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Everything posted by ummitaalib

  1. Supermoms A book, Perfect Madness by Judith Warner, tells us that during her research, Warner discovered that: “Seventy percent of American moms say they find motherhood today ‘incredibly stressful.’” “Thirty percent of mothers of young children reportedly suffer from depression.” In the lands where all that glitters is somehow perceived to be gold and therefore desirable, women are discovering that playing roles that were not ordained for them by God is not all it is cracked up to be. Women in the West, who have long been battling both themselves and the natural order to be “superwomen,” are finding that banging their heads on the glass ceiling is giving them more than a headache. They are finding themselves on a merry-go-round that will not stop. Their makeup and their hair must be perfect; their size must be unrealistically thin; their children must be perfect, talented, and high achievers; their houses must be spotless; and all this must be achieved in the stolen hours between working and sleeping. This is more than just struggling against the glass ceiling in pursuit of career goals: It is banging your head against a wall on a relentless and ongoing basis. As Judith Warner states, “I have seen so many mothers banging their heads against a wall: treating their pain – the chronic headache of their lives – with sleeping pills, antidepressants and anxiety meds, and a more and more potent, more and more vicious self-and-other-attacking form of anxious perfectionism.” The chronic headache of their lives …! Is that a life? This is mere survival in a life of stress and loneliness. The superwoman goal is unachievable not because women are incapable, but because they fail to see that fulfilling natural and predestined roles is undoubtedly the real super achievement. Playing mother, wife, and career woman all at the same time is not an enviable position, and, except in cases of necessity, the woman’s role as caregiver and homemaker should take precedence over career and outside activities. Islam defines women as superwomen – but with a different meaning. Islam recognizes that the role of wife and mother is of paramount importance. Islam defines marriage as half of the religion. Islam clearly states that Heaven lies at the feet of mothers. Islam goes much further than just recognition; it clearly defines the roles that women play and states the rights and obligations with clarity and common sense. The role of a mother in bringing up children is greater than that of a father. She is responsible for their emotional, behavioural, and intellectual development. She is responsible for instilling the love of Islam in them, especially in their early formative years. When a woman understands the teachings of Islam and her own role in life, she understands her complete responsibility for the upbringing of her children, as is referred to in the Quran: “O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones.” (Quran 66:6) More than 40 years ago, Muslim women who were secure in their roles and their lives could see the damage being caused by a Western lifestyle. In 1962 after observing her Western sisters, Salma Al-Haffar said in the Damacus newspaper Al-Ayyam,: “It is truly a shame that women lose the most precious thing that nature has given them, that is, their femininity, and then their happiness, because the constant cycle of exhausting work has caused them to lose the small paradise which is the natural refuge of women and men alike, a refuge that can only flourish under the care of a mother who stays at home. The happiness of individuals and society as a whole is to be found at home, in the lap of the family; the family is the source of inspiration, goodness and creativity.” Nowadays, a woman is often forced to make choices that are not easy. Often, she feels that she must work to help financially support the family. Often, she is the family’s sole breadwinner. However, before we focus blame on the stresses and demands of society today and blame them for the destruction of family values and the pain and anguish of failing supermoms, let’s recall how we have unrealistically idealized women’s lives in the 21st century. On the other hand, the lives of Muslim women must be guided only by the precepts of the Quran and the Sunnah. We must not be fooled by slogans such as “times have changed.” The Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, was sent with a message for all mankind, in all times and in all places. The guidelines sent down to us by our Creator, God Almighty, are perfect and cover all situations. God made it clear that a woman’s first responsibility is to her Creator, then to her husband, and then to her home. There is nothing in Islam that prevents a woman from continuing her education, from working or from pursuing outside activities. Nothing, that is, except the well-being of her family. The importance that Islam places upon marriage is clear. “And among His signs is this that He has created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquillity with them; and He has put love and mercy between you. Verily in that are signs for those who reflect.” (Quran 30:21) The usual by-product of marriage is children, and these children are the future of society. What greater role can there be than that of mother? How can the women who fulfill this role be regarded as anything but superwomen? Women who understand their religion are secure in the fact that God Most High knows what is best for His slaves. The motherhood that needs to be sought is one that is compatible with God Most High. That is it, nothing more. If we achieve this, we are the real superwomen; the true supermoms. By Sister Aisha Stacy Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  2. Gender Equality Q: Muslim women are told that they should not leave their homes in order to work and that they are not allowed to interact freely with the opposite gender. Likewise, they are told that they should be obedient to their husbands. Does Islam not afford men and women equal rights, or are men superior to women in Islam? A: Before discussing the issue in question, it is necessary to refresh some fundamental beliefs and facts which are extremely important to understand the Islamic perspective. The following are among our fundamental beliefs: Allah Ta’ala is our Creator and Sustainer. We belong to Him alone and to Him we shall return. Allah Ta’ala, being our Creator and Master, has the right to command us as He wills, and we, being His creation and slaves, have the duty to obey His command. A slave does not have the right to question the authority of his Master. Rather, he will have to obey the Master’s command at all times and under all circumstances. Allah Ta’ala is most loving and compassionate towards His servants. Every command of His is full of justice and wisdom, and is for the betterment of humanity at large. A Believer accepts every word of the Qur’aan Majeed as the Divine word of Allah Ta’ala and wholeheartedly submits to every command of the Qur’aan Majeed, whether his puny logic can fathom the wisdom of the command or not. After having understood these fundamental beliefs of Islam, the question then is, “What is the position of women in Islam, and what are the commands of Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) which are directed towards women?” In order to understand the position which Islam has afforded to women, it is imperative to first reflect over the position of women before the advent of Islam. The Position of Women before the Advent of Islam The advent of Islam occurred at a time when the world was engulfed in sin and was steeped in the lowest ebb of darkness. This era was regarded as the darkest age in the history of mankind. Cheating, robbing, killing, gambling, usurping the rights of orphans and widows and even burying female infants alive was the order of the day. Women were degraded to such an extent that the European countries did not even accept women to be human beings! Women had no place in religion and were considered unfit for engaging in worship. In some councils of Rome, it was decided, after much discussion, that a woman is a dirty animal. Among the Arabs, it was considered permissible for a father to kill or even bury his daughter alive. In fact, this heinous crime was deemed to be a mark of honour and a standard of nobility. There were some who held the opinion that a woman’s life had no value. Hence, if a person killed a woman, he did not have to pay blood-money or be charged with retaliatory action. As far as the Hindus were concerned, when the husband died, his wife too was burnt alive with his dead body. In the year 586 AC, France showed its ‘compassion’ for women by passing a resolution – after great deliberation and controversy – that a woman is actually a human being, but she has been created for the sole purpose of serving man! In essence, immorality and indecency had reached its pinnacle, where women had no social recognition and were openly ill-treated and physically abused. It was in this age of ignorance and oppression that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) – may our lives be sacrificed for him – was sent to rescue mankind from the darkness of kufr and usher them into the light of Imaan. The Position of Women after the Advent of Islam Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) strove to rescue the Arabs from the wrong practices they were immersed in and instil within them the true values of Islam. The light of Islam began to spread until the golden era eventually dawned upon the world, where the nation that was once accustomed to physically and emotionally ill-treating their women became the greatest benefactors of mankind and the greatest protectors of women’s rights the world had ever seen! The men of such a nation, who at one time would deprive their women of all rights and degrade them to being inherited among the belongings of the deceased, were now upholding the honour of their women and fulfilling their rights. They now treated their women with the greatest compassion and mercy and safeguarded them against every type of worldly and Deeni harm. All this was purely on account of them upholding the Mubaarak Sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the teachings of Islam in their lives. What are the Teachings of Islam in regard to Upholding the Rights of Women? Islam has conferred the greatest respect and honour to women. In the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala has commanded that the rights of women be upheld, and at no point should any form of abuse and ill-treatment be shown to them. Allah Ta’ala declares, وَعَاشِرُوْهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ “Deal with them (your wives) in a good manner (with respect and dignity) (Surah Nisaa, verse 19) Similarly, in the Hadith, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) has mentioned, خيركم خيركم لأهله وأنا خيركم لأهلي “The best among you are those who treat their wives kindly, and I am the best of you in treating my wives with kindness.” (Tirmizi #3895) While addressing the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) on the occasion of the farewell Hajj, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) emphasized the importance of fulfilling the rights of women in the following words, “Fear Allah Ta’ala regarding women, for you have taken them (into your nikaah) with the trust of Allah Ta’ala (i.e. they are an amaanah from Allah Ta’ala).” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) also said, “As for the rights that you owe to your wives, then Allah Ta’ala has commanded that you treat them well in providing clothing and sustenance for them.” (Muslim #1218 ; Tirmizi #1163) Islam has advocated kindness and compassion towards women at every juncture. Hence, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) taught the ummah that to spend on one’s wife and to keep her happy is actually an act of ibaadah (worship). Even at the time of divorce, when the couple find themselves incompatible or cannot reconcile their differences and wish to separate, Islam commands the husband to separate with dignity and respect, and not to oppress her in any way. On one occasion, a group of women came to the home of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and complained of their husbands ill-treating them. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) was greatly disturbed and strongly condemned the ill-conduct of those husbands. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, “Such people are not the good among you.” (Abu Dawood #2146) From this Hadith, we understand that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) prohibited showing ill-conduct and abuse towards women and explained to the ummah that such people are not good and obedient servants of Allah Ta’ala. In essence, there is no religion that had bestowed such kindness, compassion and honour to women like the kindness, compassion and honour afforded to them by Islam. The Islamic Position of Men and Women in regard to Worldly Administration For any administration to function smoothly and efficiently, there are two requirements: The first is to identify the different positions in the administration, and the second is for each person to fulfil his/her role in the administration. Consider the example of a government, business, company, hospital or school. In all these organizations, there will be a head and those who will be under the head. If all work together, with respect, cooperation and fulfilling their appointed roles, then each organization will function harmoniously and will be productive and progressive. Similar is the case of the family unit. Allah Ta’ala has set roles for husbands and wives, and Allah Ta’ala has commanded that the husbands will be the head of the family unit in guiding them, protecting them, providing for them and fulfilling their needs. Hence, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) instructed Hazrat Faatimah (radhiyallahu ‘anha) (at the time of her nikaah with Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu)) to fulfil the responsibilities within the home, while instructing Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to fulfil the responsibilities out of the home. (Musannaf Ibni Abi Shaibah #29677) If one understands Deen correctly, without bias and prejudice, one will realise that Islam has not degraded women, but has given them a role which allows them to live a life of honour within the comfort of their homes, concealed from the gazes of strange men, like a priceless pearl concealed in an oyster. The honour which Allah Ta’ala has afforded women can be gauged from the fact that Allah Ta’ala has burdened the husband with the additional responsibility of venturing out of the home to earn a halaal livelihood in order to fulfil the needs of his wife and children. Allah Ta’ala says: اَلرِّجَالُ قَوّٰمُوْنَ عَلَی النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللّٰهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلٰی بَعْضٍ “Men have been appointed as protectors over their women on account of the fact that Allah Ta’ala has granted some of them (men) superiority over others (women).” (Surah Nisaa, verse 34) In another verse of the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala says: وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَیْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ “Men have been granted a level of superiority over them (women).” (Surah Baqarah, verse 228) From these two verses of the Qur’aan Majeed, one clearly understands that the superiority and position which men have been granted over women was in actual fact a grace and blessing for women from the side of Allah Ta’ala, as they are provided for and protected by their menfolk. These verses in no way indicate towards women being underprivileged or degraded in the world. Islam has made Provisions for Women under All Circumstances Islam has made provisions for the needs of women to be fulfilled under all circumstances. Prior to nikaah, it is the responsibility of the father to take care of his daughter. After nikaah, it is the responsibility of the husband to take care of his wife. In the event of the husband’s demise or separation, Shari’ah commands that the needs of the women be taken care of by their close family members (e.g. the father, brother, uncle, etc. according to the various situations). In essence, the verses of the Qur’aan Majeed which explain that men have been granted a level of superiority over women refer to the responsibility men have been assigned with in regard to protecting women, fending for them and fulfilling the obligation which they owe towards them. However, one should bear in mind that these differences in rank among men and women are only decreed by Allah Ta’ala for the purpose of fulfilling their divinely appointed roles in the world. It does not mean that all men are superior to all women in the sight of Allah Ta’ala and in the Hereafter. The Basis of Superiority between Men and Women in the Sight of Allah Ta’ala As far as the true position of men and women in the sight of Allah Ta’ala is concerned, then the basis of superiority is piety, righteousness and taqwa. In the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala declares: اِنَّ اَكْرَمَکُمْ عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ اَتْقٰکُمْ “Indeed the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah Ta’ala is the one who has the most taqwa (righteousness in his life).” (Surah Hujuraat, verse 13) The purpose of coming into this world is to strive for the Hereafter. Thus, when striving for the Hereafter is the common goal, then women are in no way at a disadvantage, but have been given an equal opportunity to excel and progress, on condition that they fulfil the role which Allah Ta’ala has chosen for them. Furthermore, when the basis of superiority in the sight of Allah Ta’ala is piety and righteousness, it is clear that women can make great strides and even surpass men in rank and in acquiring the proximity of Allah Ta’ala – provided they adhere to the commands of Allah Ta’ala. The Great Opportunities Offered to Women in Islam Allah Ta’ala has blessed the women of this ummah with great opportunities to reach Allah Ta’ala and acquire the lofty ranks of the Hereafter. However, this is on condition that they fulfil the command of Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). Allah Ta’ala commands women in the Qur’aan Majeed, وَقَرْنَ فِیْ بُیُوْتِکُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِیَّةِ الْاُوْلٰی “O women! Remain within your homes and do not come out of your homes making a display of your beauty like the former days of ignorance.” (Surah Ahzaab, verse 33) The Best for Women On one occasion, Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was seated by Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) when Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) asked, “What is best for a woman?” All the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) remained silent and nobody answered. Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said, “When I returned home, I informed Hazrat Faatimah (radhiyallahu ‘anha) regarding the question which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) posed before the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), and asked her the same question, ‘What is best for a woman?’ In answer, she replied, ‘The best thing is that they do not see men and nor do men see them.’” Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then said, “When I mentioned her answer to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), he became pleased and said, ‘Faatimah is part of me.’” (Kanzul Ummaal #46012) Being Concealed from the Gazes of Strange Men & Performing Salaah in Her Home Once Hazrat Ummu Humaid (radhiyallahu ‘anha), the wife of Hazrat Abu Humaid As-Saa’idi (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), came to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and said, “O Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), I long to perform Salaah behind you.” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) replied, “I am aware that you long and desire to perform Salaah behind me. However, your Salaah in your bedroom is more rewarding than your Salaah in any other part of your home. The Salaah in any other part of your home is more rewarding than the Salaah in your enclosed courtyard. The Salaah in your enclosed courtyard is more rewarding than the Salaah in the Musjid of your locality. The Salaah in the Musjid of your locality is more rewarding than your Salaah in my Musjid (Musjid-e-Nabawi).” Hazrat Ummu Humaid (radhiyallahu ‘anha) (in obedience and compliance with the mubaarak desire of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)) instructed that a small place be reserved for her Salaah in the innermost portion of her bedroom, and she would devotedly perform all her Salaah at that place until the end of her life. (Saheeh Ibni Hibbaan #2217) Being Obedient to the Husband and Cooperating in Good Hazrat Asmaa bint Yazeed Al-Ansaariyyah (radhiyallahu ‘anha), a Sahaabiyyah from the Banu Abdil Ash-hal clan, once came to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) while he was seated among the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) and addressed him in the following words: “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! I have come to you as a representative of the women. May my life be sacrificed for you! Every single woman, in the east and west, whether she has heard that I have come to you or not, will have exactly the same question as myself. Verily Allah Ta’ala has sent you with the truth to men and women. We brought Imaan in you and in Allah Ta’ala who deputed you. We, the women, live within the confines of our homes and are restricted from exposing ourselves and doing many things that the men are able to fulfill. We remain confined to our homes. We allow you men to fulfil your needs and desires with us, and we bear your children. You, the men, have been favoured by Allah Ta’ala by being able to attend the Jumu‘ah Salaah and other Salaahs in congregation (whereas we women perform our salaah within our homes). You are able to visit the sick and be present at funerals. You perform Hajj after Hajj and even more virtuous than that is your participating in jihad in the path of Allah Ta’ala. When any of you men leave your home to perform Hajj or umrah or to guard the borders of the Islamic territories, it is none other than us women who protect your wealth for you. We sew your clothes for you. We raise and care for your children. Do we not have a share in your reward, O Rasul of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)?” On hearing the question of this woman, Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) turned his face towards the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) and asked, “Have you ever heard a woman ask a question regarding her Deen more excellent than the question of this woman?” The Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) replied, “O Rasul of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)! We never imagined that a woman could be inspired to ask a question of this nature!” Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) turned to her and said, “Return, O woman, and inform all the women you represent that for you to display excellent conduct with your husband, seek to keep him happy and try your utmost to comply and cooperate with him will enable you to be equal with him in all the good deeds which you have mentioned that men carry out.” Hazrat Asmaa (radhiyallahu ‘anha) was so delighted with the answer of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), that as she walked away, she continued to exclaim “Allahu Akbar!” and “La ilaaha illallah!” out of joy and excitement. (Shu‘abul Imaan #8369) From the abovementioned incidents, we understand that there are many great opportunities which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) explained for the women of his ummah. However, they will only acquire progress and acceptance if they fulfil the role which Allah Ta’ala has chosen for them and they are pleased with the decree of Allah Ta’ala. The Plot of the West When one studies and understands Islam correctly, then the falsehood of kufr becomes absolutely clear. One realizes that the concept of gender equality promoted by the West is nothing but a fallacy. In the name of women’s liberation and gender equality, they have in actual fact enslaved women and robbed them entirely of all happiness. They have used many stratagems to create a mindset of liberalism and freedom among the masses. Through the media, TV shows, movies, magazines, newspapers, social networks, billboards, the secular curriculums in schools and universities, etc., they have succeeded in shaping the mind of the common person and making the concept of gender equality appeal to his rationale. The idealized picture which they create in the minds of the common person is that in order for a woman to be progressive, she has to stand up for her rights and show that she is equal to a man. If she leads an Islamic lifestyle, she will be tantamount to a slave living in bondage. Through her treading on the path of Islam and its teachings of purdah and motherhood, her personal progress will be totally limited and hindered. If she is concealed in her home, she will be deprived of making a meaningful contribution to her community and society. Therefore, the only way to ‘liberate’ her is to offer her the ‘gift’ of ‘freedom’- freedom from all restrictions and shackles. Let us now look at the other side of the coin in order to discover the rot within the alien culture of the West and the reality behind gender equality. The Reality of Women’s Liberation and Gender Equality The West has dragged women out of their homes to earn a living in the name of liberation. In this way, they have deprived women of their Shar’ee right to remain in the home and be supported by their husbands. While a woman is working, she still has to bear her children and attend to them as a mother. As a result, she is shouldered with the double responsibility of generating an income as well as mothering her children and attending to the needs of her household. The husband becomes relaxed and expects the wife to also contribute towards the running expenses of the home – all in the name of gender equality. The poor woman is enslaved to the corporate environment and its demands, while she is forced to fulfil the role of a wife and a mother within the home. In the workplace, she has to conduct herself as a professional, and even after hours, she has to see to her clientele and deal with work related issues, thereby making it difficult for her to give her children the attention that they need from their mother. As a result, the children grow up without motherly love, causing them to become delinquents in society. While in the workplace, she is generally forced to compromise her Islamic dress and code of conduct to conform to the environment and appease her superiors. The environment of the workplace is an anti-Islamic environment where intermingling of men and women freely takes place and the laws of Shari’ah (in regard to purdah, etc.) are violated. Many women have to bow down to the dictates and orders of their employers in order to secure their material gain and interests. Reports of rape, sexual harassment and marital infidelity are on the increase on account of exposing women and taking them out to the workplace. The outcome of this is nothing but a recipe for the breakdown of the family unit. The Unparalleled & Beautiful Culture of Islam On the other hand, when one views the honour, respect and protection which Islam affords a woman within the confines of her home, then one realizes that the beautiful culture of Islam is unparalleled. After many Western women had studied Islam and personally witnessed the rot within the Western culture, and realized the humiliation and disgrace they were immersed in, they abandoned their life of humiliation and embraced the beauty of Islam. In regard to the beautiful Deen of Islam, Hazrat Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said: إنا كنا أذل قوم فأعزنا الله بالإسلام فمهما نطلب العز بغير ما أعزنا الله به أذلنا الله "We were the most disgraced of people. Allah Ta’ala then gave us honour through Islam. If we ever seek honour in something besides that through which Allah Ta’ala has honoured us (Islam), Allah Ta’ala will disgrace us." (Haakim #207) And Allah Ta'ala knows best. فاتقوا الله في النساء فإنكم أخذتموهن بأمان الله ... ولهن عليكم رزقهن وكسوتهن بالمعروف (صحيح مسلم، الرقم: 1218) عن إياس بن عبد الله بن أبي ذباب قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تضربوا إماء الله فجاء عمر إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال ذئرن النساء على أزواجهن فرخص في ضربهن فأطاف بآل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نساء كثير يشكون أزواجهن فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لقد طاف بآل محمد نساء كثير يشكون أزواجهن ليس أولئك بخياركم (سنن أبي داود، الرقم: 2146) عن ضمرة بن حبيب قال قضى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على ابنته فاطمة بخدمة البيت وقضى على علي بما كان خارجا من البيت من الخدمة (مصنف ابن أبي شيبة، الرقم: 29677) عن علي أنه كان عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أي شيء خير للمرأة فسكتوا قال فلما رجعت قلت لفاطمة أي شيء خير للنساء قالت لا يرين الرجال ولا يرونهن فذكرت ذلك للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال إنما فاطمة بضعة مني (البزار، حل وضعف) (كنز العمال، الرقم: 46012) عن عبد الله بن سويد الأنصاري عن عمته أم حميد امرأة أبي حميد الساعدي أنها جاءت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت يا رسول الله إني أحب الصلاة معك قال قد علمت أنك تحبين الصلاة معي وصلاتك في بيتك خير من صلاتك في حجرتك وصلاتك في حجرتك خير من صلاتك في دارك وصلاتك في دارك خير من صلاتك في مسجد قومك وصلاتك في مسجد قومك خير من صلاتك في مسجدي قال فأمرت فبني لها مسجد في أقصى شيء من بيتها وأظلمه وكانت تصلي فيه حتى لقيت الله جل وعل (صحيح ابن حبان، الرقم: 2217) عن أسماء بنت يزيد الأنصارية من بني عبد الأشهل أنها أتت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو بين أصحابه فقالت بأبي أنت وأمي إني وافدة النساء إليك واعلم نفسي لك الفداء أما إنه ما من امرأة كائنة في شرق ولا غرب سمعت بمخرجي هذا أو لم تسمع إلا وهي على مثل رأيي إن الله بعثك بالحق إلى الرجال والنساء فآمنا بك وبإلاهك الذي أرسلك وإنا معشر النساء محصورات مقصورات قواعد بيوتكم ومقضى شهواتكم وحاملات أولادكم وإنكم معاشر الرجال فضلتم علينا بالجمعة والجماعات وعيادة المرضى وشهود الجنائز والحج بعد الحج وأفضل من ذلك الجهاد في سبيل الله وإن الرجل منكم إذا أخرج حاجا أو معتمرا ومرابطا حفظنا لكم أموالكم وغزلنا لكم أثوابا وربينا لكم أولادكم فما نشارككم في الأجر يا رسول الله قال فالتفت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى أصحابه بوجهه كله ثم قال هل سمعتم مقالة امرأة قط أحسن من مسألتها في أمر دينها من هذه فقالوا يا رسول الله ما ظننا أن امرأة تهتدي إلى مثل هذا فالتفت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إليها ثم قال لها انصرفي أيتها المرأة وأعلمي من خلفك من النساء أن حسن تبعل إحداكن لزوجها وطلبها مرضاته واتباعها موافقته تعدل ذلك كله قال فأدبرت المرأة وهي تهلل وتكبر استبشارا (شعب الإيمان، الرقم: 8369) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach) Category: Women's Issues
  3. الْقَابِضُ الْبَاسِطُ الْقَابِضُ andالْبَاسِطُ will be discussed together. These are the names which have meanings which are opposite to each other. They work in tandem and that is why they are used together. Translation الْقَابِضُ is translated as The Withholder and The Restrainer so The One Who restrains, constricts, contracts. الْبَاسِطُis translated as The Reliever, The Expander and The Unfolder. The One Who expands, unfolds, relieves. الْقَابِضُ has the meaning of closing in or constricting and الْبَاسِطُhas the meaning of opening up or expanding. Scholars say whether it’s a person’s Akhlaaq/personality, or Rizq, or their bodies and their souls, if Allah ta’ala wants to expand them or constrict them then no one can stop Him. Therefore this expanding and constricting applies to everything. Some say that الْقَابِضُ is The One Who takes the Rooh out of the body at the time of death and for life, الْبَاسِطُ is The One Who spreads the Rooh throughout the body. These words are often used in terms of going astray or being guided.الْقَابِضُ would mean to be misguided or going astray andالْبَاسِطُ means to be guided, expanded. The State of Bast & Qabdh It can also be used in terms of the heart and feelings of hope and fear i.e. feeling Allah ta’ala’s Majesty and Rahmah, feeling His beauty and kindness and having hope which would beالْبَاسِطُ and this is an expansion. When a person feels fear and restricted in terms of the feelings of Allah ta’ala then that is الْقَابِضُ Some Scholars take a spiritual take on this. We go through difficulties in life where we sometimes feel spiritually low and that is the state of Qabdh. It is a state of constriction where the heart is constricted and does not feel the closeness as much as it should. The state of Bast is when the heart opens up and one has a spiritual high and makes spiritual progress. Everything is in the Hands of Allah ta’ala Allah ta’ala can make a poor person a king or a king into a pauper. He can make a weak person strong or vice versa and this all is in the hands of Allah ta’ala. Many times Allah ta’ala shows us in the world. Two people start the same job, one of whom is very intelligent, educated, qualified, experienced, etc. and you think this person will attain success. The other person who is less educated, intelligent and experienced is expected to fail however it is for the less educated, less intelligent person that the job expands and he succeeds and Allah ta’ala is الْبَاسِطُ. For the other person Alah ta’ala is الْقَابِضُ i.e. He is restraining/holding. Story of Taaloot (Surah Baqarah, verse 246-252) The Bani Isra’eel asked their Prophet to give them a king who would lead them against their enemy but they had their own concept of who the king should be. Allah ta’ala chose Taaloot who was of the Bani Isra’eel, a young and hardworking man however not regarded by the Bani Isra’eel as capable of being a king. Allah ta’ala says, وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ Allah grants kingship to whom He pleases and Allah has boundless knowledge. [last part of verse 247 of Surah Baqarah] Sometimes a person may have the image of being a great leader but does not have the ability while a person who is not regarded as capable, can turn out to be a better leader. This is something in which Allah ta’ala is الْبَاسِطُ and الْقَابِضُ Wisdom of Expansion What is the Hikmat behind Allah ta’ala being الْبَاسِطُ and الْقَابِضُ? Whenever Allah has put Bast (Expansion) in something there must be Khayr and Hikmat in it and if Allah ta’ala puts Qabdh (Restriction) in something there must be Khayr and Hikmat in it. This is mentioned in Surah Shura, verse 27, وَلَوْ بَسَطَ اللَّهُ الرِّزْقَ لِعِبَادِهِ لَبَغَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَٰكِنْ يُنَزِّلُ بِقَدَرٍ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِنَّهُ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرٌ بَصِيرٌ Had Allah bestowed abundance upon His servants, they would have transgressed beyond bounds in the earth; that's why He sends down in due measure as He pleases; He is well aware and observant of His servants. If Allah ta’ala had spread out Rizq to all His creation where it was easy and made open where everyone was well to do and everyone had a lot then Allah ta’ala says, there would have been Fasaad (Rebellion or excess) on earth and this is human nature that when people have wealth there will be Fasaad and no one can escape it i.e. no one can say it would not happen to me because when Allah ta’ala says something in the Qur’an, it means it applies to all human beings with maybe the Ambiyaa being excluded. When people have wealth it has an effect and the biggest effect is that the person is not dependant on or controlled by anyone and they feel important. Hirs (Desire for the world) also increases and the end result is that the person becomes aggressive about possessions. This verse shows Hikmat. Instead of giving everything to everyone, Allah ta’ala distributed Rizq (Wealth, looks, knowledge, happiness, wisdom, intelligence etc. as Rizq includes everything) according to His knowledge and Wisdom. Sometimes you see people who outwardly have a perfect life but there will always be something they do not have. A couple who have everything they want may not have children and that is their struggle because if they had everything then it would be too perfect. Or sometimes people do have everything however soon it may get taken away or they may die early. Therefore even if everything is good we should realise that it is a test and it can get taken away. Allah ta’ala has made a system where people are dependent on one another to some extent. If a person has a lot of wealth but no knowledge then they need someone to teach them. How can a person be generous if everyone had wealth and there was no poverty? So this dependency is not a bad thing. We just look at our own personal wants and our fears are limited to our own life but Allah ta’ala gives and takes looking at the benefit of all of humanity. Saying this does not mean we should be complacent with poverty or injustice. We should still help others as this is part of our Deen. وَجَعَلْنَا بَعْضَكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ فِتْنَةً أَتَصْبِرُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ رَبُّكَ بَصِيرًا In fact, We test you by means of one another. Now, will you show patience, for your Rabb is Ever Observant. [Last part of verse 20: Surah Furqaan] Having differences in Rizq is all part of being tested, having Sabr when not having something and making Shukr when in good conditions. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “Look at those who are beneath you and do not look at those who are above you, for it is more suitable that you should not consider as less the blessing of Allah.” [Ibn Majah] Use in Du’a يا باسِطَ الْيَدَيْنِ بِاارَّحْمَةِ O You who have opened Your hands for mercy! This is part of a long Du’a (Not sure if it is authentic as there is a story attached to it) It means we spread out our hands knowing the Rahmah of Allah ta’ala. There are many Du’as which ask Allah t’ala to be Baasit – to open up, to give. We should ask Allah ta’ala for His grace and to increase our love for Him. Counsel In terms of Aqeedah, to know Allah ta’ala controls all these levers in our lives and no one can increase or decrease in something except Allah ta’ala. To make Du’a for ease in Rizq and also to put effort in it in a Halaal way. A person should realise both states. When in a situation of Qabdh (Constriction), spiritually, physically, financial, health etc. then we should think of this as Allah ta’ala being just and make Sabr. We should know our reality and that we do not even deserve so many of the things. When we are in a situation of Bast (Expansion) then we should regard it as the Fadhl of Allah ta’ala that it is His generosity and make Shukr. Hearts Constrict & Expand through speech Imam Ghazali (Rahimahullah) says that there are people who can constrict and expand hearts through their speech and this is so true as we do have speakers and preachers who help and guide people. It is interesting to see this power which Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam referred to. Two men came from the East and addressed the people who wondered at their eloquent speeches. On that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘layhi wasallam said, “Some eloquent speech is as effective as magic.” [Bukhari] When speakers remind people of the blessings of Allah ta’ala the hearts expand and when they hear of the punishment of Allah ta’ala their hearts constrict in fear. Allah ta’ala uses both in the Qur’an as encouragement and to expand and also to constrict when we read about Jahannam. *~~*~~*
  4. الْعَلِيمُ Translation الْعَلِيمُ is translated as The All-Knowing and The Omnipotent. It comes from عَلِمَ – to know, and when it is used for Allah ta’ala it means “To know everything about all matters.” Definition Allah ta’ala always knew and always will know everything that was or will be. Nothing is hidden from Him and Allah ta’ala has prior knowledge about everything that will happen i.e. Taqdeer. He knows about the Baatin (Internal) and the Dhaahir (External) and nothing can be forgotten. His knowledge is Muheet – mentioned in Aayatul Kursi; يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ He knows what is before them and what is behind them. They cannot gain access to anything out of His knowledge except what He pleases. His knowledge encompasses everything. In the Qur’an This name is mentioned 157 times in the Qur’an. It is described in many different ways in the Qur’an. وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ He has created everything and is aware of everything.[Surah An’aam: 101] إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ - He has full knowledge indeed of all that is in [your] hearts [Surah Mulk:13] Allah ta’ala knows the workings of the hearts. الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ are often paired together i.e. He has pure and full knowledge of everything andHe also has perfect wisdom. سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ “Glory be to you, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise” [Surah Baqarah:32] Belief in Allah ta’ala being All-Knowing It is part of our Aqeedah to believe that Allah ta’ala is All-Knowing. It is ingrained and embedded in us from childhood that Allah ta’ala knows everything but there are other ideologies within Islam or on the fringe of Islam where people believe that Allah ta’ala does not know or is not concerned with the detail. Some religions have the concept that Allah ta’ala made the universal laws of nature and kind of pressed the “on” button and then let it go and so is not involved now. Our Aqeedah is that Allah ta’ala has knowledge of every detail and He knows the intricacies of our private lives and regarding the universe. This concept is mentioned in many places in the Qur’an some of which are repeated multiple times in different variations. Some examples: إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ - Fear Allah; surely Allah hears all and knows all. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower. [Surah Hujuraat: 1] وَهُوَ اللَّهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّكُمْ وَجَهْرَكُمْ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُونَ He is the same One Allah in both the heavens and the earth. He knows what you conceal, what you reveal and what you do [Surah An’aam:3] Allah ta’ala knows what a person does outwardly and what the intention may be. ‘Ilmul Ghayb Another concept is that of ‘Ilmul Ghayb which is the knowledge of the unseen. وَعِنْدَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۚ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِنْ وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا رَطْبٍ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ He Alone has the keys of the unseen treasures, of which no one knows except Him. He knows whatever is in the land and in the sea; there is not a single leaf that falls without His knowledge, there is neither a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry which has not been recorded in a Clear Book. [Surah An’aam:59] This concept is specific to Allah ta’ala alone and no one can share in it, not even the Prophets AS. Yes Allah ta’ala shared some knowledge with Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam i.e. regarding the signs of the end of time but it was shared like Wahy and we see in hadith certain episodes where he (salallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) was informed by Jibra’eel AS regarding certain events but the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam did not know on his own and this is not ‘Ilmul Ghayb. This knowledge is beyond human intelligence and senses. The problem arises when people give this trait to others. There are certain groups in parts on the world who believe that Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam had knowledge of the unseen world and that is why it is important to know the Asmaaul Husnaa which are part of our Aqeedah and we should know what our beliefs are. Episode: Jibra’eel AS informed Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam about the poisoned meat which was given to him by a Jewish woman. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alahi wasallam said, “You bring to me, for (judgment) your disputes, some of you perhaps being more eloquent in their plea than others, so I give judgment on their behalf according to what I hear from them. (Bear in mind, in my judgment) if I slice off anything for him from the right of his brother, he should not accept that, for I sliced off for him a portion from the Hell.” [Muslim] If the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam had knowledge of the unseen he would have no need to say this. Therefore many Hadith contradict the belief of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam having ‘Ilmul Ghayb. Allah ta’ala says in the Qur’an, قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا Tell them: The Spirit is at my Rabb's command and I am not given any knowledge of it but a little. [Surah Isra 85] Concept of Haadhir/Naadhir The concept of Haadhir (to be everywhere) and Naadhir (to see everything) is attributed to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam by some people which he (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) never claimed and in the Qur’an and in many Hadith it is clearly mentioned he is a human being. قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ - O Muhammad, tell them: "I am but a human being like you [Surah Kahf: 110] No one has knowledge of the unseen world and it is shown to us in many ways. We think that with science we can predict things and no matter how scientifically sound people are, with all their expertise, are often proven wrong. When the Tsunami occurred in Indonesia, it happened so quickly that even though there was a system in place they could not warn people and there was great loss and devastation. Therefore even with all the technology, we have not reached the level of knowing. Only Allah ta’ala knows. إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْأَرْحَامِ ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ مَاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَدًا ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ بِأَيِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ Surely Allah Alone has the knowledge of the Hour, He is the One Who sends down the rain and He knows what is in the wombs. No one knows what he will earn the next day; and no one knows in what land he will die. Surely, Allah knows all this and is aware of everything. [Surah Luqman: 34] With ultrasound we can now know what is in the womb, male or female and even if the child has some disease but what is his/her personality going to be like? Only Allah ta’ala has the knowledge of the unseen world. No one can know 100% about everything. Concept of Fortune-telling There is the concept of fortune telling and reading horoscopes which we see in all cultures and which tells people what is going to happen in the next hour, day or year. Though there may be elements of truth is these things, it is incomplete and not permissible to attribute this power to someone i.e. he/she can tell the future. This is very dangerous where sometimes people are put on an Islamic pedestal and position of power. Where the signs of astrology are concerned i.e. Aries. Libra, Gemini etc. which describes people’s characteristics, they are different and not really fortune telling. We should be careful how we word things as well. How do we know that our child will be protected if he becomes a Haafidh. Allah ta’ala preserve their Imaan, but we do not know. We should show humility and accept that we do not know everything. Only Allah ta’ala knows. Counsel The counsel to human beings about this is that we can share in this trait on a very limited level. We should know that our knowledge is very limited compared to the knowledge of Allah ta’ala. The story of Khidr AS and Musa AS, mentioned in Surah Kahf shows this. When they were both by the sea, a bird came and dipped its beak in the sea, and Khidr AS said to Musa AS, “My knowledge and your knowledge and the knowledge of all of creation, in comparison to the knowledge of Allah, is like what this bird has taken from the sea.” Compared to Allah ta’ala’s knowledge our knowledge cannot even really be regarded as knowledge i.e. it is ignorance, similar to a child in nursery who knows his A B C but what is his knowledge compared to a person who has a PHD. We may be knowledgeable in some fields and some may be knowledgeable in other fields. People of wisdom will see this. We live in the age of TMI – too much information and with education and qualifications people think they can understand everything including matters of Deen and this very dangerous. No educated person will self-diagnose his illness. He will consult a doctor who is an expert in medicine. Similarly we should realise our limitations even if we are educated. If we have questions regarding Deen then we need to consult a Scholar who is the expert in these matters. The story of Khidr AS and Musa AS shows that there are always other people who know more than us either in different perspectives or different fields. Khidr AS had a different relationship with Allah ta’ala and he had different types of knowledge and his duties were different to Musa AS. It is part of humility to know there are different types of knowledge and to acknowledge where we are weak. Even though we may be experts in certain fields, we may need to go to a Scholar for Tajweed or Tafseer and we learn from one another. No one has complete knowledge of any one topic or all matters. Therefore we can share in this Sifat in a very limited way and to extend it to the future or to the other people or the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam is wrong. Du’a There is too much information in this age and not all of it is beneficial so ask for beneficial knowledge in Du’a and ask to be able to act upon as knowledge without action is like no knowledge. اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ عِلْمًا نَافِعًا O Allah, I ask You for beneficial knowledge اللهُمَّ علِّمنا مَا يَنْفَعُنا وَانْفَعْنا بِما عَلَّمتَنَا وزِدْنَا عِلما O Allah, help us learn what is beneficial to us, help us benefit from what You have enabled us to learn, and increase to our knowledge.  *~~*~~*
  5. The attached chart shows the rulings applicable in different situations RULES APPLICABLE AT THE END OF BLEEDING.docx
  6. Q. If a woman’ menses stops 5 minutes before the Fajr Salaah enters, does she have to make Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaahs? A. There are 3 possible scenarios that may occur in such a case: 1. A woman’s blood stops during the days of menstruation (3-10 days) prior to her habit with insufficient time to take a complete Ghusal before the time of Salaah expires. For e.g. a woman’s menstrual habit is 7 days and the blood stops on day 5 at 5 minutes before the expiry of the Esha time. In this case, the performance/Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaah is not compulsory. 2. A woman’s blood stops during the days of menstruation (3-10 days) at her habit with insufficient time to take a complete Ghusal before the time of Salaah expires. For e.g. a woman’s menstrual habit is 7 days and the blood stops on day 7 at 5 minutes before the expiry of the Esha time. In this case, the performance/Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaah is not compulsory. Ø N.B. In the above two scenarios, the time for the Ghusal is considered part of the menstrual period. The time for Ghusal includes the time it takes to perform the minimal Ghusal, getting dressed, facing the direction of the Qiblah and saying `Allah' of `Allahu Akbar' for the opening of the Salaah. This is approximately 15 minutes in these modern times under normal circumstances. 3. A woman’s blood stops during the days of menstruation (3-10 days) at the maximum (10 days) with insufficient time to take a Ghusal before the time of Salaah expires. For e.g. a woman’s menstrual habit is 7 days and the blood stops on day 10 at 5 minutes before the expiry of the Esha time. In this case, the performance/Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaah is compulsory. (Dhukrul Mutaahhileen Wannisaa’) And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  7. Wearing Clothes with Good Intentions By Shaykh-ul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh There are many aspects of our day to day lives which we do not consider to be a part of Dīn. One example of this is purchasing and wearing clothes. When buying clothes and wearing them many of us only think about how we will appear to others. Due to lack of knowledge of Islamic teachings in this regard we fail to act correctly. In order to make this necessity of life into an act of virtue, the first thing we need to consider is our intention. Intentions when Spending Different people have different motives when buying and wearing clothes. A person can purchase clothes with either of the following intentions: • To look clean and tidy: When a person purchases clothes to appear neat and tidy for the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā, this will be regarded as a good deed which will bring reward. Such a person will be following the hadīth of our beloved Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam: Allāh is Beautiful and He loves Beauty. (Muslim) • To make others happy: When one has the intention to please one’s family, friends and close associates, this will also be an act of virtue, as giving happiness to others will earn the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. • To utilise the bounty of wealth to express gratitude that Allāh ta‘ālā has bestowed upon me the favour of wealth. This also brings the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said: Allāh loves to see His servants utilising and exposing the bounties He has bestowed upon them [as an expression of gratitude]. (Al-Bayhaqī) • To have a distinct appearance in order to stand out, be admired or show one’s status amongst society; such intentions are impermissible. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has said: Allāh ta‘ālā does not look at that person (mercifully) who wears a garment, with which he intends to boast and attract the attention of people, as long as that garment remains on him.” (At-Tabaranī) If a person does not have any of the above explicit intentions, then he will neither earn reward nor will he be questioned in the hereafter. Whether or not one has the correct intention for wearing good clothes can be gauged from the person being ready to wear clothes that are against his taste, but will make his dear ones happy. This point is beautifully illustrated in an episode from the life of Mawlānā Ashraf ‘Alī Thānwī rahimahullāh. Mawlānā Thānwī rahimahullāh had a personal disliking for wearing a collarless coat-like garment known as Sherwani and also for clothes made from shiny cloth. Once, on the night before ‘Īd, his wife gave him a Sherwani as a surprise gift. It was made of shiny cloth which she had secretly sewn by hand throughout the month of Ramadān. She desired that Hadrat Thānwī rahimahullāh wear this on ‘Īd! Despite not having any inclination towards the garment, he still wore it to the ‘Īd salāh to make her happy. Avoiding Extravagance As explained in the hadīth above, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has given a grave warning for those who wear clothes for show. It is this incorrect intention which also usually leads to one indulging in extravagant spending. Allāh ta‘ālā describes those who spend extravagantly in the Glorious Qur’ān as: Without doubt, the extravagant ones are the brothers of the Shayātīn… (17:27) Spending for show and to maintain one’s status in front of others can apply to clothing as well as other forms of expenditure. A person may move home to live in a particular area; buy a particular model of car; hold a wedding in a certain venue; buy a mobile phone of a particular brand, just to have a unique standing amongst his family, friends and community, or at the least to keep up and not appear backward and out of touch. It is concerning to note that a large element of our community is engaged in spending with such motives, which leads to the displeasure of Allāh ta‘ālā, and for which we will be questioned on the Day of Judgement. Therefore, before purchasing anything, we must correct our intentions and also avoid extravagance. We can buy nice things with the correct intentions mentioned above and without spending excessively. For example, if we have a choice between two coats both of which will fulfil our needs, but one costs £50 and the other £90 due to the brand, then we should not purchase the one costing £90 only because it will show off our status. The Spending of the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum Whilst we are all aware of the unparalleled physical and monetary sacrifice that the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum gave for the sake of Dīn, we find incidents of the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum using expensive items. For example, it is reported that: Sayyidunā ‘Abd-ur-Rahmān ibn ‘Awf radhiyallāhu ‘anhu would wear a garment or suit of clothing worth four or five hundred (dirhams). (At-Tabaqāt Al-Kubrā ibn Sa‘d) We must be very careful not to use such incidents from the lives of the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum, to justify extravagance in our expenditure. The following points will help us to understand the context of their actions: • After the demise of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, when Islām spread across many countries, Allāh ta‘ālā bestowed the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum with so much wealth that even after spending vast amounts in the Path of Allāh ta‘ālā with an open heart, they still had surplus wealth from which they spent on themselves. It was never the case that the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum spent a large share of their wealth on expensive items for their own use and ignored other avenues of spending. They always gave priority to the life of the hereafter over this world; • Whenever they bought anything nice or expensive, it was not out of pride, to feel good or to show their status; rather their motive was to practice on the following hadīth of Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam: Allāh loves to see His servants utilising and exposing the bounties He has bestowed upon them [as an expression of gratitude and not boastfully]. (Al-Bayhaqī) Through the blessed company of Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum had purified their souls. Therefore, when spending upon themselves they were able to do so with the intention of practicing upon this hadīth, without falling victim to pride or the intention of showing off, by acquiring expensive items; • Another motive for such spending by the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum was to increase in their gratitude to Allāh ta‘ālā. It is human nature that the greater a favour or blessing one receives, the greater will be the feeling of gratitude. The Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum acquired expensive items to increase their gratitude to Allāh ta‘ālā. Again, it was the result of purifying the soul that they were able to do so, without corrupting their intentions for spending in such a manner; • Finally, it should be noted that the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum were indifferent as to whether they possessed something expensive or cheap. Unlike us, it wasn’t the case that they would become happy with nice things and unhappy if they possessed items of a low quality. The books are filled with stories of their spending wholeheartedly in the Path of Allāh. Rather, if they felt an inclination to a particular worldly possession they would spend it in the Path of Allāh ta‘ālā to practice upon the following verse of the Glorious Qur’ān: You shall never attain true righteousness unless you spend from what you love. (3:92) Therefore, we must not compare ourselves to the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum. Our hearts are filled with love for expensive things and are inclined towards them. In order to achieve a balance, we should look from the other perspective and think that despite desiring expensive things, I will make a sacrifice for the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā; I will use a cheaper item and spend the remainder in the Path of Allāh. Due to our weak spiritual condition, we should be seeking to act upon the Ahādīth that encourage abstinence from the luxuries of this world such as: He who renounces exquisite garments, despite him being able to obtain and don them, Allāh ta‘ālā will clothe that person with garments of honour. (Abū Dāwūd) Conclusion Therefore, when we are buying and wearing clothes we should make the good intentions noted above and avoid wearing clothes for show and spending extravagantly. Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has said: Eat, drink, wear clothes and spend in charity without extravagance and pride. (Al-Bukhārī) May Allāh ta‘ālā grant us the correct understanding of the whole Din and the ability to make every aspect of our lives into acts that earn His pleasure. Āmīn. © Riyādul Jannah (Vol. 27 No. 1, January 2018)
  8. The name of Rasulullallah Sallallahu alayhi Wasallam’s she-camel was Qaswaa’, the name of his horse was Luhaif and the name of his donkey was Ufair as stated in the Ahadith. The name of she-camel of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallah) was: Qaswa, as it is mentioned in a Hadith of Sahih Muslim: ثم رکب القصواء حتی اذا استوت بہ ناقتہ علی البیداء (اخرجہ مسلم ، الحج، باب حجة النبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم، رقم 1218) The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallah)had a she-camel called al-'Abda', that was never beaten in a race. [Bukhari] The name of the his horse was: Lukhaif, as in Sahih Bukhari: کان للنبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم فرساً یقال لہ: اللحیف۔ قال ابو عبد اللہ: وقال بعضھم: اللخیف (اخرجہ البخاری، الجھاد، باب اسم الفرس والحمار، رقم 2855) While the name of donkey was: Ufair (Bukhari, 2856) Once the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallah) borrowed the donkey of Hazrat Abu Talha, its name was: Mandoob.
  9. Avarice & Greed Allah Ta’ala says: “Do not cast your eyes on those things which We bestowed as an enjoyment to different kinds of people.” (Suratul Hijr , verse 88) Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam said: “Man becomes old, whilst two things increase: greed for wealth and greed for [longer] life.” (Bukhari) ______________________________ The nature of greed The engrossment of the heart with wealth, etc. is known as hirs (greed). Greed is the root of all ailments. It is therefore correct to describe it as the mother of all maladies. This is because all disputes and strife are the consequences of greed. It is because of greed that court cases and counter court cases take place. If people did not have the greed for wealth, no one would trample the rights of others. Even the cause of immorality is due to the greed for pleasure. It is the natural temperament of man that even if he possesses two valleys filled with wealth, wherein gold and silver are flowing like water, he will still desire a third. The more the demands of greed are satisfied, the greater will be its demands – like a person afflicted with a rash. The more he scratches, the worse the rash becomes. Allah Ta’ala says: “Does man ever receive whatever he desires?” (Suratun Najm, verse 24) In other words, it is not possible for man to fulfil all his desires. It is for this reason that the greedy person has no peace of mind. Nothing but the soil [grave] will satiate his greed. This is because before a wish can attain fulfilment, another develops. When he is not content with his portion (taqdeer), his heart desires that this should be fulfilled and that should be fulfilled, and so on. It is obvious that it is most difficult to fulfil all these desires and wishes. The result of non-fulfilment of a desire is frustration and worry. Although the greedy person may outwardly have children, wealth and everything else, his heart is perpetually afflicted with anxiety. ___________________________ Treatment 1. Reduce expenditure so that there is no anxiety to constantly earn more. Live within your means. 2. Do not concern yourself with the future and as to what would happen. 3. Bear in mind that the greedy and covetous person is always desirous and held in contempt. 4. Develop Contentment. Look at those who have less. Moulana Maseehullaah Khan (Rahimahullah) Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  10. Q. If a woman did not perform her Salaah after the time of Salaah enters and then she has her Haidh before performing her Salaah, does she have to make Qadha for it after her Haidh ends because she delayed performing the Salaah? (Question published as received) A. The performance of Salaah should not be delayed unnecessarily or intentionally but should be performed at its prescribed times. In an event of a woman not performing her obligatory (Fardh) Salaah on time and her menses (Haidh) commences before performing her Salaah during its prescribed time, it will not be obligatory upon her to make Qadha of the Salaah in which her menses commenced. N.B. The obligation/non-obligation of Salaah is dependent on the state of a person at the end of a Salaah time. (Shaami 2/131 - Tabyeenul Haqaaiq 1/215) And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
  11. Assalaamu 'alaykum warahmatullah sister Welcome to the forum. Jazaakillah for the helpful post. Please note advertising is not allowed on the forum even an email in the profile (which does not show to vistors)
  12. Ibnul Qayyim رحمه الله said the word الحزن does not appear in the Qur’aan except in the form of forbidding it ولا تهنو ولاتحزنوا or in the form of negating it فلاخوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون And the reason for this is because there is no benefit for having sadness in the heart. The most beloved thing to shaitan is to make the believing slave sad by taking him off track. The Prophet صلی الله عليه وسلم sought refuge in Allah سبحانه وتعالى from sadness. اللهم إني أعوذ بك من الهم والحزن Source Verses in full
  13. Q. How many days after Hajj is a Haaji’s Duas still accepted for forgiveness? A. A Haaji’s Dua of forgiveness for himself and for others continues from the days of Hajj until the 10th of Rabi-Ul-Awwal which is approximately 90 days. One may continue to request the Haaji to make Dua for himself/herself until the 10th of Rabi-Ul-Awwal. Sayyiduna Ibn Umar Radhiyallahu Anhuma reports, “The Haaji will be forgiven and for whom the Haaji seeks forgiveness, for the remainder of the Month of Zul-Hijjah (20 days from the 10th of Zul-Hijjah), the Month of Muharram (30 days), the Month of Safar (30 days) and 10 days of the Month of Rabi-Ul-Awwal (10 days).” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah) Note: The common notion that the Haaji’s Dua is accepted for 40 days from the days of Hajj is unsubstantiated. The Haaji’s Dua being accepted for approximately 90 days from the days of Hajj is substantiated. And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  14. Shaykh Google searching in the wrong places....only the sunnah can teach them how to handle us : )
  15. Understanding the Attributes of Allah – Part 1 of 4 In this first part of the seminar entitled “Understanding the Attributes of Allah” that took place in London, in December 2013, Shaykh Dr. Abul Hasan Hussain Ahmed explained the Importance of al-Isnad and Ijaza. The lecture demonstrated how to acquire sacred Islamic knowledge in the true way of the Salaf, and it is also an eye opener for those who claim to follow the Salafi Way but either fail to apply this methodology of receiving knowledge using the isnad and ijaza system, or completely dismiss it through their own faulty reasoning or stubornness. Hence, those who adhere to this classical tradition of acquiring and transmitting the Islamic sciences via means of the Isnad and Ijaza system are truly the adherents of the Salafus-Salihin (Pious predecessors), and its diammetrical opposite are mere claimants to that noble Way. Darul Tahqiq
  16. The story & sacrifice of Ibrahim Alayhis Salam His childhood: His father’s name was Aazar. Aazar was an idol worshipper who also created idols for others. He was misguided and led others towards misguidance. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) was nurtured in the centre of this community, where shirk and sins were rife. Many people complain that their childhood corrupted them. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) grew up in the worst of environments, surrounded by idols, yet he never used this as an excuse to sin. Over time, he slowly began to give Da’wah to his father. His father became angry and threatened to throw him out of the home. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) now had to choose between Allah and his father. He chose Allah and his father threw him out. Catapulted into the fire: Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) was later captured and accused of breaking the idols. The community decided to catapult him into a blazing fire. The flames were so fierce and high, the birds would not hover above it out of fear of being burnt. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) was chained and catapulted into the fire. There was no turning back now. Watching the horrific event unfold, Jibraeel (Alayhi Salam) request permission from Allah to approach Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam). Mid-air, he enquired if he could offer any assistance. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) could have easily sought safety from the fire. But instead, he simply responded that I desire Allah to be pleased with me. Yet again, he chose Allah over his own self. Leaving His wife and child in the desert: One day Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) found himself stranded in a desert with his wife, Hajra (Alayhi Salam) and baby son, Ismail (Alayhi Salam). There was no food or water in sight. At that precise moment, Allah called Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) to leave his family. His soft heart could not bear to break the news to his wife. Thus, he lowered his head and slowly walked away. She enquired where he was going but was met with no reply. Immediately, she realised that this must be the call of Allah. When Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) nodded in the affirmative, she accepted his leave wholeheartedly. Yet again, he chose Allah over his own wife. Sacrificing Ismail (Alayhi Salam): Just like all parents, his love for Ismail (Alayhi Salam) grew stronger as he blossomed into a young man. At this point, Allah commanded him to slaughter Ismail (Alayhi Salam). His son Ismail (Alayhi Salam) was no ordinary child, for he too was destined to become a Prophet. Thus, he encouraged his own father to sacrifice him. Together, the father and son duo trekked a high mountain. Ismail (Alayhi Salam) then laid down before his father who grabbed an axe. Yet again, he chose Allah over his own son. Lessons to be learnt: 1) Be loyal to Allah and He will assist you: Throughout his life, Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) chose Allah first. He proved that Allah was dearer to him than his own father, wife, child and self. His faith was unshakeable and Allah was only testing it. He never sought to hurt his tender heart. So once he passed these tests, Allah delivered him into ease. When he chose Allah over his father and self, Allah commanded the fire to be cool for him. When he chose Allah over his wife, Allah caused the well of Zamzam to spring forth and quench their thirst. When he chose Allah over his son, Allah ordered a ram to be placed and his son was saved. Every phase that seemed like a breaking point, actually became a making point for Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam). This was due to his loyalty and sacrifice. Likewise, when life pushes you to breaking point, know that it can be a making point for you instead. Just be loyal to Allah and He will carry you through struggle, then He will carry you to ease. 2) The true spirit of Qurbani: In this worldly life, we have been blessed with many different relationships. The greatest relationship is our relationship with Allah. Therefore, Allah commands us to partake in Qurbani annually to renew our relationship with Him. It is not just a sacrifice. The spirit of Qurbani is to reflect upon the life and overall sacrifices of Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam). Thereafter, strive to emulate him by sacrificing sins and evil for the sake of Allah. Lastly, Allah honoured Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) with the title Khaleelullah – the Friend of Allah. Thus, for those who wish to attain wilayah, befriend Allah by following the friend of Allah. May Allah grant us the ability to do so, Aameen. Moulana Dawood Seedat Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
  17. An Accepted Qurbaani – How? When Sayyiduna Aadam and Hawwa (alaihimas salaam) came to live in the world and started having children, it so happened that they had twins from every pregnancy, one of the two being a boy, while the other, a girl. When the issue of marriage came, since there was no one other than brothers and sisters – and a brother cannot be married to his sister – Allah Ta‘ala instructed that the boy born from one set of twins should marry the girl born from the other set of twins and vice-versa. But, the girl born with the first boy, Qaabil, was beautiful while the girl born with the second boy, Haabil, was unattractive. When the time of marriage came, the unattractive girl born with Haabil fell to the lot of Qaabil according to the law. This enraged Qaabil. He turned hostile to Haabil and started insisting that the girl born with him should be given to him in marriage. Sayyiduna Aadam (alaihis salaam) did not accept the demand. However, to remove the division between Haabil and Qaabil, he proposed that they should both offer their respective sacrifice for Allah Ta‘ala. Whoever has his sacrifice accepted will be the one to have that girl. He was certain that the sacrifice to be accepted will be the sacrifice of the one who has the right to marry her, that is, the sacrifice of Haabil. In that era, an open sign of a sacrifice being accepted was that a fire would come from the sky and consume the sacrifice; and the sacrifice which was not consumed by the fire was the sign of its non-acceptance. Haabil owned a flock of sheep and goats. He happily offered the sacrifice of the best and healthiest sheep he possessed. Qaabil was a grain farmer. He offered a few poor quality grains as his sacrifice. As was customary with them, a fire came from the sky and ate up the sacrifice offered by Haabil while the sacrifice offered by Qaabil remained lying where it was, untouched. Qaabil was further enraged and said to his brother: “I will kill you.” Haabil responded in a peaceful manner: “Allah Ta‘ala only accepts from those who possess taqwa (Allah consciousness).” That is, if you had been conscious of Allah Ta‘ala, practising taqwa and piety, your sacrifice too would have been accepted. Since you did not do so, the sacrifice was not accepted. Hence, why blame me for it? (Tafseer Ibni Katheer vol. 2, pg. 43 and Ma‘aariful Quraan vol. 3, pg. 112) Lessons: 1. If we desire that our Qurbani (sacrifice) be accepted in the Divine court, it is essential for us to adopt Taqwa in every aspect of our lives, since the meat and blood does not reach Allah Ta‘ala, rather it is the Taqwa which is seen by Him. 2. When we see that Allah Ta‘ala has given someone a particular blessing, we should regard our deprivation as a result of our own shortcomings and sins. Thus we should repent from our wrong ways instead of wishing and worrying about ways through which the other person could be made to lose the blessing that he is enjoying. uswatulmuslimah
  18. Quenching the Thirst of Others By Shaykh-ul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh Imām Al-Bukhārī rahimahullāh has narrated a hadīth on the authority of Sayyidunā Abū Hurayrah radhiyallāhu ‘anhu that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “A person, whilst on a journey, experienced extreme thirst. [Along the way, he came across a well so] he climbed down this well and drank from it. He then climbed out of the well and saw a dog panting and licking the moist soil due to [extreme] thirst. This person said [to himself], ‘Indeed this dog has faced the same dilemma [of thirst] that I faced.’ [So he climbed down the well again and] filled his leather sock with water. He then climbed out whilst holding his sock with his teeth and quenched the thirst of the dog. Allāh ta‘ālā appreciated his deed and forgave his sins. The Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum asked, ‘Is there reward for us in [being kind to] animals?’ Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam replied, ‘There is reward in [being kind to] every living creature’.” Many lessons can be derived from this hadīth, but I wish to draw your attention to a specific lesson, that of providing water for the creation of Allāh ta‘ālā. It is evident that the deed that attracted the Mercy of Allāh ta‘ālā was quenching the thirst of a dog. Water – A Gift from Allāh Water is an essential need of a human; a person can survive weeks without food, but only days without water. The body’s function is dependent on water and all its essential organs need a constant supply. As the body cannot make its own water, a person needs to supply the body with water. This important need of humans is provided by Allāh ta‘ālā himself in the form of rain, streams, rivers, lakes, seas and oceans. Allāh ta‘ālā states: ...and We have sent down pure water from the sky. (25:48) And We caused the earth to burst with springs... (54:12) Water – A Medium to Gain Great Reward Due to its importance and necessity, Allāh ta‘ālā has also promised great reward for those who provide water to the creation of Allāh ta‘ālā. In the above ḥadīth, we already learnt that it attracts the forgiveness of Allāh ta‘ālā. Many other ahādīth also mention further benefits: • Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated, “There is no sadaqah more rewarding than [providing] water.” (Al-Bayhaqī) • Upon being asked regarding the most virtuous form of sadaqah, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam replied, “[Providing] water.” (Abū Dāwūd) • Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam stated, “Whichever Muslim quenches the thirst of another Muslim, Allāh will grant him drink from Ar-Rahīq Al-Makhtūm.” (Abū Dāwūd) Ar-Rahīq Al-Makhtūm is a special wine of Jannah which has been promised for the special servants – the Abrār (the righteous). Allāh ta‘ālā says, Verily the Abrār will be in bounties, upon couches looking on. You will recognise the radiance of bounties in their faces. They will be given pure sealed wine to drink, the seal of which is musk. It is for this that the competitors should compete. (83:22-26) Water – A Means of Continuous Reward Sadaqah is of two types: 1. Sadaqah: where the reward is confined to the action and the reward is a single entry. For example, when someone feeds another person, a one-off reward is written for him; and 2. As-Sadaqah Al-Jāriyah: when the reward is continuous. In fact, it also continues after one’s demise. For example, authoring a book from which people benefit; for as long as people benefit from this knowledge, the author will continue to reap its reward. After one’s demise, the avenues to gain further reward by any action inevitably cease. A person finding himself in a bad state in the afterlife cannot carry out any deed to change his situation. Similarly, if he finds himself in a good state and he wishes to enhance his condition further, he is unable to carry out any deed to achieve this. At this juncture, a deceased person has two possibilities of earning reward: 1. Īsāl-uth-Thawāb: someone performing a good deed and sending him its reward; and 2. As-Sadaqah Al-Jāriyah: as explained above, a deed he carried out during his lifetime which is still generating reward for him. Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said, When a person dies, [reward for] his deeds are cut off from him except three [types]: [reward for] As-Sadaqah Al-Jāriyah, knowledge from which benefit is derived [by others]; and righteous children who pray for him. (Muslim) There are many forms of As-Sadaqah Al-Jāriyah a person can carry out. In one narration Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam listed seven and from amongst them he mentioned, “.…a stream which he causes to flow....” (Ibn Mājah) In another narration we find that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam also advised providing water as a form of Īsāl-uth-Thawāb. After the demise of his mother, Sayyidunā Sa‘d Ibn ‘Ubādah radhiyallāhu ‘anhu asked Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam which sadaqah would be most meritorious and rewarding. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam replied, “Providing water.” Sayyidunā Sa‘d radhiyallāhu ‘anhu then got a well dug and dedicated its reward for his mother. (Abū Dāwūd) ‘Allāmah Al-‘Aynī rahimahullāh has mentioned a hadīth wherein Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam visited a person who was in his last moments. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam asked him what he was observing [of the next world]. He explained, “I see two angels distancing themselves from me and two snakes coming closer; and I see evil increasing and goodness weakening.” The person sought help from Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam by requesting him to make du‘ā. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam supplicated, “O Allāh! Accept little [he has done] and forgive the large quantity [of evil deeds he has committed].” Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam then asked him what he was seeing now. He replied, “The two angels are coming closer and the two snakes are going away; and I see goodness increasing and evil weakening.” Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam asked him which of his actions he found most rewarding. He said, “Providing water.” (‘Umdah-al-Qārī) Sayyidunā Anas radhiyallāhu ‘anhu narrates that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “On the Day of Judgement, the people going to Jannah will be lined up in rows. A person destined for Jahannam [whilst passing by these rows] will come across a person [to whom he had provided water in this worldly life]. He will say to him, ‘Do you remember that day when you asked for water and I gave you water to drink.’ The person will [remember this favour and] intercede for him.” (Ibn Mājah) Warning on Not Sharing Water It is the sheer Grace of Allāh ta‘ālā that he has provided this necessity for survival in much abundance and in principle, it is for all people. Therefore, it would be extremely inhuman to deprive someone of water at the time of his need, especially when one has the means to provide it. Consequently, a grave warning has been cited for such wretched people whose hearts do not soften upon seeing others suffering thirst. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated: There are three types of people; Allāh will neither talk to them, nor look towards them, nor purify them, and for them will be a painful punishment: One who has excess water in the path [along a route] and he prevents a traveller [passing by] from [using] it.... (Al-Bukhārī) Benefit in this World Providing water not only benefits a person in the hereafter, but it also has worldly benefits. A person once came to ‘Abdullāh ibn Al-Mubārak rahimahullāh complaining about a wound in a knee which was not healing for the past seven years, despite referring to doctors and treating it with various methods of treatment. ‘Abdullāh ibn Al-Mubārak rahimahullāh advised him to find a place where people are in need of water and provide water by digging a well. The person located a place and dug a well and Allāh ta‘ālā cured him. (Al-Bayhaqī) Imām Al-Bayhaqī rahimahullāh narrates that my teacher Imām Al-Hākim had a wound on his face. Despite many types of treatment, it could not be cured for a period of one year. He requested Abū ‘Uthmān Sābūnī rahimahullāh to make du‘ā for him in his weekly majlis on Friday. Abū ‘Uthmān rahimahullāh made du‘ā for him. The people who attended earnestly beseeched Allāh ta‘ālā saying āmīn to the du‘ā of the shaykh. The following Friday, a woman who had attended the previous week, sent a note to Imām Abū ‘Uthmān rahimahullāh. In the note she narrated that, after the previous majlis, she went home and earnestly prayed for Imām Al-Hākim rahimahullāh that night. She mentioned that she saw Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam in her dream as if he was advising her to tell Imām Al-Hākim rahimahullāh that he should provide water for the Muslims in abundance. When this note reached Imām Al-Hākim rahimahullāh, he ordered a siqāyah [a place where water is provided] to be constructed outside his home. When the construction was completed, it was filled with sweet water. Ice was also placed in it and people began drinking. Not even a week passed and he was cured and his face turned beautiful again. (Al-Bayhaqī) Providing Water to Others It is a great Mercy of Allāh ta‘ālā that we in England do not experience a shortage of water. Clean and abundant water is available at all times. We should be thankful to Allāh ta‘ālā for this great gift. There are so many people throughout the world who have to travel far distances to bring clean water for their homes. The short supply obliges them to get every family member to walk the long distance in order to obtain as much water as possible, including young children. Those of us who are fortunate to have water in abundance and sufficient wealth, should resolve to provide water to the less fortunate ones according to our means. This could be through: • arranging for wells to be dug; • providing water pumps; • providing water coolers; and • setting up drinking fountains. In whatever way possible, we should seek to quench the thirst of people and animals. Providing water to the general public on a hot summer day in this country or elsewhere, will also be a deed that will be greatly recompensed by Allāh ta‘ālā. Along with that, the wider community will be able to appreciate the beautiful teachings of the saviour of humanity, our beloved Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, who was sent as mercy for the world. May Allāh ta‘ālā grant us the ability to engage in this meritorious act as much as possible, in order to secure His Mercy in this life and in the hereafter. Āmīn. © Riyādul Jannah (Vol. 26 No. 3, March 2017)
  19. On Tuesday 16th July 2019 a lunar eclipse is going to occur. In the UK, the eclipse will begin at approximately 9:07pm and last until around 1:17am. Read above articles
  20. Hajj & Qurbaani – The Legacy of Hazrat Ebrahim (alaihis salaam) and His Illustrious Family Beautiful spiritual lessons in Hajj and Qurbani newsletter_16_web.pdf
  21. By Mufti Taqi Usmani All praise to Allah. We praise Him and seek His help and His forgiveness and we believe in Him and rely on Him. We seek refuge with Him from the mischief of our selves and the vices of our deeds. There is none to lead him astray whom Allah guides and there is none to guide him whom Allah lets go astray. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah alone and that He has no partner. I also bear witness that our master, our authority, and our Prophet and our master, Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger. May Allah bestow upon him, his household and his Companions. His mercy and blessings in abundance. And Almighty Allah said: "But consort with them in kindness". (4.19) "You will not be able to deal equally between (your) wives, however, much you may wish to do so. But turn not altogether away (from one), leaving her in suspense, If you do good and be righteous, then surely Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful." (4:129) Importance of the rights of the servants (of Allah) Allamah Nawawi [ra] is commencing a discussion of the rights of the servants (of Allah) in the light of these verses and the traditions of the Holy Prophet I have already mentioned repeatedly that “the Rights of the servants are a very important branch of religion. Its importance lies in the fact that “the Rights of Allah” may be pardoned by repentance. If God forbid - some negligence ever occurs in the matter of Allah’s rights, it is very easy to remedy this negligence by means of repentance and seeking Allah’s pardon with a feelings of remorse and regret. The negligence can thus be remedied. As for the rights of the servants, if they are violated, they are not pardoned by repentance and feelings of remorse and regret and by seeking pardon, unless the usurped rights are restored to the right-holders or the latter willingly forgoe their rights in his favour. Therefore the matter of rights of people is a matter of serious consideration. Negligence in the matter of the Rights Serious indeed is the subject of the rights of the servants of Allah, yet equally serious is the negligence of people towards this subject in our society. There are only a few aspects of worship that we have taken as Deen (Faith), e.g. Prayer, Fasting, Hajj, Zakat, Remembrance, Recitation of the Holy Qur’an, the recital of some sacred names or words. We regard these items as Deen but we have excluded from Deen the Rights of the servants; similarly we have also excluded from Deen the rights concerning social living. One who is negligent in the discharge of these rights does not feel that he is committing any serious offence. Backbiting is a violation of People’s rights Take a simple example. If a Muslim is addicted (God forbid) to drinking wine he will be looked down upon by every Muslim who has even the least touch with the faith and the drunkard himself will feel ashamed that he is committing a sin. On the other hand a person who is addicted to backbiting is not hated in the society like the drunkard, nor does the backbiter himself feels that he is a sinner or criminal, although both the sins are equally heinous and base. But no, backbiting is more vicious sin than drinking wine: firstly, because it comes within the definition of the rights of the servants and secondly, because Almighty Allah has used for it in the Holy Qur’an a very horrid similitude the like of which He has not for any other sin. He has thus said in surah Al-Hujarat. verse no 12: "And do not spy: nor backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dead brother: you would then abhor that. (49.12) Thus a backbiter has been compared to one who eats the flesh of his dead brother. So vicious is this in! Yet it has become common in the society. There is hardly an assembly where this sin is not committed. What is worse, it is not condemned at all as if the faith has nothing to do with this sin. ‘Ihsan is desirable at all times Hazrat Dr. Muhammad Abdul Hai may Allah exalt his status. is my spiritual Guide (Shaikh or Pir). One day he related the following incident: A man called on me and told me with a gusto of pleasure and pride that thank God, he had attained the rank of “Ihsan”. “Ihsan” is a very exalted status, as is mentioned in a tradition: (Sahih Bukhari the book of belief-chapter Inquiry in Hadith Jibrael tradition no: 50). This means that you should worship Almighty Allah, as you are seeing Allah and if this be not possible worship Him with the belief that He is seeing you. This is the rank of “Ihsan”. That gentleman told the respected Doctor Sahib that he had attained the rank of “Ihsan” Hazrat Doctor Sahib congratulated him on the attainment, as it was a great blessing of Allah and put to him this question: Do you realise the blessing of “Ihsan” only during the prayers or do you realise it also during your dealings with your wife and children that Almighty Allah is seeing you? He replied: What the Tradition says is that while pray one should feel that one is seeing Allah, or Allah is seeing him. I thought that “Ihsan” is related with worship only and not with other activities of life. Hazrat Doctor Sahib said to him: That is why I put this question to you, because it is generally misunderstood that “ihsan” is required during prayers, remembrance or recitation only, although it is required at all times and in all stages and walks of life. If you are sitting in a shop doing some business, “Ihsan” is required there also. You should realise in your heart that Almighty Allah is seeing you. “Ihsan” is also required when you are dealing with your subordinates. You should feel that Allah is seeing you even when you are dealing with your wife, children friends and neighbours. This is really what “Ihsan” means. It is not confined only to prayers and worship. That woman shall enter Hell It should be borne in mind very well that the teachings of the Holy Prophet cover every branch of life. It is narrated that once the people inquired from the Holy Prophet about a woman: O Prophet of Allah, there is a woman who remains engaged with worship all day and night. She is mostly busy with optional prayers, remembrance of Allah and recitation of the Holy Qur’an, she is always seen engaged in these acts of devotion. What do you think about the fate of this woman? The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] asked that Companion about her dealings with the neighbours. The Companion replied that she did not behave well with the neighbours. The women of the neighbourhood are not pleased with her. The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] said: She will enter the Hell. (Bukhari p.48 tradition no: 911, chapter Does not trouble his neighbour) That woman shall enter Paradise At another time a question was put to the Holy Prophet about a woman who did not observe many items of optional worship and remained contented only with the obligatory and essential duties and sometimes she performed the Sunnah Muakkadah (the confirmed sunnah) prayer. She did not observe the optional prayers, rememberance, recitation, etc. more than this. Her dealings with the neighbours and others were however, amicable. The Holy Prophet replied: She will enter the Paradise. Who is a Pauper? The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has explained in these traditions that if anyone observes optional prayers it is very good, but if he does not do so he will not be asked in the Hereafter why he did not observe such and such optional forms of worship. This is because the very word Nafl (optional) means that if anyone performs this optional worship, he will receive reward, and if he does not do so, there is no sin on him. On the other hand the rights of the servants (of Allah) are something about which the people will be questioned on the Day of Judgement. The entry into Paradise or Hell depends on the nature of replies given to these questions. The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has explained in a Tradition as to who is a pauper; he is reported to have said: A person will bring with him on the Day of Judgement lots of good deeds; but in the world he usurped someone's rights, spoke ill of someone, injured someone’s feelings and hurt someone's heart. The result of all this will be that he will have to pay to others all the good deeds he brought with him and will have to take upon himself the sins of others while he has no good deeds left with him to compensate his creditors. The matter of the rights of the servants (of Allah) is thus a very important matter in the Shari'ah. (Tirmidhi. chapter on Accounts taking and Ransom Tradition no: 2533). The Rights of people are three-fourths of DEEN It has already been pointed out that if the “Islamic Jurisprudence” which deals with the injunctions of the Shari'ah is divided into four equal parts, only one part will be found to deal with matters relating to worship. and the remaining three parts will be found to contain injunctions with regard to matters that are related to people and their life. You may know the name of ‘Hidayah’ which is a renowned book of Hanafi jurisprudence in four volumes. The first volume deals with forms of worship in which poblems concerning Purity (Taharat), Prayer (Salat), Fasting, Zkat and Hajj have been discussed. The remaining three volumes are concerned with the subjects dealing with people and their rights, social living and the rights of the servants (of Allah). It can be easily inferred from this that the subject of the rights of the servants represents one-fourth of Deen (Faith). Therefore, a very important chapter is now commencing. May Almighty Allah help us, by His mercy, to read and listen to it with a firm mind, to act upon the injunctions. May He also help us to discharge the rights of the servants (of Allah) according to His pleasure and will. The miserable condition of women before Islam The first Chapter which Allamah Nawawi has included is the “Chapter of counsels about women”, meaning those counsels which the Holy Prophet has given about the rights of women. The reason for allotting this subject in the first chapter of the book is that the greatest shortcoming and negligence are committed in the matter of women’s rights. During the Days of Ignorance, before the advent of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam], women were treated like cattle, devoid of humanity, deprived of all rights, whatsoever. In those days of darkness the people did not recognise any rights due to women who were tolerated in the houses no better than pet animals like goats and sheep: but the conditions totally changed after the advent of Islam and under the sacred teachings of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam]. Amicable behaviour with women At that time the world was unaware of heavenly guidance. It was the Holy Prophet who for the first time made the world alive to the rights due to women whereunder they should be accorded nice treatment. At the very out set Allamah Nawawi [ra] has cited a verse of the Holy Qur’an that is very comprehensive on this subject: "But consort with them in kindness." (419) \ Almighty Allah has addressed all Muslims, comhanding them to behave, and consort with women in kindness; associate with them in life with goodwill and sympathy and never give them trouble. This is a general guidance. This verse is, as it were, the heading and the text of this chapter. The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has explained this verse by his words and practice. He gave such importance to the need of showing misbehaviour to women at that he is reported to have said in a Tradition: "Meaning: The best of you are those who behave well with their women and I am best of you in behaving well with my women. (Tirmidhi - chapter on right of a women over her husband Tradition no. 1172) The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] attached so much importance to the protection of the rights of women and ensuring good behaviour with them that he has explained this matter in many Traditions. The first Tradition on this subject is one narrated by Hazrat Abu Hurairah wherein the Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "I advise you to wish well for the women. You should accept this advice of mine." The Holy Qur’an enunciates only the principles Before proceeding ahead it is better to advise that the Holy Qur’an generally gives the basic principles, without going into the minute details of the issue. This procedure is followed even in describing the injunctions about the prayer which is such an important pillar of Deen (Faith) to the establishment of which reference has been made in the Qur’an at seventy three places. Yet the Holy Qur’an does not furnish any details about how prayer (salat) is offered. how many Rakaat should one offer and other injunctions validating or invalidating the salah. The Qur’an itself has not detailed these factors but left it for the Holy Prophet who taught the companions these details both by his words and practice. The same is the case with Zakat which has also been mentioned in the Qur’an almost at the same number of places. The Qur’an, however, does not clarify the prescribed value on which Zakat becomes due for payment, nor it speaks of possessions on which it is leviable. Like the prayer these details about Zakat were also left for the Holy Prophet to explain. Thus it becomes clear that generally the Qur’an mentions only the basic principles and does not go into minute details. Domestic life is the Foundation of the entire civilisation The relationship between man and woman and among the members of the family are so important that the Qur’an has described in clear terms its minutest details and has spoken in details relating to this important topic. Thereafter the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has explained fully those points. The edifice of the entire human civilisation stands on the relations between man and woman and on the domestic life of man. If the relationship between man and woman is sound, smooth and one discharges the rights of the other, then the affairs of the household shall run smoothly and the children shall be brought up on the right lines and this ensures the betterment of society on which stands the edifice of the social living as a whole. On the other hand, if the household affairs are mismanaged and there are differences and disagreements between husband and wife the children are affected adversely and you may very well imagine about the standard and character of the nation manifested by such spoilt and ill mannered children. The rules and regulations governing this aspect of the society are called family laws or household regulations. In view of their importance, the Holy Qur’an has dealt them in details: Is the woman born of crooked Rib? The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has set a nice example for this — an example that is unique in its effect and import. Some have explained it by saying that first of all Allah created Hazrat Adam [alayhis salaam] then He created Hazrat Hawwa (Eve) from his rib. Some learned men have said by way of explanation that the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has compared a woman to a rib which is crooked to see but its beauty and health consist in its crookedness. If anyone tries to remove its crookedness by straightening it, it will break and cease to be a rib. To restore to its previous state, it will have to be made crooked then joined together with plaster. The same idea has been beautifully expressed in a Tradition: "That is, if you want to straighten it. you will only break it." "And if you want to enjoy it you may enjoy it despite its crookedness." The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] has, thus set a wise example that its crookedness is its beauty and health which will be destroyed by straightening it. It is not a defect of woman Some people use this saying against women as being their defect in a woman. In other words, they say that since a woman has been created from a crooked rib, so is she crooked in her conduct and character, by her nature. This is, however, not the meaning of the Tradition of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam]. The deviousness of women is natural It needs to be borne in mind that Almighty Allah has created man and woman, each with different tendencies and attributes. On account of this difference between the nature and temperament of the two, man thinks about a woman that she is opposed to his masculine nature and sentimentality, although this natural tendency of a woman against a man’s natural bent and tendency is not a defect. It is the natural requirement of her nature that she should reflect in her character some innocent crookedness. That is why the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] said: If you find in a woman something which is against your natural tendency on account of which you think that she is crooked, do not condemn her on this account: rather ignore it by thinking that it is the natural demand of her nature. If you want to straighten her she will break: if you want to benefit by her you can do so despite her crookedness. “Negligence” is a part of beauty in a woman Today the times have changed; as a result the values have also changed. A defect in a man is more often looked upon as a point of virtue and beauty in a woman. If we go through the Holy Qur’an carefully we shall see what, is generally considered a defect in a man is considered a point of beauty in a woman. For example. it is a defect in man to be ignorant and negligent, on account of which he is unaware of what is happening in the world. A man has been entrusted with the affairs of the world. To discharge these he needs learning and awareness. If he is devoid of these qualities and abilities, he is faulty and defective to this extent. As for a woman, negligence has been considered by the Qur’an as an item of beauty for her. Allah has said: "Surely, as for those who slander virtuous, negligent believing women..." (24:23) The word “negligent’ meaning that they are unaware of what is happening around them in the world. The Qur’an has considered here “negligence” or “unawareness” as an attribute of beauty. It is obvious from this that if a woman is ignorant of the affairs of the world, duties. excepted. this is not a defect but an attribute of beauty as described by the Qur’an. Do not try to straighten her bent by force Thus we see a defect in man is not considered a defect in woman and what is not a defect in man is sometimes looked upon as a defect in woman. A man is, therefore, not allowed to be harsh to a woman and misbehave with her if he finds her behaving in her womanly way. The very meaning of her comparison with a rib is that, by nature, she should be different in temperament from you. So now do not try to straighten her by force. The root cause of the entire conflict The above is based on a Tradition of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam]. Who can claim to know more about the nature of man and women than the Prophet of Allah? He diagnosed the root cause of all the conflicts between man and woman.Man insists that a woman should be exactly like himself in all her behaviours. This is not possible as she has been created different from him. Be conscious of her good habits In another tradition of this chapter Hazrat Abu Hurairah radhiallaahu anhu] has narrated: (Sahih Muslim-Book of suckling chapter counsel about women) In this Tradition the Holy Prophet has mentioned a wonderful principle that a believing man should not hate a believing woman altogether. In other words, the man should not condemn her totally on the false plea that she is no good. If she has some undesirable triats in her conduct she must have in her some desirable traits also. The first principle which the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has taught is that when two persons live together, some habit of the one is pleasant and some other habit unpleasant to the other. If the woman has some unpleasant habit in her, then do not condemn her on account of that habit altogether, rather look for and remember her pleasant habits and thank Almighty Allah for them. If you follow this practice it is quite possible that the hatred in your heart for the dark side of her conduct and character may gradually lose its severity and importance. Man, in fact, is ungrateful. If he finds any defects in her he totally changes his opinion about the person concerned and forgets about his good qualities. In view of those few faults and defects, he is always critical about him and misbehaves with him. Such attitude is unreasonable. Everything has virtues and vices in it There is nothing in the world which is all virtue and all vice. Almighty Allah has, by His wisdom, endowed everything of His creation with virtue and vice. You are sure to find some good qualities in every person, may he be an infidel, an idolater or even worse. An English proverb The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has said: A word of wisdom is a lost property of a believer. He must pick it up wherever he finds it. So there is no harm in picking up a word of wisdom even from an English Proverb. The proverb said that even a watch which has gone out of order speaks the truth at least twice every day. Suppose that the watch stopped at 12 hrs., 5 mts,. As the time 12-5 occurs twice during the 24 hours, the dead watch shall tell the correct time twice at 12-5 hrs, although it will remain silent at other times. The moral we draw from this English proverb is that if one is in search of goodness with hope and sincerity one can surely find this goodness even from the most condemned and throw-away objects. There is nothing bad in the workshop of Nature My father Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ Sahib [ra] used to recite frequently the following Urdu couplet of the late Dr. Muhammad Iqbal: There is nothing useless in the earth There is nothing bad in the workshop of nature. Whatever Almighty has created has created it with His wisdom and by His will. If you reflect on it you will surely find in Allah’s creation point of Wisdom and benefit. Instead man looks for faults and shortcomings only and ignores the good points and bright sides of things. Thus he becomes pessimistic and commits transgression and injustice. Always look for the good qualities of women Almighty Allah has said in His Book: "For if you hate them, it may happen that you hate a thing wherein Allah has placed much good." (4:19) If for some reason you do not like those women whom you have married, yet it is just possible that Almighty Allah may have endowed them with much goodness and blessings. Hence this command that you should look only for the good qualities of women. so that you may receive solace and comfort from them and thus the doors of mistrust and misbehaviour may not be opened. Educative story of A saint Hazrat Maulana Shah Ashraf Ali Thanawi [ra] has related the story of a saint who had a very ill mannered and aggressive wife. She always found faults with her hushand. Whenever the saint entered his house the wife started quarrelling with him. Someone asked him why he did not get rid of those daily wrangles and squabbles by resorting to divorce. The saint replied: it is very easy for me to divorce her but there is one reason for not doing so. Despite all her defects, she has one very good quality which prevents me from parting with her; and that is the quality of loyalty with which Almighty Allah has adorned her. Supposing I am arrested and imprisoned for some crime, for a term of fifty years, she will not move even an inch from the corner to which I confine her, and she will never cast a glance at anyone else. This This quality of loyalty is invaluable. Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Jan’an and his over-sensitiveness Hazrat Mirza Mazhar jan-e-Jan an [ra] was a renowned saint of the Indian sub-continent. He was so touchy and over-sensitive in his temperament that if anyone put the glass on the pitcher in a tilting position or if he saw his bedding creased he would feel headache, unfortunately he had to deal with an ill-mannered wife. She was always murmuring something against her husband. Strange are indeed the ways whereby Allah tests His servants and raises their ranks. The wife of this pious saint was an ordeal for him which he tolerated with patience throughout his lifetime and expected that Allah may pardon his sins as a recompense for this ordeal. The women of our society are Nymphs of Paradise Hakimul Ummat, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanawi [ra] used to say that the women of the Indo-Pakistan are like nymphs, because they are endowed with the qualities of faith and loyalty. Although these qualities are slowly fading under the impact of the modern Western civilisation and culture, yet the spirit of loyalty is so deep-rooted in them that they are always ready to sacrifice their lives for their husbands in all circumstances. and they can never cast their glances on anyone other than their husbands. In fact the saint, referred to above demonstrated obedience to the injunction implied in the following Tradition. If one habit of the woman is unpleasant, there must be some pleasant habit in her which should be taken into consideration and good treatment should be meted out to the woman on account of this one pleasant habit in her. People generally look at the dark side in the conduct and character of their women and lose sight of the bright side in them. This tendency is the root cause of the bitterness prevailing in our society. It is immorality to beat one’s wife The third Tradition of this chapter is as under: (Sahih Bukhari the book of marriage - It is hateful to beat women tradition no 5204) Once the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] delivered a sermon in which he mentioned many important topics of Islamic behaviour. The following is the point which he touched on the subject under discussion: He said: It is very bad that one of you beats his wife as a master beats his slave and on the other hand he uses the same wife to satisfy his sexual desire. Then how immoral and shameless it is that one should beat one’s wife so severely! Three steps of reforming a wife As I have already stated, the Holy Qur’an has taken great care to mention in detail concerning husband-wife relations: The differences and disagreements between husband and wife start when the husband feels offended at some action or habit of the wife. The Qur’an advises that in such a situation the husband should look for some lovely and pleasant quality in the character and dealings of his wife. If the husband fails to discover in his wife any such good points and feels that correction and reform are needed, then the Holy Qur’an has prescribed the following course to reform and rectify it. "As for those (women) from whom you fear disobedience, admonish them and banish them to beds apart (from yours) and beat them." (4:34) First of all you should advise them in a lenient and polite manner and with love to give up their bad habits and reform themselves. This is the first step of reform. If they respond favourably to admonition and accept your advice, do not go further and treat the chapter closed. If this does not help and they insist upon their misconduct then the second step is to separate your bed and give up sleeping with them on the same bed. If they have sense, they will surely reform themselves and act upon advice. (Details of separating the bed will follow shortly). Physical punishment to a wife If the second step of the reform also fails then it will be necessary to resort to the third step, which is to inflict on the wife some physical punishment; but what kind of physical punishment and to what extent? The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] answered these questions in his sermon on the occasion of his Farewell Hajj in which he said: "(beat them very lightly so as not to injure them". To sum up, effort should be made so as to settle matters without the expedient of this punishment. If it is found unavoidable, it is permitted only with the condition that it should be very light, the intention being only to enforce discipline and not to inflict pain and injury. It is not lawful beating one’s wife in a way that should leave a mark on the body. (A Tradition on this subject follows). The behaviour of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] When the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] passed away from this world he left behind nine sacred wives. These wives were not angels sent down from the heaven: they were members of this world and society. Sometimes, bitterness occurred among them as is usual and natural among co-wives. Sometimes such problems also arose as usually arise between husbands and wives. Hazrat Ayesha [radhiallaahu anha] has narrated: Not only did the Holy Prophet ever raise his hands on any of his wives, but it was also his habit to enter the house with a smiling face. The Prophet’s Sunnah (practice) It is the Sunnah (practice) of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] that men should not raise their hands at women (to beat them). The permissibility of punishing physically is restricted only to abnormal and unavoidable situations. In fact beating women is not the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam]; his Sunnah is what Hazrat ‘Ayesha has narrated. A miracle of Dr. Abdul Hai [ra] Hazrat Dr. Abdul Hai my spiritual guide sometimes related to us, by way of a lesson, that a period of fifty-five years had passed of his marriage, he never talked to his wife during these fifty five years in an angry tone. The walking of a man on the surface of the water and his flying in the air is taken as a miracle. It is more surprising that one should not talk to his wife even in an adverse tone for as long as fifty five years. And his respectable wife says that her husband, Dr. Sahib. never asked her to bring to him a glass of water. She, however, served him as best as possible of her own sweet will and as a blessed and virtuous duty. Tariqat is nothing but public service Hazrat Dr. Sahib used to say: I consider myself to be a servant whom Allah has sent to this world for service. This is my belief and with this belief I want to serve others and depart from this world. I am duty bound to serve all my friends, acquaintances, associates and pupils. I was not sent to this world as a master to be served by others. He considered the position of a servant of people to be an elevated rank. He then recited the famous persian couplet: Tariqat (spiritual way) is nothing but public service. It does not consist in the robes and the prayer-rag and the saintly garments (signs of godliness). Tariqat in fact, stands for public service. Dr. Sahib used to say: When I understood that I am a servant and not a master, how can a servant order others to do this and that? He spent his entire life by doing his personal work without the assistance of anyone else. This is a practical example of how the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] should be followed. As for ourselves we do follow the Sunnah in rituals only. It is necessary to follow the sunnah in dealings with others social living and in every mode of leading our private life. Verbal claim is not enough Living according to the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] is highly rewarding. Through such living man can smoothen his worldly life as well as his life in the Hereafter. But this success cannot be attained only by making empty claims. "This means that everyone claims to love Laila, but Laila herself does not acknowledge their claim)." This is achieved only by means of sincere work and devotion. By his character, conduct and practice man should ensure that he does not cause the least harm even to the person with whom he happens to be on unfriendly terms. In short, the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has illustrated, by his own practice. the THIRD STEP of reforming an errant wife. Throughout his lifetime he never raised his hands on any one of his sacred wives. However he was sometimes irritated by their behaviour, but he never reacted to it. Those who beat their wives are declared the worst men by the Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam]. (Tirmidhi book of Tafsir. chapter Surah Taubah Tradition no: 3087). Prophetic Address in the Farewel Pilgrimage In the above Tradition an extract has been given from the Farewel address of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam]. In this address he addressed the assembly of the companions in clear words that after that year he might not see them at that place. So in this address he included all those points that he feared that the Ummah might deviate from the right path, and thus he wanted to leave behind for the guidance of the Ummah a perfect code of life to be followed. In this address he tried to block all the possible paths of deviation and error. The address is quite lengthy but different parts of this address have been stated on different places. This is also a part of it in which the various aspects of relationship of man and woman has been discussed. Special stress has been laid on the need that men should acknowledge the rights of women and honour them. You may realise the importance of these rights from the fact that he delivered that sermon on the occasion of the Last Pilgrimage when he indirectly informed people that the next year he may not get an opportunity to address the people. Thus the mutual rights of men and women are one of the topics which he selected for discussing towards the close of his life on account of their importance. He wanted his Ummah to honour and follow the injunctions in all circumstances. Mutual relations between husband and wife This shows the importance of husband-wife relations in human life and how the law-maker the Holy Prophet himself felt this importance. If the husband and wife do not discharge each other’s rights properly and, instead, usurp these mutual rights, not only will this result in the violation of each other’s rights, but it will also adversely affect both the families as well as the children whose proper upkeep, development, mental and moral growth will be affected. As the family is the foundation of the entire civilisation, with its ruination civilisation is itself ruined. That is why the Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has laid great stress on the importance of mutual relation between husband and wife. Women are in your confinement Hazrat Umr bin al-Ahwas al-Jashim [radhiallaahu anhu] has narrated that in the Farewel sermon the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] praised Almighty Allah, offered consels and delivered a speech and then said: "Beware! I advise you to do good to women. Accept this advice." This is the sentence which occurred in the previous Tradition. His next sentence was: "because those women live with you confined in your houses." The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has mentioned an attribute of women that if man reflects over this attribute only, he can never think of misbehaving with them. A Lesson from an Ignorant Girl Our dear Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanawi used to tell his disciples to learn a lesson from an ignorant, uneducated girl who surrenders herself to a stranger after uttering at the time of the Nikah only two words of acceptance. She honours these two words so solemnly and completely that she leaves her mother, father, brothers and sisters and the entire family and becomes inseparably tied to and confined with her husband. An ignorant girl honours these two words so truly and sincerely that she surrenders herself to one person, her husband but you could not honour our pledge of these two words by surrendering yourself to Almighty Allah. This girl is much better than you. She honoured so completely her pledge of Nikah, but you did not honour your pledge of the two words of the article of Faith. Sacrifices of the woman for your sake The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has said in this Tradition. “How tremendous sacrifice the woman has undergone for your sake. If the matter was just the reverse and it were said to you, you would have to leave your family. your parents, after your marriage what an awkward situation it would be for you. As for the woman she has become confined to a strange surrounding, a strange house and a strange person and that, too, for the whole of her life. That is why the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] said in his tradition: Will you not mind this sacrifice? Do take heed of this and treat her well and with love. You have no claim upon them Thereafter the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has spoken a very serious sentence of far-reaching consequences. When the meaning of this sentence is explained to men they get annoyed. That sentence is: "This means that according to the laws of the Shari'ah the only demand you can make of them is that they should live with you in your house". You have no other claim upon them Cooking is not the duty of a wife From this Tradition the Jurists have deduced a ruling of delicate nature and which makes men annoyed. The ruling lays down that according to the Shari'ah it is not the responsibility of a woman to cook food for the household. For this purpose the Jurists have divided women into two classes. Women of one class are those who do household work, including cooking food in their parent’s houses. The other class consists of women who do not cook food in their father’s house where cooks are employed for this work. If after marriage a woman of the latter class goes to her husband’s house she is not at all responsible to cook food, religiously, legally, morally or otherwise. On the other hand, that wife may ask her husband to hire a cook for her as man is obliged to provide her with food along with other necessaries of life. The Jurists write: "It is the responsibility of the husband to provide his wife with cooked food." The wife cannot be forced to cook food neither by force, nor by the law, because the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has said in clear words: "This means: You have a right to keep them in your house which it is not lawful for them to leave without your permission." With this exception the laws of the Shari'ah have imposed no responsibility on them. However, If she belongs to the first category the one who used to cook food in her parents’ house she too is not legally responsible to cook food i.e. she cannot be compelled by law to cook food. However, the responsibility falls on her only morally. In such a case the husband is responsible only to provide the food materials. Even then it is not her responsibility to cook food for the husband and the children. A wife in this class cannot ask her husband to provide her with cooked food. However, if she refuses to cook food for her husband and the children, the court cannot force her to do it. The respected Jurists have explained these problems at great length. Serving the In-laws is not obligatory There is another fact worthy of notice about which much negligence is observed among the people. When a wife is not responsible to cook food for her husband and his children, then she is more appropriately not responsible to cook food for the parents of the husband and his brothers and sisters. A custom has gained currency in our society that the parents of the son think that their right over the daughter-in-law has a priority over the right of the son. Therefore she is bound to serve them, no matter if she serves her husband or not. Such a misleading conception gives rise to quarrels and disputes among the daughter-in-law and other members of the family. The negative results of this conception are obvious to require any comments. To serve In-Laws is a virtue for a woman Bear in mind well that it is the responsibility of the son to serve his parents. It is, however, a matter of blessing and virtue for the daughter-in-law if she serves the parents of her husband willingly, as a righteous deed and source of reward for her in the Hereafter. The son does not have any right to force his wife to serve his parents in case she does not feel inclined to serve them of her own sweet will. It is also not lawful for the parents to force their daughter-in-law to serve them. As already mentioned, if the daughter-in-law voluntarily decides to serve her in-laws for the sake of recompense in the Hereafter she is welcome to do so. This will create happy and pleasant atmosphere in the household. Appreciate the services of a daughter-in-law If a daughter-in-law is serving his father and mother-in-law, she is doing favour out of her moral character because she is giving this service to them only of her free will and she is not in any way liable for such services. Her in-laws should, therefore, appreciate this voluntary service from her. They should try to requite her for this and encourage her. Ignorance of these rights and liabilities create various problems in social life which play havoc to the solidarity and welfare of families through quarrels and disputes. All these troubles are taking place simply because the people have banished from their minds the limits of these mutual rights and liabilities which the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has fixed in his Traditions. A Surprising Incident Hazrat Dr. Abdul Hai Sahib [ra] one day related a very wonderful event. He said that among his acquaintances, there was a couple who used to visit his assembly and receive spiritual training and instructions from him. One day both of them invited him to a dinner at their house. It was the habit of respected Dr. Sahib to utter at the end of the feast a few words of praise in favour of the lady who cooked the food just to encourage and please her. The lady who had prepared the food came and stood behind the curtain and greeted him. After replying to the greeting Dr. Sahib uttered a few words of praise and appreciation about the quality and taste of the food and the art of cooking. Dr. Sahib heard the woman sobbing from behind the screen. It was disturbing. Was there anything in Dr. Sahib’s words that pinched her? On being asked to state the cause of her grief and sobbing, she said, "I have been living with my husband for the last forty two years, but during this long period of association, I never heard from him a word of appreciation about my cooking. When I heard these words from you sir, I could not control myself from sobbing." The respected Dr Sahib used to relate this story in his assemblies off and on to emphasise that such callousness can never be expected from a husband who is able to realise that it is a great favour on the part of his wife that she is serving him so selflessly and faithfully of her own sweet will and is doing all this service for which she has not been made legally responsible by the Shari'ah. A man who thinks that his wife is a maid servant and has to serve him at any cost, has no need to drop a word of praise and appreciation if she is an expert cook and sincere worker. The Husband should serve his parents himself A question arises as to who should serve the parents when they are old, weak or otherwise helpless on account of sickness when there is none in the house except their son and his wife? Even in such a situation, the daughter-in-law is not bound, according to the Shari'ah to serve her in-laws. It is, however, a matter of blessings and virtue for her if she serves them of her own free will with the belief to please Allah and to receive reward in the Hereafter. The son should, however, realise that it is his responsibility to help and serve his parents personally or by employing a servant for this purpose. If the wife is looking after his old parents, the husband must appreciate this service and be thankful to her. Husband's permission for going out But here is another requirement to note in order to understand the true position. After knowing only one side of a case and being ignorant of the other side people begin to take undue advantage. It has already been explained in detail that it is not obligatory for a wife to cook food, according to the laws of the Shari'ah. In his Tradition the Holy Prophet has said that “women remain confined to your houses like captives”. It means that it is not lawful for them, to go out of the house without the permission of their husbands. Just as the jurists have explained in detail the issue of cooking food, in the same way they have also explained in detail that women cannot leave the house for meeting kinsmen, even their parents without the permission of their husbands. If the parents visit the house of their son-in-law to meet their daughter, the husband cannot prevent them from seeing her. The jurists have prescribed limits for such casual visits. The parents may visit their daughter only once a week and go back after seeing her. This is their daughter’s right which a husband cannot deny, yet she cannot go out of the house without her husband’s permission. Thus Almighty Allah has, in His mercy, created a balance between the rights and responsibilities of husband and wife. On the one hand the wife is not legally bound to cook food and, on the other hand, she is legally bound not to go out of the house without her husband’s permission. Mutual Co-operation is vital for smooth life Whatever has been stated above is only the legal side of the matter; but the beauty of mutual behaviour with each other is that each should try to please the other. Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Fatimah [radhiallaahu anhuma] had distributed the duties of the household between them in such a way that Hazrat Ali did all the outdoor work, while Hazrat Fatimah performed the indoor work. This is exactly the Sunnah (practice) of the Holy Prophet which should be followed. Husband and wife should not always involve themselves in the implications of the law. The best way is that both should behave with each other open-heartedly. The division of work between husband and wife on outdoor and indoor basis is a natural division to enable them both to keep the vehicle of life going smoothly. If she commits the immodesty If these women commit open lewdness, that lewdness cannot be tolerated in any case. In such a situation they should be dealt with according to the injunction laid down by the Holy Qur’an. First of all they should be admonished, then, if they insist-on their sin, let their bed be separated. If they still do not accept the admonition and continue in their Lewdness, then it is permitted to inflict them with light beating which should not cause any injury. If they refrain from the lewdness and mend their ways, then one should not find fault with them, but they should be let off, without further pinching them. Beware! These women have rights over you that you behave with them well. Be generous in discharging your obligations in the matter of providing them with clothes, food and their other needs. This does not mean that you should meet only their basic needs; you are expected to be generous and liberal in supplying their lawful needs. Pocket money for a wife Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanawi [ra] has dealt in his guiding sermons with some topics with special emphasis. I intend to reproduce two or three of these in this discourse, as they are generally overlooked by the people. Firstly. the liabilities about a wife does not mean that she should be provided only with food and clothes. It is also a part of this cost that she should be paid a suitable amount as pocket expenses in addition to the cost of living, making her free to spend this additional amount as she likes. There are persons who arrange for food and clothes but do not care for pocket expenses. Hazrat Thanawi has said that payment of some amount as pocket money is also necessary, because there are many items when a person feels ashamed to disclose to other that she needs a certain thing. The wife should, therefore, must have some extra amount as pocket money so that she may not seek other means to satisfy her needs. Hazrat Thanawi [ra] has warned that those who do not provide pocket money to their wives are blamable. Being generous for Family Another point to note is that one should be generous and liberal in spending money on the needs of the household. One must not limit expenses to basic needs. One should provide money with a generous hand so that the expenses of the household may be met with ease and freedom according to the financial means of the house-keeper. Some people complain that, on the one hand, there is stress that one should not be extravagant and at the same time there are instructions not to be miser in spending money on the household. A question now arises as to what is the line of demarcation between the two. What is extravagance and what is not extravagance? Simple or comfortable accommodation both are lawful To remove this confusion Hazrat Thanawi [ra] has said: that accomodations are of two kinds, a place which is just enough to accommodate the members of the family. It may be an ordinary hut, it is possible for a man to live some how even in such structures. This is lawful in the first degree. The second kind is that the house should provide living accommodation as well as a reasonable degree of comforts. For example, the house should be concrete-built, equipped with fans and electric lights. If a person provides this service in his house in order to make life easy and comfortable, this cannot be regarded as extravagance. Decoration is also lawful In the third degree, along with means of comfort a house should also have some decoration. For example, a man has a concrete built house with plastered walls, electricity and fans, but it has no paint on it. Even an unpainted house like this is fit for living, but without white-washing and proper painting it lacks in decoration. If the house owner gets the house colour washed and painted for the sake of decoration this too is lawful in the laws of the Shari'ah. In short to live in an ordinary house is lawful, it is also lawful to live in a house provided with certain comforts and amenities as well as some decoration. Decoration here means some additional improvement made in the house, like painting, etc, which is pleasing to the eyes and cheering to the heart. There is no harm in this and is permissible in the Shari'ah. Show off is not lawful Then follows the fourth degree which is mere “Show off’. The house-owner is doing something which aims neither at comfort, nor at decoration; the aim is to show his riches. Thereby he wants to impose his superiority on others and to show that he is a big thing. All this comes within the definition of “Show off’ which is not lawful in the laws of the Shari'ah. It is also extravagance. The limits of extravagance These four categories also apply to food and clothes, and in all other things of life. A man wears costly clothes in order to receive comfort, to please himself and the members of his household and his acquaintances, friends and visitors, there is no harm. On the other hand there is a person who wears valuable clothes with the intention that he may be considered a rich and wealthy man, a man of exalted position in society, then this is mere exhibition and show and therefore it is prohibited. Hazrat Thanawi [ra] has therefore drawn a clear line of demarcation between the two extremes. If money is spent on something for the sake of meeting a necessity, providing comfort or for decoration for his own pleasure and satisfaction, it is not extravagance. This is not Extravagance Once it so happened that I was coming back to Karachi from some other city, and it was the hot summer season. I requested someone to have my seat booked in an airconditioned coach and I gave him the required amount of money. Another man who was sitting nearby at once objected to this because in his opinion I was committing extravagance by sitting in an airconditioned coach. Many people are under the wrong impression that to travel in a higher class is extravagance. Bear in mind that if travelling in an upper class is for comfort, e.g. to save oneself from heat in the summer season, and the man can afford it. It is neither extravagance nor a sin. If one travels in an upper class simply to show that he is rich, then it is extravagance and it is unlawful. The husband should therefore, keep in mind these degrees in meeting the cost of living of his wife with generosity and liberality. Capacity differs from man to man, Maulana Maseehullah Khan Sahib [ra] once observed: There is a man who is all alone in this world, without relatives, without friends and without acquaintances. For such a man a bed, a dish and a jug are sufficient to pass his life. If he collects more articles, it will mean a show and will be reckoned as extravagance in his case. There is a man who receives guests, has a large circle of acquaintances and friends, and has many relatives. The standard of his needs and extent of requirements will be quite different. If such a man has in his house at times even one hundred sets of pots and beddings, not a single piece of this will be counted as extravagance, because all these are necessities of life. The standard of life differs from man to man. Where to search Allah Hazrat Ibrahim bin Adham [ra] was once a great Ruler but he renounced the world in search of Allah. There are some people who seek from his life arguments to prove their stand. The story runs as follows: One night Hazrat Ibrahim bin Adham saw a man walking about on the roof of the palace. Hazrat Ibrahim bin Adham [ra] caught him and asked him what he was doing on the roof of the palace. The man replied: I have come here to search my lost camel. Hazrat Ibrahim bin Adham said: Stupid fellow! Are you searching your camel on the roof at this hour of night? How can you find the camel here? The man asked with some surprise: Can I not find the camel here? Hazrat Ibrahim bin Adham [ra] answered: certainly not! How can you find the camel on the roof of the palace? The man then retorted: If the camel cannot be found in this palace and the man who is searching the camel in this palace is a fool, how can you find Allah while staying in this palace? If I am a fool you are a greater fool than me. This answer of the stranger shocked the heart of Hazrat Adham. He at once relinquished his kingdom and took his way to the jungle. He took with him only a bowl and a pillow, so that he might eat food and drink water from the bowl and use the pillow while lying down on the ground. After walking some distance he saw a man drinking water from the river with his palms cupped together. He saw that he could also drink water in that way, so he threw away the bowl and resumed his journey. After walking some distance he saw that a man was sleeping on the ground with his hand placed under the head to serve for a pillow. He felt that he could very well do without the pillow so he threw it away, too. Emotions should not be followed After listening to this story some people may misunderstand that keeping a bowl and a pillow is also extravagance. May Allah exalt the rank of Hazrat Thanawi [ra] who has at his credit of separating right from wrong and wheat from chaff. He has advised that none should compare himself with those of Hazrat Ibrahim bin Adham [ra]. Firstly, because the change that had come over him was due to an ecstatic state of rapture. A man in this condition should not be followed, because the man so overwhelmed goes out of himself and loses his normal consistency of thought and feeling. We are not, therefore, to follow in the footsteps of Hazrat Ibrahim ibn Adham [ra], because he was not at his normal when he decided to leave the palace. Besides, such renunciation of worldly relation is not permissible in Islam generally. It would mean that Allah cannot be found in palaces. Moderate way of spending The requirements of one man is different from that of other. The standard of spending also differs from man to man. The standards of a man with low income, and of a man with a moderate income or a man with a high income are different from one another. The liberality in spending of each person should, therefore, be proportionate to his income. It should not happen that the husband is a man of moderate means and his wife is asking for items of comforts and luxuries which she sees in the house of rich men that her husband cannot afford. Demand for such articles of luxury is not lawful. The husband should, however, try to meet the demands of his wife as far as possible within his means and should not be niggardly towards his wife. The rights of the wives over husbands? (Abu Dawud, the Book of Marriage - chapter on the Right of the wife over her husband, Tradition no.2142) Hadhrat Mu'amiyah ibn Hidah [radhiallaahu anhu] has narrated that he asked the holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] of Allah, What are the rights of our wives over us? The Holy Prophet said: when you take food, feed her also and when you wear clothes, provide her also with clothes to wear. Do not beat her on the face, nor curse her. Do not part with her but her but only within the (bounds of the) house. Leave sleeping with her as punishment As has already been explained, if you ever observe in the wife some lewdness, try first to admonish her. If she does not mind your admonition, then leave her bedding, and sleep on a separate bed. Leaving the bed does not imply that you should go out of the house; you should separate your bedding while remaining in the house. You may, however, change the room by way of a psychological punishment and as a sort of protest, and thus keep yourself aloof from her for some days. A proper way of separation The learned jurists have explained the meaning of this Tradition also by advising that on such occasions her bed may be separated, but the talking terms should not be terminated totally. The separation should not be so strict as not to offer salutations to each other from time to time and not to return the greeting if one bids it, nor to avoid answering important questions. A separation of this kind is not lawful. Wife’s permission for a long period journey While explaining this Tradition the learned Jurists have gone to the extent of saying that it is not lawful for the husband to leave the house for more than four months without the permission and pleasure of his wife. As such, Hazrat Umar [radhiallaahu anhu] had promulgated this order throughout his empire that the freedom-fighters who take part in Jihad should not remain away from their homes for more than four months. The jurists have, therefore, deduced that if anyone is going on a journey for a period not exceeding four months, it is not necessary for him to obtain his wife’s permission. If the journey takes longer than four months, it is essential for him to obtain his wife’s permission, no matter how desirable that journey may be. This ruling is applicable to the journey for the Hajj (Pilgrimages). If the pilgrim returns from the journey within four months no permission from his wife is necessary, but if he prolongs his stay in the Holy city beyond four months the wife’s permission must be taken. This ruling is also applicable to journeys undertaken for Tabligh, Da'wah and Jihad. If the wife’s permission is necessary for such blessed journeys then her permission will all the more be necessary for a journey undertaken for the sake of employment, business, etc. If journeys exceeding four months are taken without the wife’s permission it will be a violation of her rights and, therefore, unlawful in the laws of the Shari'ah. Who are the Best People? (Tirmidhi Book of Suckling, Chapter on the rights of a wife over her husband tradition no. 1162) Hazrat Abu Hurairah [radhiallaahu anhu] has narrated that the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] said: The most accomplished of the believers in respect of Iman (Faith) is one who is the best of them in conduct and character. The more refined a man is in behaviour and character, the more accomplished he is in Iman (Faith). Perfect Iman, therefore, demands that a man should behave and deal with others politely. The best of you are those who are the best in their behaviour and dealings with their wives and women. The meaning of “Good Character” in the modern age We see that in our days the meanings of things have greatly changed and the values of all things have been reversed. Hazrat Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib Sahib [ra] of Deoband used to say: As compared with the past everything has turned upside-down in the present age. For example, in the olden days there was darkness beneath the lamp and now there is darkness above the bulb. Today values have changed and so has changed the import of everything, so much so that even the meaning of character has undergone a total change. Today only some outer acts and expressions of modern etiquettes are regarded as tokens of good character. For example, it is regarded sign of good character to meet someone with a smiling face or to utter formal pleasing words. I am very glad to see you, it is pleasing to meet you, etc. while the heat of enmity, jealousy and hatred is burning in the hearts. Today this way of behaviours has been named good behaviour and character. It has been recognised as an art, how to deal with others so as to make them impressed with our personalities. Books are being written today on the art of winning over sympathies of others. All energies are being utilised to achieve this aim: Do all that is possible to get others attracted by your superficial personality. This is called “character”. Bear in mind well that all this formal show has nothing to do with high morality which the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has enjoined upon his followers. This is a mere hypocrisy, ostentation, a trick to attract others to one’s own personality. This is nothing but love for honour, fame and regard and this desire, in itself, is a disease and immorality. This has nothing to do with Islamic concept of morality. Morality is a quality of the Heart Morals are in fact a particular state of the heart which find expression in the movements of the limbs and the organs. The heart should be tilled with the feeling of welfare for the creation of Allah and love for them, irrespective of what they are, friends foes, believers or unbelievers. One should remain alive to the fact that every being on the earth is a creation of His Master. Allah. This originates a kind of love for all in ones heart. This conception, in turn, generates good actions and deeds, and then man does good to others. Now the smile shining on ones face on account of this feeling is not artificial, nor is it displayed to arrest public attention: it rather springs up from the heart as a result of heart-felt longing and emotion. Thus. there is a world of difference between the morals taught by the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] and the artificial and superficial show of morals in modern society. How to acquire High Morals? Only reading books or listening to lectures is not enough to attain the standard of the desired degree of morals. For this purpose it is imperative to seek the company of some spiritual reformer and guide. The order of Tasawwuf (Mysticism) and the system of becoming a disciple of a spiritual Guide (Piri-Muridi) has been handed down from the past men of Allah. It aims at inculcating in high morals and eliminating the germs of immorality from a man. Anyway, the most accomplished in the realm of Iman (Faith) are those individuals who posses high morals, whose hearts generate right motives and these right motives are reflected in their acts and deeds. May Allah admit us all into the company of these perfect personalities Aameen! Do not beat the Maids of Allah (Abu Dawud. Book of Marnage. chapter on beating women Tradition no 2146) Hazrat Iyas bin Abdullah [radhiallaahu anhu] has narrated that the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam], while delivering a sermon said: Do not beat the maids of Allah, because beating women is not desirable. When the Holy Prophet prohibits something, the act becomes totally unlawful for one who heard the prohibition direct from the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam]. Now it is not lawful for him in any circumstances to beat women. Two kinds of Holy Traditions It may be noted carefully that there is a category of Traditions which we hear from someone or read in the books. They reach us through a long chain of authorities: giving us the names of the reporters in ascending order carrying to the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam]. The Traditions of this category are called Zanni because they reach us through a channel of reporters. It is obligatory to act upon the injunctions contained in such Traditions; and deviating from this is a sin. Traditions which the Companions heard direct from the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] are not Zanni (conjectural), but are Qatie (confirmed). If any one denies such Traditions, not only will he be a sinner, but he will also become an unbeliever. According to the juristic ruling the denier of an order of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] at once turns to be an infidel. Sometimes we entertain the foolish desire in our hearts to have lived at the blessed time of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam], to reap the virtues and blessings of that blessed time. We should remember that whatever Almighty Allah does, He does it in His infinite wisdom and it is He who has raised us in this later age. If He had raised us in the time of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam], who knows what would have happened to us. There is no guarantee that we would not have fallen into the dare ditch of ignorance? May Allah save us. The question of Iman in those days was a very delicate issue. A slight turn from the right path could change the destiny of man. The devotion with which the sacred Companions [radhiallaahu anhum] of the Holy Prophet rallied round him was exclusively their distinction. It was due to this that they reached the unique rank. Allah alone knows what would have been the fate of our selfish far-seeing and ease-loving persons as we are. It is indeed a great favour of Almighty Allah that He saved us from ruin and raised us up in an age in which we enjoy many facilities. We are in an age in which we have Zanni Traditions. If anyone denies it he will only be a sinner and not an unbeliever. As regards the sacred Companions, if anyone of them heard some Tradition from the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] and denied it he would instantly become an unbeliever. May Allah save us from such a fate. The Audacity of the women When the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] ordered the Companions not to beat their women, this punishment was totally suspended. It was not possible for the Companions to continue an act which the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] had forbidden them to do. Thus when the Practice of beating women ceased then after some time Hazrat Umar [radhiallahu anhu] called on the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] and said: "O Prophet of Allah , these women have now become lions (i.e. fearless and bold) with their husbands, because you have stopped us from beating them. Now none beats his wife, nor does he ever threaten her with that. That is why they have become fearless, are violating their husbands’ rights, and are misbehaving with them. So what are we to do now?" Then the Holy Prophet permitted them to beat their wives, if they violate their rights and when beating was unavoidable. Only a few days after the restoration of the order of beating, the women began to approach the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] and complained to him that their husbands were taking undue advantage from the permission of beating and were beating them severely. They are not good men Mentioning his own name, the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] said: Many women are repeatedly visiting the house of Muhammad complaining against their husbands’ misbehaviour with them that they severely beat them. You should note it very carefully that those who resort to this beating are not good men. It is not the work of good believers to beat their wives. The Holy Prophet made it quite clear to the gathering that permission was given to beat their wives as the last alternative only in unavoidable circumstances and subject to the condition that the beating should be light, so as not to cause injury and leave its mark on the body. Despite this, it is the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] and also his sincere desire that no man should raise his hand to beat a woman. The mothers of the believers have narrated that the Holy Prophet never raised his hands at any woman. Therefore, this is what the sunnah demands. The Best thing in the world is a “virtuous Woman” (Sahih Muslim. Book of suckling chapter-the best object of the world a virtuous woman) Hazrat Abdullah bin Amr bin Al’Aas [radhiallaahu anhu] has narrated that the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] said: This world as a whole is an enjoyment, profit and advantage. The Almighty Allah has said in the Holy Qur’an: It is Allah who has created whatever there is in the world for your benefit, enjoyment and for meeting your needs. (Al-Baqarah. 29) The best of all these objects is a virtuous woman created for your service and enjoyment. The Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has said in another Tradition: (Kanzul-Ummal. Tradition no 18913) Of all the things of your earth there are three things that are dearest to me: (Here note the Phrase “Your earth” as he said about his approach this world in these works) viz., a woman, scent, and the coolness of my eyes lies in the prayer. Thus the foremost among the blessing of the world are these things. In another place he said: (Tirmidhi, the Book of Abstinence. Tradition no 2378) "What have I to do with the world? I am like a rider who takes rest for a short time under the shade of a tree. then he sets off, leaving behind that tree." Seek refuge from a bad woman In short one of the three desirable gifts is a virtuous woman, because the Holy Prophet [sallallaahu alyhi wasallam] has sought refuge from bad woman. "O Allah! I seek refuge from that woman who will make me old before I attain the old age. I also seek refuge from a child who proves to be a trial in the Hereafter. May Allah save us from them. Aamen! So if you are in search of a woman for yourself or for one of your children, try to find out one who is religious, virtuous and righteous. If God-forbid she is not righteous, then she may prove a distress. If a man is lucky enough to get a virtuous wife. he should value her, and should never degrade her. To value her means that you should fulfil her rights and behave with her nicely. May Almighty Allah assist us in acting upon these injunctions, Aameen! And we close with the call that all praise be to Allah. the Lord of the worlds. Madrasa In'aamiyyah
  22. Through Thick and Thin - The wife of Nabi Ayyoob Alayhis salaam The incident of Nabi Ayyoob (‘alaihis salaam) is well known to one and all. Initially, Nabi Ayyoob (‘alaihis salaam) was enjoying great prosperity. He had abundant animals and crops, many children and numerous homes. Allah Ta‘ala then decided to test Nabi Ayyoob (‘alaihis salaam). Hence, he lost all his wealth and even his children. Allah Ta‘ala even tested Nabi Ayyoob (‘alaihis salaam) with an illness that afflicted his entire body. The only two limbs of his body that were spared from this illness were his tongue and his heart. Nevertheless, even in this condition, he would keep his heart and tongue engaged in the remembrance of Allah Ta‘ala. While Nabi Ayyoob (‘alaihis salaam) was patiently enduring this test, most of the people abandoned him, until he was left alone in a corner of the town. However, his loyal wife never left him or abandoned him. She remembered his favour upon her when conditions were favourable, and hence she remained at his side through thick and thin, ever loyal and faithful. She would patiently tend to him and see to all his needs. In some narrations, it has even been mentioned that when her wealth was eventually depleted, she began to carry out domestic work in peoples’ homes in order to earn a living and see to her ailing husband’s needs. Together with this, she had lost her children and her husband was extremely sick. Through all these tests, she remained patient and did not complain, even though she went from a life of comfort and happiness to one of difficulty and sadness. (Al-Bidaayah wan Nihaayah vol. 1 pg. 262) Lessons: 1. The proverb “a friend in need is a friend indeed” is often quoted, highlighting the fact that a true friend is one who will remain with you in difficult times as well as good times. We can well imagine that if such loyalty is expected of a good friend, then what must be the high level of loyalty that is expected of a true spouse? After all, the relationship between the husband and wife far surpasses any friendship! Hence, a true, loyal wife is not one who will abscond to her father’s house when “the goings get tough”. Rather, she will patiently remain with her husband and assist him, to the best of her ability, as she would expect of him had she been in difficulty. 2. Undergoing tests is an unavoidable occurrence in life. We cannot choose the nature or time of our tests – but we can choose to pass the tests. To do so, we will have to hold firmly to sabr (patience) and remain pleased with the decision of Allah Ta‘ala. uswatulmuslimah
  23. Prepare for a truly spiritual Hajj Fazail-e-Hajj (Virtues of Hajj) By Shaykhul-Hadeeth Maulana Mohammed Zakariyya Kandhalwi (RA) freepdfhosting.com/ebd24b7b52.pdf
  24. Gone Fishing Imagine a newly wed couple who are together for the first time. The husband spends the entire night praising his wife and expressing words of love to her. However the very next morning he is gone fishing or golfing with his friends, leaving his wife all alone. This makes one wonder what the entire nights praises and "I love you" were all about? Did it come from the heart or was it mere lip service? Likewise when proceeding to Makkah Mukarramah we shout out "lab-baik", and out of love we announce "We are present O Allah Ta'ala." But then we slip out to Jeddah for some sight seeing, or for every one tawaaf we make of the Ka`bah, we end up making ten tawaafs of the shopping malls. Let not our "lab-baik" be an empty slogan of love. Let it be followed by sincere actions and dedication. uswatulmuslimah.co.za
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