila Fath al-Mulhim 5/379-80) The famous late Jordanian scholar of immense knowledge and wisdom, Shaykh Nuh Ali Salman al-Qudat (Allah have mercy on him) expresses the same stance in his commentary of Jawharat al-Tawhid. He states that all the various positions of the scholars are close to one-another, since they all agree that Allah Most High does not possess human-like attributes. Thereafter, whether one consigns the meaning completely to the knowledge of Allah, or interprets the texts figuratively, or affirms the literal meaning but negates anthropomorphism (tashbih), it is all part of affirming Allah’s transcendence. As such, there is no need to fuel hostility and enmity between Muslims – especially at a time when Muslims have to combat the enemies of Islam. (See: Al-Mukhtasar al-Mufid fi sharh Jawharat al-Tawhid, p: 91) As such, all classical scholars agree on ensuring that the basic doctrine of Allah’s transcendence is preserved; they merely differ in the manner in which this is realized. Some perceive Allah’s transcendence in absolute tafwid, whilst others see it in interpreting the texts figuratively, and some others see it in affirming the literal meaning but with ‘emphatic rejection’ of Allah being similar to His creation. For example, Allah’s attribute of ‘yad’ has been mentioned in various texts of the Qur’an and Sunna. ‘Yad’ linguistically, as we understand it, refers to the hand of a created being. However, all the groups agree and emphatically deny that Allah has a hand like that of a human, thus they all preserve the central belief in Allah’s transcendence. Thereafter, whether we say “Allah knows best what ‘yad’ means” or “it refers to Allah’s assistance, etc” or “it means a hand but certainly unlike the human hand”, it does not undo the central aqida outlined in the verse, “There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him.” (Qur’an 42:11) Therefore, debates and heated arguments about this issue must be avoided, and we should learn to ‘agree to disagree’. No group should enforce their viewpoint on the other group, and no group has the right of claiming to be on the ultimate truth. Sadly, we live in a time of religious extremism and fanaticism. Some of us very easily term others as anthropomorphist (mushabbiha), whilst others consider tafwid, ta’wil and everything else besides affirming the literal meaning (tathbit) to be outright deviation and even disbelief! This implies declaring countless Imams and giants of this Umma as deviated, since most of them either chose the path of tafwid or ta’wil. May Allah protect us, Ameen. Indeed, the following positions are absolute deviation and may well even take one out of the fold of Islam: a) Believing (may Allah protect us) that Allah is ‘physically’ in the heavens or ‘physically sitting’ on His Throne like created beings, known as anthropomorphism (tashbih). Sitting, standing, coming into contact, separation, moving from one place to another, etc, are all characteristics of created bodies from which Allah is pure. b) Believing that Allah Most High is ‘physically’ everywhere and ‘physically’ with His creation and in every space. This is known as hulul. c) Rejecting and denying the non-decisive (mutashabihat) texts concerning the attributes of Allah altogether. This is known as ta’til. The above is what I have learnt from my teachers, especially Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (may Allah preserve him). It is what I consider and accept as the truth in the matter, and feel is the most balanced observation, Insha Allah. May Allah protect us all and bring about harmony and love between us, Ameen Ya Rabb. And Allah knows best [Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK
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