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  2. سلسلہ مواعظِ رشید نمبر 5 علم کے مطابق عمل کیوں نہیں ہوتا قسط نمبر 8 ایک سبق آموز واقعہ اس پر ایک واقعہ یاد آیا- ایک حاجی صاحب نے مجهے بتایا کہ ایک باران کا گزر ملک فیصل کے محل کی طرف ہوا - انہوں نے وہاں دروازے کے باہر ایک پیارے سے بچے کو کهیلتے دیکها- سامنے پہرے دار پہرہ دے رہا تها- ان کو جو پیار آیا تو بچہ کو گود میں اٹها کر پیار کرنے لگے -وہ بچہ ہی اس قدر پیارا تها کہ بے اختیار پیار آگیا ادهر کہیں محل سے ملک فیصل اس معاملہ کو دیکھ رہے تھے فوراً کسی شخص کو بهیجا کہ اس شخص کا اور اس کے معلم کا نام لکھ لو- وہ شخص آیا اور ان کا اور ان کے معلم کا نام پوچھ کر لکھ لیا - اب یہ بڑے گهبرائے کہ اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ جانے میرے ساتھ کیا معاملہ ہو، میرے اس عمل کو شاہ نے ناپسند کیا ہو- دل میں بہت گهبرا رہے تهے - دوسرے دن شاہی فوج کا ایک شخص ان کو بلانے آ پہنچا کہ آپ کو ملک بلا رہے ہیں- اب تو بہت ہی گهبرائے کہ برے پهنسے، نہ جانے کیا سلوک ہو- مگر جب شاہی محل میں پہنچے تو ان کا شاندار استقبال کیا گیا اور بہترین ضیافت ان کو دی گئی - ساتھ ہی ساتھ ان کو ایک سند شاہی بهی عطاء ہوئی کہ دوران حج یہ جہاں بهی جائیں ان کے ساتھ شاہی مہمان کا سا سلوک کیا جائے - کہاں تو ڈر کے مارے برا حال ہو رہا تها اور کہاں یہ آؤ بهگت- اس سے معلوم ہوا کہ شاہی خاندان کے ایک بچے کے ساتھ اگر کوئی محبت اور پیار کا سلوک کرتا ہے تو بادشاہ کو یہ ادا پسند آ جاتی ہے اور اس کا اس قدر اعزاز و اکرام ہوتا ہے اور اس قدر انعام ملتا ہے- سوچنا چاہیے کہ جب کوئی بندہ اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کے راستے میں دین کی خاطر نکلے اور کسی اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کے بندہ سے محبت رکهے تو اس کو اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کس قدر پسند فرمائیں گے اور اس کا اعزاز و اکرام کس قدر ہوگا - اس جہان فانی کے ذرا سے ٹکڑے پر حکومت کرنے والے کو جب کوئی بات پسند آ جائے تو اس کا یہ اعزاز و اکرام اور جب سارے جہانوں کے ملک کو کسی کی اداء پسند آ جائے کہ اس کے محبوب کو کوئی چاہ رہا ہے تو اس کے یہاں ایسے بندہ کے لیے کیا کیا انعام و اکرام کا معاملہ ہو سکتا ہے، اندازہ لگا لیجیے- ان صاحب نے جب مجهے اپنا یہ قصہ سنایا اس وقت سے میرا یہ معمول ہے کہ جب درود پڑهتا ہوں تو اس واقعہ کا استحضار کر لیتا ہوں کہ یا اللہ! تیرے محبوب ﷺ سے ہمارا محبت کا تعلق ہے- اس تعلق کی خاطر ، تیرے محبوب کی محبت کی خاطر تیرے محبوب کے وسیلہ سے ہم بهی تیری عنایت کے امیدوار ہیں- (جاری ہے)
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  4. Wife to Doctor: My Husband has the Habit of Talking in his Sleep What Should I give to cure him? . . . . . . . . Doctor: Give him an Opportunity to Speak when He is awake :D
  5. The Malady of Love Sickness
  6. سلسلہ مواعظِ رشید نمبر 5 علم کے مطابق عمل کیوں نہیں ہوتا قسط نمبر 7 صحبت صالح سے فائدہ پہنچنے کی وجہ اگر بے عملی کا علاج کروانا ہے تو وہ صرف صحبت ہی سے ہو سکتا ہے اور صحبت ضروری ہے، جس کے دلائل اوپر مذکور ہوئے- اب یہ کہ صحبت کیسے اور کیوں کر فائدہ پہنچاتی ہے اس کا بیان کرنا مقصود ہے حالانکہ اس کی ضرورت نہیں تھی کیونکہ ڈاکٹر کا دواء بتانا ہی کافی ہوتا ہے- کوئی ڈاکٹر سے یہ نہیں پوچهتا کہ اس.دواء کا اثر کس طرح ہوتا ہے؟ بس دوا استعمال کر لی جاتی ہے اور فائدہ خود بخود مشاہد ہونے لگتا ہے- ہم سے تو بس *"کیا"* پوچها جانا چاہیے *"کیوں"* پوچھنے کی ضرورت نہیں تا ہم آپ حضرات کے نفع کی خاطر کہ بات زیادہ واضح ہو جائے اور ہو سکتا ہے کہ اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کے کسی بندہ کو عمل کی توفیق ہو جائے بتائے دیتے ہیں- 1⃣ الله تبارك و تعالیٰ کے نیک بندوں پر اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کی طرف سے خاص رحمت کا نزول ہوتا ہے اور جس مجلس میں اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کا ذکر اور اس کی یاد ہوتی ہے فرشتے اس مجلس کو گهیر لیتے ہیں اور اہل مجلس کے لیے دعاء کرتے ہیں اور اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ بھی اپنے فرشتوں میں ان اہل مجلس کا ذکر فرماتے ہیں- یہ کتنی بڑی برکت کی بات ہے کہ اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ فرشتوں کے سامنے تمام اہل مجلس کا ذکر فخریہ کرتے ہیں- حضرت نانوتوی رحمہ اللہ تعالیٰ سے کسی نے پوچها کہ لوگ صالحین کے قریب دفن ہونے کی تمنا کرتے ہیں اس کی کیا وجہ ہے؟ حضرت نانوتوی رحمہ اللہ تعالیٰ نے اس وقت کوئی جواب نہ دیا- بعد میں جب خادم آپ کو پنکها جهل رہا تها تو پوچها کہ ساتھ بیٹھنے والوں کو بھی کچھ ہوا آرہی ہے یا نہیں؟ اس طرح صلحاء کی قبور پر جب اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کی رحمت کا نزول ہوتا ہے تو آس پاس کے لوگ بهی اس کی رحمت سے متمتع ہوتے ہیں- اسی طرح جب اللہ والوں کی صحبت میں کوئی آ بیٹهے گا تو اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کی رحمت سے مستفیض ہوگا اور اس کی ہوائیں چلیں گے- 2⃣ جب کوئی کسی اللہ والے کے پاس جاتا ہے اور اس کا مقصد دنیا طلب کرنا نہیں ہوتا ، وہ محض اللہ کہ خاطر اور دین کی طلب لے کر جاتا ہے- اپنی اصلاح کی فکر لے کر جاتا ہے اور جس شخص کے پاس وہ جا رہا ہے اس سے اس کو محبت بهی ہوتی ہے تو جو شخص اللہ کی خاطر اس کے دین کی طلب میں لگ جاتا ہے اس طالب اور مطلوب (جس سے دین حاصل کرنے جا رہا ہے) دونوں پر اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ رحمت سے متوجہ ہو جاتے ہیں کیونکہ اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کے محبوب بندوں سے محبت کی وجہ سے اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ اس بندہ سے بهی محبت کرنے لگتے ہیں اور جب اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ اس سے محبت کرنے لگیں تو اس سے بڑھ کر نعمت اور کیا ہو سکتی ہے؟ اللہ تبارک و تعالیٰ کے محبوب بندوں کی محبت بھی بڑی چیز ہے- (جاری ہے)
  7. سلسلہ مواعظِ رشید نمبر 5 علم کے مطابق عمل کیوں نہیں ہوتا قسط نمبر 6 5⃣1⃣ میرے شیخ رحمہ اللہ تعالیٰ سے کسی نے صحبت کی ضرورت پر گفتگو کی تو حصرت رحمہ اللہ تعالیٰ نے ان سے فرمایا کہ صحابی بن جاؤ- انہوں کے کہا صحابی کس طرح بن سکتا ہوں؟ تو حضرت رحمہ اللہ تعالیٰ نے فرمایا کہ اچها تابعی بن جاؤ- انہوں نے کہا کہ تابعی کس طرح بن سکتا ہوں؟ تو حضرت رحمہ اللہ تعالیٰ نے فرمایا کہ اچها پهر تبع تابعی بن جاؤ تو انہوں نے کہا کہ یہ کس طرح ممکن ہے؟ حضرت رحمہ اللہ تعالیٰ نے فرمایا کہ معلوم ہوا کہ صحابی اسی وقت بن سکتا ہے کہ جب رسول اللہ ﷺ کی صحبت میں رہا ہو، اور تابعی اس کو کہتے ہیں جو صحابی کی صحبت میں رہا ہو اور تبع تابعی اس کو کہتے ہیں جس نے تابعی کی صحبت اٹهائی ہو- لفظ صحابی پر غور کریں تو معلوم ہوگا کہ یہ صحبت ہی سے بنا ہوا ہے- صحابی حضرت صحابہ رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنهم ہی ہیں جنہوں نے مصاحبت رسول اللہ ﷺ کی صحبت میں رہے ان سے فیض حاصل کیا - 6⃣1⃣ صحبت کا اثر مشاہدات و تجربات سے ثابت ہے اور روز روشن کی طرح واضح ہے، اسی لیے یہ حقیقت پوری دنیا کے مسلمات میں سے ہے، انسان تو انسان ہے بے جان جمادات پر بهی صحبت کا اثر مشاہدہ مسلم ہے، مقناطیس کی صحبت سے لوہے میں کشش پیدا ہو جاتی ہے اور پهول کی صحبت سے مٹی میں خوشبو پیدا ہو جاتی ہے- اہل دل حضرات کی صحبت میں غضب کی تأثير ہوتی ہے بعض مرتبہ آن واحد میں انسان کی کایا پلٹ جاتی ہے آنانکہ خاک را بنظر کیمیا کنند آیا بود کہ گوشئہ چشمے بما کنند 🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸 مری محفل میں جو بیٹها اٹها آتش بجاں ہو کر دلوں میں آگ بهر دیتی ہے آہ آتشیں میری 🥀🥀🥀🥀🥀🥀🥀🥀🥀🥀🥀🥀 اے سوختہ جاں پھونک دیا کیا میرے دل میں ہے شعلہ زن اک آگ کا دریا میرے دل میں 🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃🍃 جس قلب کی آہوں نے دل پهونک دیئے لاکھوں اس قلب میں یا اللہ! کیا آگ بهری ہو گی 💦💦💦💦💦💦💦💦💦💦💦💦 جو آگ کی خاصیت وہ عشق کی خاصیت اک خانہ بخانہ ہے اک سینہ بسینہ ہے 🌹🌹🌹🌹🌹🌹🌹🌹🌹🌹🌹🌹 (17) اب تک جتنی دلیلیں دی گئیں ہیں وہ تو سب نظری اور فکری تهیں- سب سے بڑی دلیل اور اہم دلیل اس بات کی تجربہ ہے ، تجربہ انسان کو وہ کچھ سکهاتا ہے جو زبانی ساری زندگی سنتا رہے پهر بهی سمجھ میں نہ آئے- اس لیے کہتا ہوں اور کچھ نہیں تو کم از کم تجربہ کی خاطر ہی کسی بزرگ کی صحبت میں بیٹھ کر دیکھو خود معلوم ہو جائے گا کہ کیسے عکم و عمل کے سانچے میں ڈهالا جاتا ہے- (جاری ہے)
  8. ماموں وچچا زاد سے نکاح پر اعتراض اور اس کا جواب! یاسر ندیم الواجدی اسلام میں ماموں خالہ اور چچا وپھوپھی زاد سے نکاح کے جواز پر اعتراض کرنے والے ہندووں کو آپ انھی کی کتاب سے یہ "کتھا" ضرور سنائیں۔ دیوی بھاگوت میں شری نامی عورت کی کہانی لکھی ہے کہ جب اس نے کائنات کی تخلیق کی تو اس کی خواہش ہوئی اور اس نے اپنا ہاتھ رگڑا، ہاتھ میں آبلہ پڑگیا جس سے برہما پیدا ہوے، شری نے کہا کہ تو مجھ سے شادی کر، برہما نے کہا کہ میں نہیں کرسکتا، کیوں کہ تو میری ماں ہے۔ اس کو یہ سن کر غصہ آیا اور اس نے برہما کو جلاکر راکھ کردیا۔ پھر دوسرا لڑکا اسی طرح پیدا ہوا جس کا نام وشنو تھا وہ بھی شادی سے انکار کرنے پر جلادیا گیا۔ آخر کار تیسرا لڑکا ہوا جس کا نام مہا دیو تھا۔ اس نے کہا: میں تجھ سے شادی نہیں کرسکتا، تو دوسرا جسم اختیار کرلے، میں شادی کرلوں گا، چناں چہ ایسا ہی کیا۔ پھر مہا دیو نے کہا کہ یہ دو راکھ کے ڈھیر کیسے ہیں، شری نے کہا کہ یہ تیرے بھائی ہیں۔ مہا دیو نے کہا کہ میں اکیلا ہوں، تو ان کو بھی زندہ کردے اور دو عورتیں مزید پیدا کر۔ اس طرح شری سمیت تین عورتیں ہوگئیں، جن سے تینوں بھائیوں کی شادی ہوئی۔ عجیب بات یہ ہے کہ مہادیو اپنی ماں سے شادی کرنے پر راضی نہیں تھا لیکن بہنوں سے شادی پر اس کو کوئی پریشانی نہیں تھی، جب کہ اس کی بیوی نے صرف اپنا جسم یعنی ظاہر ہی بدلا تھا، ورنہ اصلا تو مہادیو کی ماں تھی۔ نیز اگر پہلی کزن، یا دوسری وتیسری کزن جس سے دادا یا پردادا میں جاکر نسب ملتا ہے بہن ہی کی طرح ہے اور اس سے نکاح جائز نہیں ہونا چاہیے، تو سوال یہ ہے کہ یہ سلسلہ یہیں کیوں رکے۔ سناتن دھرم کے مطابق تو انسانیت ایک کنبہ ہے، بیس تیس پشتوں پہلے جن کا نسب جاکر ملتا ہو ان سے بھی نکاح جائز نہ ہو، بلکہ کسی سے بھی نکاح جائز نہیں ہونا چاہیے کیوں کہ کہیں نہ کہیں اس سے نسب جاکر مل ہی جائے گا۔ اس لیے انسان جب خدا کی طے کردہ باؤنڈری سے باہر قدم رکھ کر، اپنی باؤنڈری خود بنانے کا ارادہ کرتا ہے، تو اس دائرے کو اسی جگہ کھینچنے کے لیے کوئی معقول وجہ درکار ہوگی، لیکن اگر خدا کی ہی طے کردہ باؤنڈری میں انسان اپنے کو محدود رکھے، تو اس کو خدا کے بیان کے علاوہ کسی دلیل کی ضرورت نہیں ہے۔ اللہ تعالیٰ نے محارم کا ایک دائرہ طے کردیا ہے، جو اس دائرے میں ہے اس سے نکاح درست نہیں ہے، یہ دائرہ کیوں کہ انسان نے طے نہیں کیا ہے، اس لیے اس کے ثبوت کے لیے صرف اتنا کافی ہے کہ اللہ کا حکم ہے۔ لیکن اگر غیر محارم کو مثلا چچا یا ماموں زاد کو بھی اس دائرے میں شامل کردیا جائے، تو سوال ہوگا کہ فرسٹ کزن ہی کیوں، سیکنڈ کزن یعنی دادا کے بھائی بہن کی اولاد کیوں محارم میں داخل نہ ہو، ان کو بھی شامل کرلیا جائے تو جہاں بھی رکیں گے، اس کے لیے معقول دلیل درکار ہوگی، ورنہ اسی اصل کی طرف لوٹ کر آنا ہوگا کہ جن سے خونی رشتہ ہے ان سے نکاح بھی درست نہیں ہے۔ پھر یہ اعتراض ان لوگوں کی طرف سے تو ہرگز نہیں ہونا چاہیے جو ایسے قصے کہانیوں میں یقین رکھتے ہوں جن کی رو سے ان کے بڑوں نے اپنی ماں، بہنوں سے نکاح کرلیا ہو اور جن کے مطابق کائنات کی بنانی والی دیوی اپنے نکاح کی خواہش پوری نہ کر پانے پر اپنی ہی اولاد کو جلا کر راکھ کردیتی ہو۔
  9. Understanding the Attributes of Allah – Part 1 of 4 In this first part of the seminar entitled “Understanding the Attributes of Allah” that took place in London, in December 2013, Shaykh Dr. Abul Hasan Hussain Ahmed explained the Importance of al-Isnad and Ijaza. The lecture demonstrated how to acquire sacred Islamic knowledge in the true way of the Salaf, and it is also an eye opener for those who claim to follow the Salafi Way but either fail to apply this methodology of receiving knowledge using the isnad and ijaza system, or completely dismiss it through their own faulty reasoning or stubornness. Hence, those who adhere to this classical tradition of acquiring and transmitting the Islamic sciences via means of the Isnad and Ijaza system are truly the adherents of the Salafus-Salihin (Pious predecessors), and its diammetrical opposite are mere claimants to that noble Way. Darul Tahqiq
  10. Earlier
  11. Durud equivalent to 10,000 durud STATUS: NO SOURCE Question What is the authenticity of the following and can it be circulated? A person who reads اللهم صل على محمد أفضل صلواتك, this is equivalent to reading durūd 10,000 times and if read on Friday, it is equivalent to 700,000 times. بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم Answer We have been unable to locate the narration in the ḥadīth books available to us, nor in the reliable books of durūd, and the wording suggests it is not authentic. One should therefore avoid circulating it unless the source is identified and the chain verified. Allah knows best Yusuf Shabbir 16 Ramaḍān 1440 / 21 May 2019 Approved by: Mufti Shabbir Ahmed and Mufti Muhammad Tahir Islamicportal
  12. The beauty of Arabic Language الأزلي That which has no beginning الأبدي That which has no ending الأمدي That which is between a beginning and an end السرمدي That which has no beginning and no end/timeless التَحسُّس Looking out for news on others out of kindness التَجَسُّس Looking out for news on others out of wickedness الصّمت Silence out of respect السُكُوت Silence caused by fear التضاد Contradiction in actions التناقض Contradiction in speech
  13. Some tricks shaaytan uses to convince a Muslimah to chat with boys: 1) shaytan says: “Young girl, in our modern age, every girl chat with boys! Don’t be so conservative dear! We are not in the middle age anymore!” *Dear sister, don’t listen to shaytan! To chat/to sit with a non Mahram is Haram in Islam! If that becomes the norm, does that mean it is the right thing to do? If the majority of Ummah drink Alcohol (for example) does that mean that other Muslims should drink it too? Of course not! A scholar said once:“Take the way of the righteous, do not be fooled by the lack of its followers…And be aware of the path of misguidance, do not be fooled by the high numbers of the lost ones who followed it" 2) shaytan says: “This is boy is just like a brother to you! So why don’t you chat with him?” *Brother?!! Did your mother give birth to him?!! Dear sister, please beware of feeling safe from the tricks of shaytan. Beware of trusting your own feelings, thinking that you don’t feel anything for this boy and that it’s ok to talk to him..Remember that shaytan is always the third person and he will surely drag you to do things you’ve never thought you would do! 3) shaytan says: “Dear, look how pious this Muslim brother is! why don’t you give him a chance to talk to you so you can benefit from his Islamic knowledge?” *This trick works with many sisters, especially the pious ones! The shaytaan deceives people and opens the way that leads them to sin. He mixes things that are acceptable with things that are not acceptable, and mixes truth with falsehood. He comes to each person through something that is suited to him. So, for pious sisters, he would come to them with "religious" arguments! shaytan will make sure that the woman who loves Islam and is religiously committed, will be attracted to pious men, just like her, If a sister wants to know more about Islam, she should have friendship with righteous sisters who can help her in increasing her Islamic knowledge and not have chat with a brother for that reason? Remember dear sister, with shaytan, there is always a trick for everything! Don't let him deceive you & beautify sins in your eyes so that you commit them with no regret or guilt .. Beat him! He is weak, so be a strong Muslimah.
  14. An individual asked the following question: There are many Muslims living and working in countries where there is widespread immodesty. Avoiding interaction with non-Mahram females is almost impossible for them. What should they do to avoid sins of the eyes? Sayyidi wa sanadi Mufti Mohammed Taqi Usmani (May Allah protect & preserve him) replied: ‘This is a big problem nowadays, no doubt, even in some Muslim countries. Two things need to be avoided: 1. Intentionally looking at non-Mahram females with the intention to derive pleasure 2. Intentionally thinking about non-Mahram females with the intention to derive pleasure. Two things are needed to achieve this: 1. Using one’s will power and determination, i.e. forcing oneself against the carnal desires of one’s lower self 2. Asking Allah for protection. He asked those present: What do you think? If a slave sincerely asks Allah for protection, will He not grant His protection? Definitely He will grant His protection! Another individual asked: I have read in Hakim al Umma Thanvi’s (Allah’s mercy be upon him) discourses that sins of the eyes are so destructive that their effect can cause the beneficial effects of all the recitations, prayers, and other forms of worship become null and void. Shaykh replied: If a slave is sincerely doing the two things I have mentioned then nothing will cause his actions to go to waste. Rather, take note– this is not an invitation to sin– but if a person, after making his best effort and sincerely asking Allah for help, slips and commits a sin, then the subsequent Tawba will elevate his status. He continued: My Shaikh Dr Abdul Hayy Arifi (May his secret be sanctified) was a lawyer by profession. But he was uncomfortable with this profession as sometimes he would have to be involved in cases where his role in the case would be doubtful or disliked from Shariah point of view. He finally decided to quit and become a homeopathic doctor instead. He informed Hakim al Umma Thanvi (Allah’s mercy be upon him) about this decision. Hakim al Umma (Allah’s mercy be upon him) replied:“I was waiting for this. And now I give you ijazet-e-baiyat.” Anyway, when respected Dr Abdul Hayy Arifi (Allah have mercy on him) started his clinic all sorts of people would come to him, including women who wore clothes which were contrary to Shariah. He became worried that he left his profession as a lawyer to avoid doing anything contrary to Shariah, now he has fallen into another problem! He wrote to Hakim al Umma regarding his predicament. Hakim al Umma replied: Take care of two things: 1. Force yourself to avoid looking at non-Mahram females with the intention of deriving pleasure 2. Sincerely, humbly, and with all humility, ask Allah for protection from falling into his disobedience. Intekhab e Kaiseri, Ramadan 1440, post zohar majlis, office, Darul Uloom Karachi Taken from ashrafiya.com
  15. The story & sacrifice of Ibrahim Alayhis Salam His childhood: His father’s name was Aazar. Aazar was an idol worshipper who also created idols for others. He was misguided and led others towards misguidance. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) was nurtured in the centre of this community, where shirk and sins were rife. Many people complain that their childhood corrupted them. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) grew up in the worst of environments, surrounded by idols, yet he never used this as an excuse to sin. Over time, he slowly began to give Da’wah to his father. His father became angry and threatened to throw him out of the home. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) now had to choose between Allah and his father. He chose Allah and his father threw him out. Catapulted into the fire: Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) was later captured and accused of breaking the idols. The community decided to catapult him into a blazing fire. The flames were so fierce and high, the birds would not hover above it out of fear of being burnt. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) was chained and catapulted into the fire. There was no turning back now. Watching the horrific event unfold, Jibraeel (Alayhi Salam) request permission from Allah to approach Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam). Mid-air, he enquired if he could offer any assistance. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) could have easily sought safety from the fire. But instead, he simply responded that I desire Allah to be pleased with me. Yet again, he chose Allah over his own self. Leaving His wife and child in the desert: One day Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) found himself stranded in a desert with his wife, Hajra (Alayhi Salam) and baby son, Ismail (Alayhi Salam). There was no food or water in sight. At that precise moment, Allah called Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) to leave his family. His soft heart could not bear to break the news to his wife. Thus, he lowered his head and slowly walked away. She enquired where he was going but was met with no reply. Immediately, she realised that this must be the call of Allah. When Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) nodded in the affirmative, she accepted his leave wholeheartedly. Yet again, he chose Allah over his own wife. Sacrificing Ismail (Alayhi Salam): Just like all parents, his love for Ismail (Alayhi Salam) grew stronger as he blossomed into a young man. At this point, Allah commanded him to slaughter Ismail (Alayhi Salam). His son Ismail (Alayhi Salam) was no ordinary child, for he too was destined to become a Prophet. Thus, he encouraged his own father to sacrifice him. Together, the father and son duo trekked a high mountain. Ismail (Alayhi Salam) then laid down before his father who grabbed an axe. Yet again, he chose Allah over his own son. Lessons to be learnt: 1) Be loyal to Allah and He will assist you: Throughout his life, Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) chose Allah first. He proved that Allah was dearer to him than his own father, wife, child and self. His faith was unshakeable and Allah was only testing it. He never sought to hurt his tender heart. So once he passed these tests, Allah delivered him into ease. When he chose Allah over his father and self, Allah commanded the fire to be cool for him. When he chose Allah over his wife, Allah caused the well of Zamzam to spring forth and quench their thirst. When he chose Allah over his son, Allah ordered a ram to be placed and his son was saved. Every phase that seemed like a breaking point, actually became a making point for Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam). This was due to his loyalty and sacrifice. Likewise, when life pushes you to breaking point, know that it can be a making point for you instead. Just be loyal to Allah and He will carry you through struggle, then He will carry you to ease. 2) The true spirit of Qurbani: In this worldly life, we have been blessed with many different relationships. The greatest relationship is our relationship with Allah. Therefore, Allah commands us to partake in Qurbani annually to renew our relationship with Him. It is not just a sacrifice. The spirit of Qurbani is to reflect upon the life and overall sacrifices of Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam). Thereafter, strive to emulate him by sacrificing sins and evil for the sake of Allah. Lastly, Allah honoured Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) with the title Khaleelullah – the Friend of Allah. Thus, for those who wish to attain wilayah, befriend Allah by following the friend of Allah. May Allah grant us the ability to do so, Aameen. Moulana Dawood Seedat Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
  16. الله أكبر ، الله أكبر ، لا اله إلا الله ، الله أكبر ، الله أكبر ، ولله الحمد 

  17. Question: Assalamu alaikum Is it allowed to respond by saying "hahaha" or "lol" if a non-mehram brother has shared a joke with you? Answered by Mufti Ismail Moosa: Wassalam, No. A female should be stern when speaking to a non Mahram. Many times, a man can get seduced just because of the manner in which a female chats. And Allah knows best
  18. ♦️بیمار دل کی علامات♦️ 🔷 انسان کو کیسے پتہ چلے کہ اس کا دل بیمارہے؟ اس سلسلہ میں حافظ ابن قیم رحمتہ اللہ نے کچھ علامات بتائی ہیں۔ 🌟*پہلی علامت:* جب انسان فانی چیزوں کو باقی چیزوں پر ترجیح دینے لگے تو وہ سمجھ لے کہ میرا دل بیمار ہے ۔ مثلاً دنیا کا گھر اچھا لگتا ہے مگر آخرت کا گھر بنانے کی فکر نہیں ہے۔ دنیا میں عزت مل جائے مگر آخرت کی عزت یا ذلت کی سوچ دل میں نہیں۔ دنیا میں آسانیاں ملیں مگر آخرت کے عذاب کی پرواہ نہیں 🌟*دوسری علامت:* جب انسان رونا بند کردے تو وہ سمجھ لے کہ دل سخت ہوچکا ہے۔ کبھی کبھی انسان کی آنکھیں روتی ہیں اور کبھی کبھی انسان کا دل روتاہے۔ دل کا رونا آنکھوں کے رونے پر فضیلت رکھتاہے۔ یہ ضروری نہیں کہ انکھ سے پانی کا نکلنا ہی رونا کہلاتا ہے، بلکہ اللہ کے کئی بندے ایس بھی ہوتے ہیں کہ ان کےدل رو رہے ہوتے ہیں گویا ان کی آنکھوں سے پانی نہیں نکلتا مگر ان کا دل سے رونا اللہ تعالیٰ کے ہاں قبول ہو جاتاہے اور ان کی توبہ کے لئے قبولیت کے دروازے کھل جاتے ہیں تو دل اور آنکھوں میں سے کوئی نہ کوئی چیز ضرور روئے اور بعض کی تو دونوں چیزیں رورہی ہوتی ہیں۔آنکھیں بھی رو رہی ہوتی ہیں اور دل بھی رورہا ہوتاہے 🌟*تیسری علامت:* مخلوق سے ملنے کی تو تمنا ہو لیکن اسے اللہ رب العزت سے ملنا یاد ہی نہ ہو تو سمجھ لے کہ یہ میرے دل کے لیے موت ہے ۔ لوگوں کے ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ ایسے تعلقات ہوتے ہیں کہ ان کے دل میں ایک دوسرے سے ملنے کی تمنا ہوتی ہے وہ اداس ہوتے ہیں اور انہیں انتظار ہوتاہے مگر اللہ کی ملاقات یاد ہی نہیں ہوتی۔ 🌟*چوتھی علامت:* جب انسان کا نفس اللہ رب العزت کی یاد سے گھبرائے اور مخلوق کے ساتھ بیٹھنے سے خوش ہو تو وہ بھی دل کی موت کی پہچان ہے۔ اللہ کی یاد سے گھبرانے کا مطلب یہ ہے کہ جب انسان کا دل تسبیح پڑھنے سے گھبرائے۔ اس کے لیے مصلیٰ پربیٹھنا بوجھ محسوس ہوتا ہو۔ ایک موٹا سا اصول سمجھ لو کہ اگر بندے کا اللہ کے ساتھ تعلق دیکھنا ہو تو اس کا مصلے پر بیٹھنا دیکھ لو۔ ذاکر شاغل بندہ مصلے پر اسی سکون کے ساتھ بیٹھتا ہے جس طرح بچہ ماں کی گود میں سکون کےساتھ بیٹھتا ہے اور جس کے دل میں کجی ہوتی ہے اس کے لیے مصلے پر بیٹھنا مصیبت ہوتی ہے وہ سلام پھیر کر مسجد سے بھاگ کھڑے ہوتے ہیں۔ کئی تو ایسے ہوتے ہیں کہ مسجد میں آنے کے لیے ان کا دل آمادہ ہی نہیں ہوتا...!
  19. " نعمتان مغبون فيهما كثير من الناس: الصحة، والفراغ" Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "There are two blessings in which many people incur loss. (They are) health and free time (for doing good)". رواه الترمذي
  20. Question Assalamu alaikum warahmatullah Mufti Sahab, As we know that it is virtuous to fast in the first nine days of Dhul Hijjah, shall I get the reward if I keep my qadha fasts in these days? Answer ASSALAMU ALAIKUM 1 Zul Hajj 1440 (3 August 2019) Insha-Allah you will obtain the reward of these 9 days even if you keep the Qadha fasts in these days. Was-salaam A.S.Desai Mujlisul Ulama of S.A.
  21. Dhu’l-Hijjah The first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah are amongst the days which Allah has granted extra virtue and excellence over other days of the year, to the extent that many ulama are of the opinion that these days are more virtuous than the last ten days of Ramadan, and even the last ten nights of Ramadan, with the exception of Laylatul Qadr. Rasulullah ﷺ said, “There are no days in which actions are more beloved to Allah than these days, i.e., the ten days (of Dhu’l-Hijjah).” The Companions asked, “O Messenger of Allah, not even jihad in the path of Allah?” He ﷺ said, “Not even jihad in the path of Allah, except a person who goes out with his life and wealth, but does not return with anything.” (Bukhari, Tirmidhi and others) These are also the ten nights which Allah swore oath by in Surah al-Fajr, according to some of the exegetes of the Qur’an: “By the dawn, and ten nights” (Qur’an, 89:1-2) These blessed days are for us to exert ourselves in the worship and remembrance of Allah, and all acts of obedience. However, it is very easy for such days to pass by like any ordinary days if we are not focused and have not prepared a programme of action to take full benefit of these moments. Below are ten steps we can all try to put into practice to maximise the benefit of this blessed season. Step One Abundant recitation of the Noble Quran. This can be done in three ways: 1. Recite one juz daily 2. Recite two juz daily 3. Recite three juz daily. This is the best option, as one will complete a whole Quran in these ten days. Step Two Going early to the masjid for salah and spending time in du’a, especially asking Allah for well-being (‘aafiyah) in this life and the hereafter. Also, engaging in the remembrance of Allah until salah time. Step Three Be more particular about the sunan before and after the five daily salah, and other nawafil, such as ishraaq, tahajjud etc. Step Four Three times in particular should be spent in the remembrance of Allah, blessings on the Prophet, recitation of the Quran and du’a: 1. Before Fajr, especially through du’a and seeking forgiveness (istighfaar) 2. After Fajr Salah until sunrise 3. Between Asr and Maghrib Salah Step Five Remind family, friends, colleagues, neighbours, and whoever you possibly can regarding the importance of good actions in these days, and you shall also get their full reward, without any decrease in their reward. Step Six Fast on these days from 1st Dhu’l-Hijjah until the 9th Dhu’l-Hijjah, as there is extra reward for fasting on these days. And the fast of 9th Dhu’l-Hijjah, the best day of the year according to some hadiths, is a means of forgiveness of minor sins for the previous and coming year (Muslim). Step Seven Utilising one’s tongue in good things only, such as the remembrance of Allah, calling towards good, forbidding evil, reconciling between people and speaking to people in a nice manner. More importantly, it is necessary to withhold the tongue from all impermissible statements, such as backbiting, lying, swearing and offending others. Safeguarding the tongue is an obligation at all times, but increases in importance during such blessed times. In particular, the Prophet ﷺ encouraged that a person abundantly read the following in these ten days: سبحان الله والحمد لله ولا إله إلاّ الله والله أكبر Step Eight Providing iftaar for those fasting is a means of getting the reward for their fast too, as taught to us by the Prophet ﷺ. So this is a perfect opportunity to gain this reward by feeding those who are fasting. Remember, this reward is not just achieved by providing a full meal; even giving a sip of water or a date to a fasting person is sufficient to attain this virtue. Step Nine Charity, even to the extent of giving a date to a needy person, is a great act of virtue, and spending in the path of Allah during these blessed days will bring a person even closer to Allah. Try to spend on every day of these blessed ten days. Charity is one of the best means for forgiveness of sins and repelling the anger of Allah. Step Ten Make the most of these days by doing any good action you have the opportunity to perform, be it through worship and remembrance, visiting the sick, helping the needy or even smiling at your Muslim brother; do not consider any action to be little, especially in these blessed days. May Allah Ta’ala give us all the ability to realise the value of these blessed days of Dhu’l-Hijjah and to utilise them to the best of our ability. Aameen. Source: https://rayyaninstitute.com/ten-ways-to-make-the-most-of-the-first-ten-days-of-dhul-hijjah/
  22. Bint e Aisha

    آبگینے

    آبگینے ایک سفر میں غلام نے اونٹوں کو تیز دوڑایا تو رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے مستورات کا خیال رکھنے کے لئے ان الفاظ میں اشارہ فرمایا: رُوَیدًا یَا اَنجَشَۃُ لَا تُکسِرِ القَوَارِیرَ "آہستہ اے انجشہ! آبگینوں کو توڑ نہ دینا" صحیح مسلم اسی پس منظر میں ایک خوبصورت نظم ذرا دھرے سے تم چلنا کہ یہ تو آبگینے ہیں! یہی وہ آبگینے ہیں___ کبھی ہو پیاس کی شدت تو یہ پانی پلاتے ہیں کبھی سورج کی ہو حدّت تو یہ سایہ بناتے ہیں یہ ہیں آنگن کے تارے جو ہمیشہ جگمگاتے ہیں مکاں کو گھر بناتے ہیں اِنھی میں وہ قرینے ہیں کہ یہ تو آبگینے ہیں یہی وہ آبگینے ہیں کہ جو گھر بھر کی زینت ہیں یہی آنکھوں کی ہیں ٹھنڈک یہی فرحت بھی، راحت بھی اِنھی سے رونقِ محفل اِنھی سے حرمتِ محمل بھری شاداب دنیا میں یہی سر سبز اک حاصل یہی جنت کے زینے ہیں کہ ہیں یہ ماں یہی بیٹی، یہی بہنا یہی ہیں ہاتھ کا گہنا محاذوں پر نکلو جو ____ کبھی پیروں کی بیڑی بھی! بنیں پسلی سے ہیں یہ اس لئے تھوڑی سی ٹیڑھی بھی! مگر تم توڑ مت دینا انھیں مستور ہی رکھنا کہ عصمت کے نگینے ہیں کہ یہ تو آبگینے ہیں! کبھی سوچا بھی ہے تم نے یہ کتنا دکھ اُٹھاتی ہیں؟ تمھاری زندگی کو کس طرح شاداں بناتی ہیں؟ تمھاری راہ کے کانٹے یہ چُن لیتی ہیں پلکوں سے سفر آساں بناتی ہیں سنور جائیں اگر اک نسل کا ایماں بناتی ہیں! پھر اِن معصوم کلیوں کو یہی بصری__ یہی سُفیاں بناتی ہیں! انجینئر احسن عزیز شہید
  23. Question Assalamoalaequm, In Islam is any sort of relationship allowed between the sexes before marriage? I was approached by an older cousin who loves me very much but marriage is impossible for the next few years due to my age and the circumstances. I did not think that a secret affair would be right so I have since turned him down. He claimed that to love is not a sin only under some rules and regulations given by Islam. Was I right in refusing him even though I liked him a lot? And is it haraam upon me to think about/remember him? Jazakallahkhair. Answer Bismillaah-ir-Rahmaan-ir-Raheem. Wa 'Alaykum-us-Salaam wa Rahmatullaahi wa Barakaatuh. 1) Islam does not permit any sort of relationship before marriage. Islam forbids fornication, and all actions that could lead to it eventually, and this begins by speaking and looking. This is the unique Islamic way of destroying evil from the root. 2) He claims to love you very much, but if you are not considering marriage, it would be best for you to let go of the idea. It is worth considering, that what the youth of today see as undying love, is many a time nothing more than infatuation and puppy love. True love is the mutual feeling that Allaah creates between man and woman through the Barakah of Nikaah. You are still young, and your outlook in life, and your likes and dislikes will vastly change over the next few years. At this stage, you cannot be sure that this is what you want for life. It would be best for you to forget about him, and ask him to forget about you. If you are written for each other, let it happen at the right time, and in the right manner. Do not force your destiny to unfold before its time. 3) Your refusal of pursuing a Haraam (illicit) relationship, was the right and Islamic thing to do, which most certainly earned you the pleasure of Allaah, inshaAllaah. 4) Thinking about a non-mahram (strange) man voluntarily, is a sin. However if these thoughts come involuntarily, banish them immediately, seek forgiveness and make the Zhikr of Allaah. If you entertain them you shall be sinful. And Allaah knows best. Wa Billaah-it-tawfiq. Wassalaam. A. Z. Pandor Taken from: Muftisays
  24. An Accepted Qurbaani – How? When Sayyiduna Aadam and Hawwa (alaihimas salaam) came to live in the world and started having children, it so happened that they had twins from every pregnancy, one of the two being a boy, while the other, a girl. When the issue of marriage came, since there was no one other than brothers and sisters – and a brother cannot be married to his sister – Allah Ta‘ala instructed that the boy born from one set of twins should marry the girl born from the other set of twins and vice-versa. But, the girl born with the first boy, Qaabil, was beautiful while the girl born with the second boy, Haabil, was unattractive. When the time of marriage came, the unattractive girl born with Haabil fell to the lot of Qaabil according to the law. This enraged Qaabil. He turned hostile to Haabil and started insisting that the girl born with him should be given to him in marriage. Sayyiduna Aadam (alaihis salaam) did not accept the demand. However, to remove the division between Haabil and Qaabil, he proposed that they should both offer their respective sacrifice for Allah Ta‘ala. Whoever has his sacrifice accepted will be the one to have that girl. He was certain that the sacrifice to be accepted will be the sacrifice of the one who has the right to marry her, that is, the sacrifice of Haabil. In that era, an open sign of a sacrifice being accepted was that a fire would come from the sky and consume the sacrifice; and the sacrifice which was not consumed by the fire was the sign of its non-acceptance. Haabil owned a flock of sheep and goats. He happily offered the sacrifice of the best and healthiest sheep he possessed. Qaabil was a grain farmer. He offered a few poor quality grains as his sacrifice. As was customary with them, a fire came from the sky and ate up the sacrifice offered by Haabil while the sacrifice offered by Qaabil remained lying where it was, untouched. Qaabil was further enraged and said to his brother: “I will kill you.” Haabil responded in a peaceful manner: “Allah Ta‘ala only accepts from those who possess taqwa (Allah consciousness).” That is, if you had been conscious of Allah Ta‘ala, practising taqwa and piety, your sacrifice too would have been accepted. Since you did not do so, the sacrifice was not accepted. Hence, why blame me for it? (Tafseer Ibni Katheer vol. 2, pg. 43 and Ma‘aariful Quraan vol. 3, pg. 112) Lessons: 1. If we desire that our Qurbani (sacrifice) be accepted in the Divine court, it is essential for us to adopt Taqwa in every aspect of our lives, since the meat and blood does not reach Allah Ta‘ala, rather it is the Taqwa which is seen by Him. 2. When we see that Allah Ta‘ala has given someone a particular blessing, we should regard our deprivation as a result of our own shortcomings and sins. Thus we should repent from our wrong ways instead of wishing and worrying about ways through which the other person could be made to lose the blessing that he is enjoying. uswatulmuslimah
  25. Female Leadership in Islam by Moulana Muhammad Karolia Introduction Female leadership is a question not unknown to the Muslim world. Although Muslim scholars have in the past discussed this topic, it first gained prominence in the twentieth century with the wake of the women's liberty movement. In recent years the question was further highlighted with the success of Benazir Bhutto in the 1989 elections in Pakistan and Khalida Zia in the 1991 election in Bangladesh. Recently some women in South Africa also embarked on a similar campaign claiming the right of leadership even in Salāh. This article is a study of the position of female leadership in the Shariah and will be followed by a discussion on women leading the Salāh and delivering lectures from the mimbar (pulpit). Can a Lady Rule a Country? Prior to Islam, women were among the most oppressed creatures in the world. Neither did they have any rights nor were they regarded as human-beings in many communities. Islam on the contrary, raised the social status of a woman and granted her many rights ranging from inheritance to the basic necessities of everyday-life. Regarding these rights Allāh Ta'āla says in the Qurān: "And women have rights similar to the rights against them (i.e. the right of men) according to what is equitable and men have a degree over them." [BAQARAH: 228] Mufti Muhammad Shafi Saheb (RA) explains this verse: "The rights of women that men are responsible for are compulsory just as the rights of men that women are responsible for are compulsory. The right of both (men and women) have been given the same ruling ...... it is not necessary that the rights of both take the same form. Instead, if women are responsible for a specific duty then so are men. Household matters, training and looking after the children are the responsibility of the women whereas men are responsible for earning a living so that they may fulfil the needs of women (their wives). It is a lady's duty to serve and obey her husband and the mehr (dowry) and expenditure of the women is the husband's duty. (In short, even though each have different rights over the other, the rights of both are incumbent.....) There is however one quality on accord of which man have superiority over women. This is why Allāh Ta'āla, at the end of this verse says: "and men have a degree over them." Mufti Shafi (RA) thereafter explains that this degree of superiority that men have over women is explained in the verse: "Men are overseers of women because Allāh Ta'āla granted virtue to some of them (i.e. men) over others (i.e. women) and because of their spending from their wealth."[NISā 34] Shaikh Muhammad Rashid Rida offers a similar explanation: "...... the lady equals the man in all rights (i.e. in the ruling of all rights) except one which Allāh refers to in the sentence 'and men have a degree over them.'" This degree is explained in the verse "men are overseers .....". (Huqooq-un-Nisā fil Islām) It is therefore necessary that we now focus our attention on this verse of the Qurān in the light of some acclaimed commentators of the Qurān. "Men are Overseers of Women" Allamah Ibn-ul-Arabi (RA) comments on this verse: The meaning of this verse is: I have made men overseers of women because I have granted the former superiority over the latter. This is due to three reasons viz. perfect understanding perfection of deen and obedience in jihad and commanding the good and forbidding the evil etc. This has been explained by Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam in an authentic Hadith:"I have not seen any one of deficient intellect and deen who is more destructive to the intelligence of a cautious man than you women." The women asked: "Why is that, O messenger of Allāh?" He replied: "Do you not spend a few nights without performing salāh and without keeping fast? This is the deficiency of her deen and the testimony of one of you equals half the testimony of a single man - this is the deficiency of her intellect. "... so that if one of the two women errs, the second would remind her". (Al Baqarah, verse 281) His spending on her in the form of dowry and other expenditure. (Ahkāmul Qurān, verse 1, pg.416) Allamah ālusi (RA) writes in the commentary of this verse that it is the quality of men to oversee the affairs of women just as the rulers oversee their subjects by commanding them to do good etc. This ruling is attributed to two reasons: one being wahbi (this is granted solely by Allāh) and the other Kasbi (i.e. achieved on account of his action): because Allāh has granted him superiority as has been narrated (in the Hadith) that women are deficient in intellect and deen and men are the opposite, that is why risalat (prophethood), imamat-e-kubra and sughra (major and minor leadership), Adhān, Iqāmat, khuthba etc. are confined to men. (meaning that only men were Rasuls and Nabis and only man can rule, lead the salāh etc.) because men bear the expenditure of women. (Ruhul Ma'āni, vl.5, pg.23) Before considering Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Uthmani's (RA) commentary, it is necessary that we first refer to the verse: "And do not covet that which Allāh favours some of you with over others - men will receive the reward of what they earn and women will receive the reward of what they earn. And ask Allāh of his bounty. Verily Allāh has full knowledge of all things." [An Nisā - 32] Hafiz Ibn Katheer (RA) narrates on the authority of Imam Ahmad and Imam Tirmidhi that Umme Salmah (RA) said: "O Messenger of Allāh! The men wage Jihad whereas we (women) do not and we receive half the inheritance." (i.e. blood-brothers receive double the share of blood sisters). Thereafter the verse "And do not covet......" was revealed. (Ibn Katheer vl.1, pg.498) This verse would therefore mean that when Allāh has granted some of mankind (i.e. men) virtue over others (i.e. women) by means of certain actions, then it is incorrect to covet the favour of Allāh on them because each of them will be rewarded according to his actions. Envy and complaining is of no avail. On the contrary, it would be most beneficial to ask Allāh for more reward for one's actions. Complaining and envy yield no reward. However all good actions yield reward. Verily Allāh has knowledge of everything and knows fully well the wisdom in specifying certain actions for man only. He knows best which actions are appropriate for men and which are appropriate for women. Commenting on the verse "men are overseers....." Maulana Shabeer Saheb Uthmani (RA) writes: "It was mentioned in the previous verse that the rights of men and women have been given full consideration. Had their rights been given a different consideration (women's right were not considered fully as men's rights) women would be justified in complaining. This verse now explains that men have a status higher than women, women cannot complain because the difference of rules (regarding men and women) that result on accord of this additional degree of men is in total agreement with divine wisdom.....". (Tafsir-e-Uthmāni Pg.128) Summary Just a few commentaries of the verses concerned have been mentioned above. Many other commentators have elucidated the meaning of these verses in a similar manner. The above discussions may be summarised in the following points: Although both men and women have rights upon each other that are compulsory, their rights do differ in many situations. Men have an additional right over women - they are their overseers and guardians. There are two reasons due to which men have been given this additional right over women. Firstly, they have to give the women their dowries and they are responsible for all their expenses. Secondly,Allāh granted man this favour when creating him, women had been created as the weaker sex. Besides, women experience monthly menstrual periods due to which they are unable to perform salāh and fast during that period. Thus the hadith has classified her as deficient in deen. The hadith has in a similar vein regarded her as deficient in intellect because the Qurān has regarded the testimony of one lady equal to half the testimony of a single man. (see Al-Baqarah, verse.282) Since the rights of women have been given the same amount of importance and consideration as the rights of men, women should not complain of men having an additional right over them. If they do, they would be questioning the wisdom of Allāh. Conclusion It may thus be concluded that although men and women are equal in that both have rights, they do not have the same rights. Among the sole rights of a male is that he is always the head of a family since he is the guardian of the women. Leadership of a country is in a similar vein the sole right of men. Most commentators of the Qurān have explained the verse under discussion that just as men only rule a country, lead the salāh etc. only men can be the head of a family. A few examples are: QURTUBI "..... and the judges, rulers and mujahideen are among the men and this is not found among the women." (Qurtubi, vl.5, pg.168) IBN KATHEER "..... that is why nubuwat is reserved for men just as rulership ....."(Tafseer Ibn Katheer vl.1, pg.503) BAIDAWI " .... that is why nubuwat (prophethood), leading the salāh, leading a country and establishment of other sha-āir (distinguishing features) of deen (e.g. adhān, iqamah) are confined to men only. (Tafseer al Baidawi Pg.111) In short, this verse has encompassed a major reason why women cannot rule in the Shariah. Just as she cannot lead a home, she cannot lead a country. Another Verse from the Qur'ān Describing women, Allāh Subhanahu Ta'āla says in the Qurān: "Is then one brought up among trinkets and unable to give a clear account in a dispute (to be associated with Allāh).(Az-Zukhruf: 18 ) i.e. women are normally brought up in decoration and adornment and are always occupied with jewellery. This is a proof of deficient intellect and understanding (because true beauty is the beauty of the Akhirah) and due to a weak understanding, women are unable to express themselves clearly when debating." (Tafseer-e-Uthmani pg. 652) This verse substantiates the claim that women are physically weak and unable to fulfil the duties of leadership. It has thus been made the right of men only. Hijāb and Female Leadership Hijāb is generally understood to mean the donning of a veil. This is however incorrect. The scholars of Islam have included the following verses in the discussion of hijāb: "And stay in your houses. And adorn not yourselves with the adornment of the time of Ignorance." (Al Ahzāb: 33) "And when you ask of them (wives of Nabi Sallallahu alaihi Wasallam) anything, then ask them from behind a curtain." (Al Ahzāb: 53) ".... therefore be not soft of speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease, aspire (to you) but utter customary speech."(Al Ahzāb: 32) "O Nabi! Tell your wives and daughters and the women of the believers to draw their jilbābs (a special cloak that covers the entire body) close around them ...." (Al Ahzāb:59) "And they (the women), should not stamp their feet so as to reveal their hidden adornment." (An Nur:31) From these verses, the following rules of hijāb may be deduced: The lady should at all times remain in her home. If due to any shar'ie necessity (eg. Haj, visiting her parents, visiting the ill etc.) (Ruhul Ma'āni vl.22 pg.6) then she should cover her entire body including the face. She has to communicate with men from behind a curtain. She must not lower her tune when speaking with strange men. She should not walk in such a manner that would attract the attention of men. Intermingling of the sexes is prohibited in Islam. Besides these, it has also been established from the Hadith that a lady cannot travel further than 77 kilometers without a mahram (any such male relative with whom marriage is prohibited). (Tirmidhi Vl.3 pg.472) It is clear from the above that the implications of Hijāb are in direct conflict with the duties of leadership. In order to ensure the welfare of his subjects, the leader has to leave his home daily, meet and consult with people (men in particular) and travel to various parts of his country and sometimes to other countries as well. These cannot however be achieved if a lady has to be the ruler and at the same time observe the rules of hijāb. It is on this accord that Shariah has prohibited female leadership. Warning of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam A female leader would either be contravening the rules and regulation of Hijāb or neglecting the welfare of her subjects. Thus Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: "A nation that has entrusted its affairs to a woman can never be successful."(Bukhari vl.5, pg.136, Bukhari vl. 4 Page 97, Nisai vl. 8 Page 227, Tirmidhi vl. 5 Page 457) Imam Tirmidhi (RA), after narrating this hadith, says: "This is a sound and authentic hadith." In another hadith we read: "Men are destroyed when they obey women." Hakim (RA) writes that the chain of narrators is authentic and Hafiz Dhahabi (RA) has also agreed that this hadith is authentic. (Quoted by Ml. Y.Ludhyanwi on the authority of Mustadrak Hakim, vl.4, pg.291) Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam also said: "When your rulers are the best among you, your wealthy are generous, and your matters are decided by mutual consultation, then the surface of the earth is better for you than the belly of the earth. However, when your rulers are the worst among you, your wealthy are miserly and your matters are in the hands of your women, then the belly of the earth is better for you than its surface." (Tirmidhi vl.4, pg.459) Commenting on the quality of this hadith, Imam Tirmidhi writes: "This is a Gharib Hadith (i.e. a hadith that had been narrated by only one person in each era until the codification period) - we do not know it except from Salih-al-Murriy. There are some strange facts in the narrations of Salih in which he is unique (mutafarrid). He is however, a pious man." Nevertheless all scholars of Islam; commentators of the Qurān, Hadith and jurisprudence have, on the basis of the Hadith "A nation will never be successful ...." unanimously agreed that female leadership is not permissible in Islam. Some Quotations The reader has already seen the opinions of some leading commentators of the Qurān (ālusi, Ibn Katheer, Baidawi and Qurtubi). Here are a few more quotations from the writings of other scholars: Hafiz Ibn Hajr (RA) and Hafiz Badruddin Aini (RA) write in their respective commentaries of Bukhari: "There is proof in this hadith that a lady cannot be appointed to the office of leadership or as a judge." (Fathul Bari vl.8 pg.129) Qadi Abu Bakr ibn ul-Arabi (RA) writes in his commentary of Tirmidhi: "This proves that only men may be appointed as leaders (rulers). There is a consensus that women have no right to rulership." (āridatul Ahwadhi vl.9, pg 119) Allama Shawkani (RA) writes in the commentary of this hadith: "In it is a proof that women do not qualify for any sort of leadership. It is not permissible to make a lady the leader because it is compulsory to abstain from anything that will result in failure." (Naylul Awtār vl.8, pg 298) Qadi ibn-ul-Arabi (RA) writes again in Ahkām-ul-Qurān: "This is clear proof that a lady cannot become the khalifah (leader of the Muslim state) - There is no difference of opinion in this matter." (Ahkāmul Qurān vl.3,pg.29) Allamah Mawardi (RA) and Shah Wali-ul-llah (RA) have listed "Zukoorah" as an essential requirement of a Muslim ruler." (Hujjatullah-ul-Balighah Vl. 2 Page 396,Izalatul Khifa Vl. 1 Page 19, Shāmi Vl. 1 Page 548) Allamah Shami explains: ".... because women have been commanded to remain in their homes, their condition is therefore based on remaining concealed ...." (Shāmi vl.1, pg 458) Qurtubi, after listing "being a male" as one of the necessary conditions of a ruler says: "They are unanimous that it is not permissible for a lady to become a leader." (Tafseer Qurtabi, vl.1 pg.270) Imam Baghawi after quoting the hadith "A nation can never be successful ...." says that it is an authentic hadith and thereafter comments: "They have unanimously agreed that a lady neither has the ability to become a leader nor a judge because it is necessary for the leader to leave his home in order to establish jihad and see to the matters of the Muslims. Similarly the judge has to leave his home in order to pass judgement in arguments. A lady is however "Awrah" (something that must be concealed) and cannot (unnecessarily) leave. Because of her physical weakness, she is unable to see to most matters of the Muslims. A woman is also deficient whereas leadership and passing judgement are among the greatest appointments. (Sharhus Sunnah vl.10, pg.77) NB: An extremely important point is made in the above quotations: There is "ijmā" (consensus of opinion) among the ummah that female leadership is not permissible. Ijmā is the third most important source of Islamic law and cannot be opposed. Consider the Following: Protagonists of female leadership should consider the following: The messengers of Allāh were always men. Never was a lady deputed as a Rasul or Nabi. "And We have not sent messengers before you except that they were men." [Al-Ambiyā: 7] Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam had during his lifetime despatched many jamāts (for the sake of da'wah and jihad etc.) but never did he appoint a female as ameer of any of these jamāts. (Fatawa Mahmoodia, vl.10, pg.129) NB: The scholars have enumerated approximately 60 jamāts of this nature that were despatched by Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam. (Zadul Ma'ād vl.1, pg. 129) These jamāts are normally referred to as Sarāya by the historians. Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam had on many occasions personally led military expeditions. On such occasions he would leave a deputy to see to the matters of the women, children, aged and ill people that were still in Madina. For example, he made Hazrat Ali (RA) his deputy at the time of Tabuk and Abu Lubābah bin Abdul Munzir at the time of Badr. These deputies were however never women. (Fatawa Mahmoodia vl.10, pg.129, Zādul Ma'ād vl.3, pg.172 & 529) Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam had four muazzins - Hazrat Bilal, Hazrat Abu Mahdhoorah, Hazrat Abdullah ibn Umme Maktoom and Sa'd al-Qurdh. ( Fatawa Manmoodia, vl.10, pg.127; Zādul Ma'ād vl.1, pg.124) None of them were women, and it has never been narrated from the salaf (pious predecessors from the Sahābah, Tabieen and Taba-Tabieen) that women may give Azān. On the contrary, jurists have regarded it as makrooh. (Durrul Mukhtār, vl.1, pg.392) In a similar manner the duties of iqamat, khutbah of jumuah and the eids, imamat of salāh etc. can only be fulfilled by men.(Fatawa Mahmoodia, vl.10, pg.125/6) Besides ruling a country, standing as a candidate in a political party, leading any other movement or organisation and becoming a member of a masjid or madressah committee are also not permissible for a lady because: these are not her functions in society, if she does engage herself in such activities, she would be contravening the rules of the Qurān and Hadith regarding hijāb and female leadership. "Bilqees: The Queen of Saba" Protagonists of female leadership normally justify their claim with an analogy of Bilqees of Saba - whose story is mentioned in the Qurān (Al Naml 20-24). This analogy is however very strange and can in no way substantiate their claim, because: Bilqees was a disbeliever at that time as is clear from the verses: "I found her and her nation prostrating to the sun ...." [Verse 24] "Verily she was of a disbelieving people". [Verse 43] Later, with the invitation of Hazrat Sulayman (Alaihis salām) she brought Islam. She said: "Oh my Rabb! Verily I have wronged my soul and I have surrendered with Sulayman to Allāh, Rabb of the worlds." [Verse 44] After embracing Islam, she also surrended her kingdom to Sulayman (AS) as was the order of Sulayman (AS). This is apparent in the following verse: He said: "Do you give me abundance in wealth .... go back to them, for we will most certainly come to them with such armies that they will not be able to oppose, and we shall expel them in disgrace and they will be humbled." [Verse 37] There is thus no indication in the narrative that Sulayman (AS) had approved of and permitted her to continue ruling her kingdom. It is sometimes argued that after Bilqees brought Imān, Sulayman (AS) married her and therafter sent her to rule Yemen. This argument is however incorrect because it is based on very weak Israeli narrations and besides being weak, these narrations are very contradictory. While some say that after marrying Bilqees, Sulayman (AS) kept her with him, others say that he sent her to rule over Shām (Syria). Allamah Qurtubi (RA) has in his tafseer also declared all these narrations as incorrect and unreliable. (Awrat ki Serbarahi by Ml.Y. Ludhyanwi pg.33 and Mufti R. Uthmani - Al Farooq Arabic Quarterly, Rabiul Awwal 1410-1989) The legislation of the previous ambiyā is not necessarily a proof. The shariah of the previous ambiyā can only be regarded as a valid argument if there is no verse of the Qurān or hadith contradicting it. We have however already seen that the Qurān, hadith and Ijm (consensus of the Ummah) do not permit female leadership. (Ibid) Mufti Muhammad Shafi (RA) writes in Ahkamul Qurān: "If it is argued that the trend in the Qurān is to boldly refute any evil action of the Kuffar that the Qurān quotes and (the absence of any refutation in these verses indicate permissibility), then our reply is: Firstly:The generality of the claim is not known (meaning this is not an established fact). Secondly: it is not necessary that such an act be refuted in the very same verse that discusses it. It will suffice if such an act is refuted in some other place (in the Qurān) or in any other shari proof. Thus if female leadership has been refuted in the Hadith of Bukhari, it would be sufficient explanation of it's evil (and impermissibility)." (Ahkāmul Qurān vl.3, pg.29) Hadhrat Aisha (RA) and the Battle of Jamal (The Camel) Protagonists of female leadership substantiate their claim from Hazrat Aisha's (RA) participation in the Battle of Jamal. Hazrat Uthmān (RA) had been murdered just after the days of Tashreeq. The wives of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had, after completing the rites of Haj just left Makkah Mukarramah on their return journey to Madinah Munawwarah. Upon receiving the news of the murder of Hazrat Uthmān (RA) they changed the direction of their journey and returned to Makkah. The Muslims at that time were in utter turmoil. Hazrat Ali (RA) had taken the bay'at (pledge of allegiance) from the people of Madina and the assassins of Hazrat Uthmān (RA). He felt that it would be more appropriate to allow the turmoil and confusion to settle and thereafter avenge the blood of Hazrat Uthmān. Others however differed and thought it of greater importance to first avenge the blood of the assassinated Khalifah. Thus, a group of senior Sahabah (RA) including Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair gathered in Makkah and persuaded Hazrat Aisha (RA) to use her influence as Umm-ul-Mu'mineen to help them unite the Muslims and therafter demand the requital of the blood of Hazrat Uthmān (RA). Hazrat Aisha agreed and it was decided that they would proceed to Basrah. The rest of the wives of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam refused to join Hazrat Aisha (RA) and returned to Madina. Although Hazrat Hafsah (RA) agreed with Hazrat Aisha (RA), her brother, Abdullah ibn Umar (RA) did not allow her to join the campaign to Basrah. (Summarised from Al Bidayah wan Nihayah vl.7,pg.230) A closer study of the battle of Jamal and the events leading to it (most of which were mentioned above), would reveal the futility of justifying female leadership from it because: Hazrat Aisha (RA) was not the leader of the army. Neither at the time of suggesting that she accompany the army did they consider making her their leader nor later during the cause of the expedition was she regarded as their leader. Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair had asked her to accompany them so that she could use her influence to convince the masses of the nobility of their cause. This is why the rest of the wives of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam were also requested to accompany the expedition and Hazrat Hafsah (RA) had even accepted the request. Neither was Hazrat Aisha (RA) intending to capture the khilafat from Hazrat Ali nor were Hazrat Talha and Zubair (RA) intending to do so. They were only demanding that the assassins of Hazrat Uthmān be brought to task. (Fathul Bari vl.3, pg.56) In fact they had barely thought of meeting the forces of Hazrat Ali (RA) on the battle field. Allamah ibn Taymiyyah (RA) writes: "Neither did Hazrat Aisha (RA) fight (in the battle) nor did she leave (her home) in order to fight. She had only intended to create peace among the Muslims and thought that the Muslims would benefit by her leaving (for Basrah etc.) .... They did not have any intention of fighting on the day of Jamal. The battle however took place without their choice. Because when Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair (RA) had negotiated and agreed on re- conciliation and that after they had settled they would seek the assassins .... The assassins therefore feared that Hazrat Ali would agree with them (Hazrat Zubair etc.) to capture them, and they therefore captured the camp of Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair (RA). They thought that Hazrat Ali had attacked them and in defence attacked the camp of Hazrat Ali. Hazrat Ali (RA) thought that Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair had attacked him and retaliated in defence. The battle thus occurred without their choice. Hazrat Aisha (RA) was seated (on the camel) - neither did she fight nor did she command anyone to do so. (Quoted by Ml.Y. Ludhyanwi on th authority of "Minhājus Sunnah" pg.185, vl. 2) Many Sahabah (RA) disagreed with her participation in the campaign. Many had written to her expressing their dissatisfaction. Hazrat Umme Salma (RA) wrote her a lengthy letter admonishing her: " ..... Had Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam known that women are able to endure (the difficulties of) jihad, he would have entrusted you! Do you not know that he (Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi Wasallam) had prohibited you from travelling in the cities? Verily the pillar of deen neither remains firm with women nor wealth and it cannot be repaired by women if it has to crack (break). The jihad of women is the lowering of the gaze and the drawing of the hem and the intending of modesty. What would you say to Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam if he has to object to some of these mistakes - sitting on a camel travelling from place to place? I take an oath that if it has to be said to me: "O Umme Salmah! Enter Jannah! I would be ashamed to meet Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam while I had torn a veil (barrier) he had placed over me. Therefore make it your veil (barrier) also ...." (quoted by Mufti R.Uthmani from Al Aqdul Fareed vl.5,pg.66) Hazrat Aisha (RA) had written a letter to Zayd bin Suhan encouraging him to join Hazrat Talha and Zubair and if he disagrees, he should dissuade the masses from joining Hazrat Ali (RA). He replied:".... Verily I am your loyal son. If you leave and return home, (then I will obey you) otherwise, I would be the first to oppose you." He also said: "May Allāh have mercy on Ummul-Mu'mineen. She has been commanded to stay in her home and we have been commanded to fight ....". (Ibnul Atheer vl.3, pg.216) Hafiz Ibn Hajar (RA) narrated that after the battle, Ammar Bin Yasir (who was from Hazrat Ali's camp) said to Hazrat Aisha (RA): "How distant is this journey from the command that was imposed on you!" (referring to the verse: 'And remain in your homes'). She replied: "Are you Abul Yaqdhan?" He replied in the affirmative, upon which she said: "In the name of Allāh, ever since I know, you always speak the truth." He said: "All praises are due to Allāh who has decided in my favour on your tongue." (Fathul Bari vl.13,pg.58) Hazrat Aisha (RA) later regretted joining the expedition to Basrah as is clear from the above narration. Later in her life she would say: "I wish I had stayed behind just as others (from the Ummahat-ul-Mumineen and many Sahabah) had stayed behind ....". (Fathul Bari vl.13,pg.55) "I wish I were a fresh twig and I had not undertaken my journey ..." It is narrated that whenever Hazrat Aisha used to read the verse "And remain in your homes," she would cry so excessively that her veil would become soaked. (Quoted by Mufti R.Uthmani-Al Farooq Quarterly - Siyar A'lam un Nubala vl.8,pg.80) Can a Lady Lead the Salāh? The Fuqaha (Muslim jurists) have discussed two types of Imamat viz: Imamat-e-Kubra: Major leadership, referring to the leading of a country. Imamat-e-Sughra: Minor leadership, referring to the leading of the Salāh. Just as the shariah has reserved imamat-e-kubrah for men only, it has reserved imamat-e-sughra for men only. (Some jurists have permitted female imamat of the Salāh when the congregation is purely female. This will be discussed later Insha-Allāh). Women Leading Men in Salāh Most, if not all fuqaha (Muslim jurists) are of the opinion that women cannot lead men in salāh. If any man performs his salāh behind a female imam, his salāh would be null and void. Below are the opinions of each of the four madhahib. Hanafi Madhab - "And it is not permissible for men to follow a lady in salāh." (Hidayah vl.1. pg.209) Shafiy Madhab - "And a male following a lady (in salāh) is incorrect."(Minhāj:Allamah Nawawi vl.1, pg.241) Maliki Madhab - "Salāh will therefore not be correct behind a lady (imam)."(Bulghat-us-Salik: Allamah Sāwi vl.1.pg.146) Hambali Madhab -"It is not correct in the opinion of the general fuqaha, for a man to follow a lady (in salāh)."(Al Mughni: Ibn Qudamah vl.2, pg.199) Ibn Rushd-al-Qurtubi writes: ".... The jamhoor (general majority) are of the opinion that it is not permissible for her to lead the men in salāh ...." (Bidayatul Mujtahid vl.1, pg.105) Why Can She Not Lead the Men in Salāh? Nothing has been narrated regarding this from Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam or the Sahabah (RA) or the Tabi-een. Had it been permissible, it would have definitely been recorded in the books of Hadith and Fiqh. (Bidayatul Mujtahid vl.1,pg. 105 & As Saylul Jarrar vl.1, pg.250) On the contrary Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had commanded the women to stand at the rear of the congregation (if they do attend the congregational salāh). The reason being that women are to be hidden and have been commanded to observe hijāb. If men have to follow a lady imām in salāh, they would have to stand behind her. This is in total contrast with the rules of hijāb. (Bidayatul Mujtahid vl.1,pg. 105 & As Saylul Jarrar vl.1, pg.250) A hadith has been narrated regarding women standing at the rear of the congregation: "Place them in the rear as Allāh has placed them in the rear." (Nasbur Rayah vl.2, pg.36 - quoted from Musannaf Abdur Razzāk- although this hadith is mawqoof, (the chain of narrators terminates on Hadhrat Ali radhiallah anhu, the fact that man should occupy the first rows, thereafter the children and behind the children the women is established from other authentic ahādith - see Bukhari vl.1, pg. 211) Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: ."... and a lady should not lead a man in salāh ...." (Sunan Ibn Majah vl.1,pg.250) The generality of the hadith "The nation that has entrusted it's affairs to a lady cannot be successful," demands that women do not qualify to be entrusted with any sort of leadership duties. Salāh is the most noble and important matter of the Muslims. Can we entrust it to a lady and hope for success? (As Saylul Jarrar - Allamah Shawkani vl.1,pg.250) Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi (RA) after explaining the opinion of the majority writes that some Hambali scholars are of the opinion that "it is permissible for her to lead the men in taraweeh salāh (but) she will stand behind them. It (lady leading the taraweeh) will be permissible because of the narration of Umme Waraqah (RA) that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had appointed a muezzin for her who would given azān for her and He commanded her to lead the people (ahl) of her dār (house) - Abu Dawud has narrated this hadith. (See Abuj Da'ud vol.2 Page 161 Beirut). Ibn Qudamah however disagrees with these Hambali scholars and refutes their claim explaining that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had only permitted her to lead the women of her home (nisā-e-ahle-dāriha) - this is how Dār-Qutni has narrated this hadith. When an addition of this nature is narrated, then it is compulsory to accept it. Had the extra word 'Nisā' (women) not been narrated, there would have been some possibility of substantiating one's claim from this hadith. Besides, this hadith does not pertain to Taraweeh or any other nafl or sunnah salāh because the hadith also says that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had appointed a muezzin to call the azān for her. Azān is not called out for nafl or sunnah salāh. It is only called for the fardh salāhs. (Al Mughni vl.2,pg.199) There is however no difference of opinion even among the Hambali Fuqaha that women cannot lead men in fardh salāh. This hadith is therefore referring to a purely female congregation only. Apart from the jamhoor (majority), Abu Thour and Tabri have allowed women to lead the salāh even it there are men in the congregation. Ibn Rushd said that they have based their claim on the hadith of Umme Waraqah.(Bidayatul Mujtahid vl.1,pg.105) Ibn Qudamah's explanation of the hadith however leaves no doubt that they have erred. Other than Abu Thour and Tabri, the entire ummah has 'ijmā' (unanimous agreement) that women cannot lead men in salāh. Can a Lady Lead a Purely Female Congregation AHNāF: If a lady leads the salāh of a purely female congregation, then salāh will be correct. It is however makrooh tahrimi for women to form their own congregation. (Hidayah vl.1,pg.305; Bada'i-us Sanai vl.1,pg.157) MāLIKIYYA: A lady can in no circumstance be the Imam even if the congregation be entirely female. The salāh of even a lady behind a female imām is invalid.Bulghatus Salik vl.1, pg.146; Ashalul Madarik, vl.1,pg.241) SHAWāFI: A lady can be the imam of a purely female congregation. In fact it is mustahab for them to form their own congregation. (Al Mughni vl.12,pg.199; Bada-i vl.1,pg. 157) HANABILA: The salāh of a lady behind a lady imām is permissible. There is however difference of opinion regarding women forming their own congregation (behind a female imam). (Al Mughni l.12, pg.199) The Shafi and Hambali scholars substantiate their opinion with the hadith of Umme Waraqah (RA) that was mentioned earlier. It is similarly narrated that Hazrat Umme Salmah (RA) and Hazrat Aisha (RA) used to lead the women in Salāh. (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah vl.2, pg.88-89) While it is narrated from Hazrat Ali (RA) that "a lady cannot be an imām"(Ibid) and from Nafi (RA) that: "I do not know that a lady can lead the women in salāh"(Ibid), Hanafi Scholars also explain that when a lady does lead a purely female jamāt, she has one of two options: She stands in front of the first row (just as a male imam would do). This is however makrooh because it is contrary to the spirit of Hijāb. She could stand in the middle of the first row (as Hazrat Aisha and Hazrat Umme Salmah did). This however is also makrooh because it is wajib (necessary) in a congregational salāh that the Imam stands a little in front of the first row. (Fathul Qadeer vl.1, pg.306) Hanafi Fuqaha therefore explain the ahadith of Umme Waraqah, Aisha and Umme Salmah (RA) as mansukh (abrogated). Although Sheikh Kamal Ibn Humām has after critically discussing the possibility of abrogation concluded that purely female congregations are makrooh-e-tanzihi, the general body of Fuqaha-e-Ahnāf regard it as makrooh-e-tahrimi. The fatwa (preferred verdict) is also on tahreem (prohibition)."And a purely female congregation is makrooh-e-tahrimi, even though in taraweeh."(Durrul Mukhtar, vl.1, pg.528) Can a Women Deliver a Lecture from the Mimbar? A few verses of the Qurān regarding hijāb have been previously mentioned under the caption "Hijāb and female leadership." Among these verses were: "And stay in your houses and do not make a dazzling display like that of the former times of ignorance." (Al Ahzāb:33) This verse implies that it is necessary for a woman to remain in her home at all times. She may only leave her home on account of a shar'ie necessity. (eg. Haj, Umrah, visiting the ill and visiting her parents etc.)(Tafseer Ibn Katheer,vl.13,pg.491). Going to the musjid in order to perform salāh is not acceptable in the light of the general opinion of the Sahabah and the Ulama of Islam. A lady that leaves her home in order to deliver a lecture to a mixed gathering of men and women (from the mimbar) would firstly be contravening this important principle of the Shariah. In another verse Allāh Ta'āla says: "And when you ask them of anything, then ask it of them from behind a curtain." (Al Ahzāb:530 "... therefore be not soft in speech ..." (Al Ahzāb:32) These verses imply that if a lady has to communicate with a strange man while at home, then this communication should be from behind the curtain. (i.e. the lady should not be seen at all) and when speaking she should not speak in a lowered tone. In yet another verse Allāh Ta'āla says: "Oh Nabi! Tell your wives and daughters and the women of the Believers to draw over them their jilbāb." (Al Ahzāb:59) ii.e. If due to any necessity a lady is compelled to leave her home, she should cover herself with the jilbāb. The jilbāb is a large sheet that extends from above the head to the feet including the face. (in other words she is commanded to cover the entire body including the face).(Ibn Katheer vl.13, pg.526) (There is consensus of opinion that the face must also be covered in times of evil and corruption.) A lady that delivers a lecture from the mimbar is unable to fulfil the demands of the above-mentioned ayāt and her action is contrary to the spirit of Hijāb. In a purely female congregation two, the lady imām stands in the middle of the first row and not ahead of the first row as a male imam would do. (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah vl.2,pg.88/89 ; Hidayah vl.1,pg.306 ; Al Mughni vl.2,pg.2) In view of the above, it is not permissible for a lady to deliver a lecture from the mimbar. Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: "A lady is 'AWRAH' (something to be concealed). Thus when she leaves, shaytān stares at her."[Tirmidhi Pg. VI] Published by: Madrasah Arabia Islamiah, Azaadville Source: http://www.beautifulislam.net/women/female_leadership_islam.htm
  26. سلسلہ مواعظِ رشید نمبر 5 علم کے مطابق عمل کیوں نہیں ہوتا قسط نمبر 5 ایک روز ایک صحابی حضرت حنظلہ رضی اللہ عنہ کو دیکها گیا کہ بڑی پریشانی میں چلے جا رہے ہیں اور یہ بهی کہتے جاتے ہیں: *"نافق حنظلہ"حنظلہ منافق ہو گیا-"* راستہ میں حضرتِ ابو بکر صدیق رضی اللہ عنہ مل گئے -پوچها کیا بات ہے ، اتنے پریشان کیوں ہو؟ اور کہاں جا رہے ہو؟ حضرتِ حنظلہ رضی اللہ عنہ نے وہی کہا کہ حنظلہ منافق ہو گیا جب حضرتِ ابو بکر صدیق رضی اللہ عنہ نے وجہ پوچھی تو بتایا کہ *"جب ہم رسول اللہ ﷺ کی صحبت میں ہوتے ہیں تو ایسے معلوم ہوتا ہے کہ گویا ہم جنت اور دوزخ کو اپنی آنکهوں سے دیکھ رہے ہیں لیکن جب اپنے گھروں میں بیوی بچوں میں چلے جاتے ہیں وہ کیفیت باقی نہیں رہتی "* حضرتِ ابو بكر صديق رضي الله عنه نے فرمایا کہ اگر نفاق سے تمہارا یہی مطلب ہے تو ہماری بهی یہی حالت ہے چلو رسول اللہ ﷺ کی خدمت میں دونوں چلتے ہیں اور پوچهتے ہیں جب رسول اللہ ﷺ کے پاس پہنچے اور دریافت کیا تو رسول اللہ ﷺ نے ارشاد فرمایاکہ اگر تمہاری وہی کیفیت باقی رہے جو میرے سامنے ہوتی ہے تو فرشتے تم سے مصافحہ کرتے مگر تمہارے لیے کبهی یہ حالت بہتر ہے اور کبهی وہ، معلوم ہوا کہ رسول اللہ ﷺ کی صحبت کا یہ اثر ہوتا تها کہ گویا جنت دوزخ کو کهلی آنکهوں سے دیکھ رہے ورنہ عمارت دنیا کا کام کون کرے؟ اس لیے بندہ کی توجہ کو دوسری طرف لگا دیتے ہیں تا کہ دنیا کے کام بهی چلتے رہیں- صحابہ کرام رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہم فرماتے ہیں کہ رسول اللہ ﷺ کو جب دفن کر دیا گیا تو ہم نے اپنے دلوں کو متغیر پایا اس کی کیا وجہ تهی؟ یہی کہ رسول اللہ ﷺ کے وجود مبارک سے اس دنیا کے خالی ہوجانے پر آپ کے اصحاب نے اپنے دلوں میں خلاء محسوس کیا- کیونکہ آپ کا وجود مسعود باعث انوار برکات تها- حکیم ترمذی رحمه الله تعالیٰ بہت مشہور بزرگ گزرے ہیں، وہ عالم جوانی میں کسی باغ میں تشریف لے گیے ، آپ پر ایک عورت فریفتہ تهی، وہ بهی موقع کو غنیمت سمجھ کر اس باغ میں پہنچ گئی اور ان سے مطلب براری کی درخواست کی، یہ باغ چار دیواری کی وجہ سے چاروں طرف سے بند تها ، یہ منظر دیکھ کر آپ بہت گهبرائے ، بهاگے اور باغ کی دیوار پر چڑھ کر باہر کود گئے، بہت مدت بعد ایک بار بڑهاپے میں بطورِ وسوسہ یہ خیال آیا کہ اگر میں اس عورت کی دل شکنی نہ کرتا اور اس کی خواہش پوری کرنے کے بعد گناہ سے توبہ و استغفار کر لیتا تو اس کی دل شکنی بهی نہ ہوتی اور گناہ بهی معاف ہو جاتا ، بس اس وسوسہ کا آنا تها کہ ان پر گریہ طاری ہو گیا بہت پریشان ہوئے اور سخت ندامت ہوئی کہ جوانی میں تو ہمت کر کے گناہ سے بچ گیا اور اب بٹهاپے میں یہ حال *بر دل سالک ہزاران غم بود* *گر زباغ دل خلالے کم بود* خواب میں رسول اللہ ﷺ کی زیارت سے مشرف ہوئے آپ ﷺ نے فرمایا : *"اے حکیم! غم نہ کرو تم جو اس وقت ابتلاء سے بچ گئے وہ میری بعثت سے قریب کا زمانہ تها جس کی برکت سے تم گناہ میں آلودہ ہونے سے محفوظ رہے اور اب جو بڑهاپے میں اس قسم کا وسوسہ پیدا ہوا یہ بعد زمانی کی وجہ سے ہے تم اس کا کچھ خیال نہ کرو"* جب کہیں جا کر آپ کے قلب کو اطمنان و سکون حاصل ہوا- جس ذات کے ساتھ قرب زمانی کی یہ برکت ہے اس کی صحبت کی تاثیر کا کیا عالم ہوگا جرعہ خاک آمیز چون مجنون کند صاف گر باشس ندانم چون کند (جاری ہے)
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