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ummitaalib

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  1. Bleeding for more than ten days Q: 1. If a woman's menses exceeds ten days, then should she perform salaah? 2. What will the ruling be in the case where a woman bleeds for more than the days of her usual pattern of menses, but the blood then stops before ten days? 3. If she bleeds for more than ten days, can she have relations with her husband? A: 1,2. It should be borne in mind that the minimum period of haidh is three days and the maximum period is ten days. If a woman has a set pattern e.g. seven days, and the blood continued for more than ten days, then she will regard seven days as her haidh and the remaining days as istihaazah. Hence, she will have to make qadha for all the salaah which she missed after seven days as these days are the days of istihaazah. However, if the blood continued for more than the days of her set pattern, but stopped within ten days, then she will regard the entire period as haidh and her haidh pattern will change (e.g. a woman's haidh pattern for the previous month was seven days, but the following month, she bled for nine days, the entire nine days will be regarded as her haidh and her haidh pattern will change to nine days). 3. After the ten days pass, a woman will be able to ascertain that the bleeding over her haidh pattern is istihaazah. Hence, the laws of istihaazah will apply to her. A woman in the state of istihaazah will be treated as a woman in the state of purity. Thus, she will make wudhu and perform her salaah as normal. It will be permissible for her to touch and recite the Qur'an Shareef. Similarly, it will be permissible for her to have relations with her husband. And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best. أقل الحيض ثلاثة أيام وثلاث ليال في ظاهر الرواية هكذا في التبيين وأكثره عشرة أيام ولياليها كذا في الخلاصة (الفتاوى الهندية 1/36) وإن جاوز العشرة ففي المبتدأة حيضها عشرة أيام وفي المعتادة معروفتها في الحيض حيض والطهر طهر هكذا في السراج الوهاج (الفتاوى الهندية 1/37) لو رأت الدم بعد أكثر الحيض والنفاس في أقل مدة الطهر فما رأت بعد الأكثر إن كانت مبتدأة وبعد العادة إن كانت معتادة استحاضة (الفتاوى الهندية 1/37) (ودم الاستحاضة) كالرعاف الدائم لا يمنع الصلاة ولا الصوم ولا الوطء كذا في الهداية (الفتاوى الهندية 1/38) فإن رأت بين طهرين تامين دما لا على عادتها بالزيادة أو النقصان أو بالتقدم والتأخر أو بهما معا انتقلت العادة إلى أيام دمها حقيقيا كان الدم أو حكميا هذا إذا لم يجاوز العشرة فإن جاوزها فمعروفتها حيض وما رأت على غيرها استحاضة فلا تنتقل العادة هكذا في محيط السرخسي (الفتاوى الهندية 1/39) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  2. The Hadiths Cited by the Early Hanafi Fuqaha 12 Jan, 2020 Some people have the misunderstanding that the early Hanafī scholars whose books are in wide use today, like Shams al-A’immah al-Sarakhsī (d. 490 H), Malik al-‘Ulamā’ al-Kāsānī (d. 587 H) and Burhān al-Dīn al-Marghīnānī (d. 593), were unacquainted with hadīth. They base this on the absence of many hadīths quoted in their works in the available hadīth collections or their apparent weakness. These early scholars, however, took hadīths not only from the well-known collections, but also from the works of the earlier Hanafī ‘ulamā’, many of which have not reached us today. The narrations are found in these earlier works generally with their full chains of transmission. Hence, one may not dismiss the hadīths mentioned in al-Hidāyah, al-Mabsūt, al-Badā‘i’ etc. as baseless or forged merely on the grounds that they are not found in the available collections of hadīth. ‘Allāmah ‘Abd al-Rashīd al-Nu‘mānī (d. 1420 H) writes: That which our Fuqahā’ – may Allāh have mercy on them – cited of hadīths and narrations in their works without describing a sanad or a source, as al-Sarakhsī (d. 490 H) does in al-Mabsūt, al-Kāsānī (d. 587) in al-Badā’i‘ and al-Marghīnānī (d. 593 H) in al-Hidāyah, these are hadīths and narrations which they found in the books of our early Imāms like al-Imām al-A‘zam (d. 150) and his two students [Abū Yūsuf and Muhammad], Ibn al-Mubārak (d. 181 H), al-Hasan al-Lu‘lu’ī (d. 204 H), Ibn Shujā‘ al-Thaljī (d. 267 H), ‘Īsā ibn Abān (d. 221), al-Khassāf (d. 261 H), al-Tahāwī (d. 321 H), al-Karkhī (d. 340 H) and al-Jassās (d. 370 H) – may Allāh (Exalted is He) have mercy on them. Then those who sourced al-Hidāyah, al-Khulāsah and so on appeared, and they searched for these narrations in the records [of hadīths] compiled after [the year] 200 by the scholars of hadīth, and when they did not find [them] in them, they assessed them to be ‘strange’. Some hold a bad opinion about these Imāms of the Fuqahā’, and attribute to them little knowledge of hadīth, and far-removed are they from that! How many a suspended hadīth (ta‘līq) there is of al-Bukhārī in his Sahīh on which the like of Ibn Hajar said: ‘I did not find it’, so will that which is suspected of our Hanafī masters be suspected of al-Bukhārī?! Rather, al-Sarakhsī, al-Kāsānī and al-Marghīnānī relied in this subject on their Imāms who are recognised for [their] retention (hifz), trustworthiness (thiqah) and reliability (amānah), just as al-Baghawī relied in his Masābīh on the authors of the well-known collections. The Hāfiz of his time, Qāsim ibn Qutlūbughā (802 – 879 H), said: “The early ones from our [Hanafī] scholars – may Allāh have mercy on them – would dictate juristic rulings and their evidences from the prophetic hadīths with their chains, like Abū Yūsuf in Kitāb al-Kharāj and al-Amālī; Muhammad in Kitāb al-Asl and al-Siyar; and likewise al-Tahāwī, al-Khassāf, [al-Jassās] al-Rāzī, al-Karkhī except in the Mukhtasars. Then those who depended on the books of the early ones came and cited the hadīths in books without clarifying the chain or the source.” (Munyat al-Alma‘ī, p. 9) Had we wished, we would have cited many examples for you from the examples of these hadīths which those that sourced them assessed them to be ‘strange,’ while they are found in the book al-Āthār, for example, but space does not allow it.” (Al-Imām Ibn Mājah wa Kitābuhu l-Sunan, pp. 73-4) The hadīth master and faqīh, ‘Allāmah Qāsim ibn Qutlūbughā, compiled Munyat al-Alma‘ī as an index of hadīths which al-Zayla‘ī and/or Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalānī could not locate in their respective works on sourcing the hadīths of al-Hidāyah, but which upon further inspection have been found to have a source. Here are a few examples: The author of al-Hidāyah quoted the hadīth, “When the sun deviates [from its midpoint], then offer the Jumu‘ah prayer with the people.” Hāfiz al-Zayla‘ī said: “Strange”, meaning he could not locate it. Hāfiz Qāsim ibn Qutlūbughā replied: “Rather, Ibn Sa‘d narrated it in al-Tabaqāt from the hadīth of Mus‘ab ibn ‘Umayr.” (Munyat al-Alma‘ī, p 31) The author of al-Hidāyah quoted the hadīth, “When you see anything of these horrors, take recourse to Allāh with supplication.” Hāfiz al-Zayla‘ī said: “Strange with this wording.” ‘Allāmah Qāsim replied: “Muhammad ibn al-Hasan narrated it in al-Asl from the mursal of al-Hasan [al-Basrī].” (Munyat al-Alma‘ī, p 32) The author of al-Hidāyah quoted the hadīth, “There is no marriage except with witnesses.” Hāfiz al-Zayla‘ī said: “Strange,” and Hāfiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Aqalānī said: “I have not seen it with this wording.” ‘Allāmah Qāsim replied: “Muhammad ibn al-Hasan mentioned it as what reached him, and al-Khatīb narrated it from the hadīth of ‘Alī.” (Munyat al-Alma‘ī, p 40, 60) The author of al-Hidāyah mentions that Sa‘īd ibn al-Musayyib narrated that the Messenger of Allāh (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) ordered the freeing of umm al-walads (female slaves who bore their masters’ children) and that they are not to be sold. Hāfiz Ibn Hajar said: “I did not find it.” ‘Allāmah Qāsim replied: “Muhammad ibn al-Hasan narrated it in al-Asl.” (Munyat al-Alma‘ī, p 61) It is mentioned in al-Hidāyah that ‘Alī (may Allāh be pleased with him) gave the decree that if a woman besides one’s wife is brought to him and he is informed that this woman is his wife and he has intercourse with her, then there is no punishment on him but he must give her dowry. Hāfiz Ibn Hajar said: “I did not find it.” ‘Allāmah Qāsim replied: “‘Abd al-Razzāq [al-San‘ānī] narrated it.” (Munyat al-Alma‘ī, p. 61) Amongst the reasons why some of the later muhaddithūn were unable to locate a hadīth is that the Fuqahā’ would at times narrate a (non-verbal) hadīth according to its implication and purport, and not in the exact words used by the narrator, as a result of which the muhaddithūn would mention that they could not locate it, although it is an established hadīth. One example is the statement of the author of al-Hidāyah: “The Messenger of Allāh (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) forbade tormenting animals.” Hāfiz Ibn Hajar said: “I did not find it.” ‘Allāmah Qāsim said in response: “The faqīh often mentions a hadīth according to [its] meaning, and al-Bukhārī narrated that the Prophet (Allāh bless him and grant him peace) forbade restraining animals.” (Munyat al-Alma‘ī, p. 61) It should be noted that the hadīths which al-Zayla‘ī and Ibn Hajar could not locate are a relatively small number. Most of the hadīths mentioned by the author of al-Hidāyah, which number in the hundreds, have been sourced in Nasb al-Rāyah and al-Dirāyah to primary hadīth references. Describing the rank of the author of al-Hidāyah in hadīth, Mawlānā Nu‘mānī wrote in a private letter to his student, Muftī ‘Abdul Mālik of Bangladesh: It is to be noticed that al-Laknawī counted the author of al-Hidāyah from the group that are strangers to the knowledge of hadīth, and that is incorrect. How [can this be so] when the author of al-Hidāyah compiled a list of his teachers [in hadīth] from which al-Qurashī quoted in al-Jawāhir al-Mudiyyah in many places, and I quoted them in the footnotes of al-Dirāsāt…There are many beneficial points in the biographies of the teachers of the author of al-Hidāyah in al-Jawāhir. There is the chain of the author of al-Hidāyah and a mention of his reading of the two Sahīhs, Jāmi‘ al-Tirmidhī, Sharh Ma‘ānī al-Āthār of al-Tahāwī, the Masānīd of al-Khassāf and other [hadīth collections] to his teachers. It is established that the author of al-Hidāyah only transmitted from the books of his predecessors from the muhaddithūn of the Hanafī Fuqahā’ as is clear from reading Munyat al-Alma‘ī. In al-Hidāyah there are hadīths from al-Asl of Imām Muhammad, and his Kitāb al-Āthār, and other books of the Imāms. [Some of] these books were not under the range of al-Zayla‘ī’s and Ibn Hajar’s reading.” (Al-Madkhal ilā ‘Ulūm al-Hadīth al-Sharīf, Markaz al-Da‘wat al-Islāmiyyah, p. 103) He wrote to him in a further letter explaining that this rule only applies to the early Hanafī Fuqahā’ and not the later ones: That which I mentioned regarding the author of al-Hidāyah only applies to him and other early Fuqahā’ who drew evidence from hadīths, like al-Sarakhsī and al-Kāsānī. The narrations they cite are not without basis. That which does not have a source from what they cite is from the category of some suspended narrations (ta‘līqāt) of Imām al-Bukhārī and some hadīths which Imām al-Tirmidhī alluded to with his statement, ‘And in the chapter is…’ which we do not find with a connected chain in the books of hadīths in circulation amongst us. This is only because many of the books of the early ones have been lost. That which I have said only applies to the early Fuqahā’ because only they quote from the books of their Imāms, and that becomes clear from reading Munyat al-Alma‘ī. I do not say this about the later ones.” (Al-Madkhal ilā ‘Ulūm al-Hadīth al-Sharīf, p. 104) Explaining ‘Allāmah Nu‘mānī’s statement that this rule should not be extended beyond the case under question, Muftī ‘Abd al-Mālik writes: The intent of our teacher – may Allāh (Exalted is He) have mercy on him – is two things: First, that a definite assessment of negation will not be made of that which is not found from their narrations because the great scholars who negated them [like Hāfiz al-Zayla‘ī and Hāfiz Ibn Hajar] were not free from rejoinders, so what about other than them? Second, these Fuqahā’ will not be accused of ignorance of hadīth or of laxity in quoting it, due only to some of what they cited not being found, because of the possibility of their existence in the books of the earlier ones which have not reached us… The Shaykh – may Allāh (Exalted is He) have mercy on him – does not intend to authenticate the suspended hadīths common in books of various sciences and disciplines of which no source for them is found due only to the aforementioned possibility, because that is not meant nor are they authentic. In the words of our teacher, Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwāmah in a similar context: “We do not affirm anything except with knowledge. And we are cautious in negating.” (Al-Madkhal ilā ‘Ulūm al-Hadīth al-Sharīf, p. 104) Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūtī said: The hadīth which al-Rāfi‘ī cited, we did not find a sanad for it. Nor is it found in the books of hadīth available now. The late Huffāz say of the like of this, “It has no basis.” The scrupulous [of them] suffice with their statement, “We did not find it,” which is better. It has reached me that Hāfiz Ibn Hajar was asked about these hadīths which our Imāms and the Hanafī Imāms cite in Fiqh [works] drawing evidence from them and are not known in the books of hadīth, so he answered: “Many of the books of hadīth, or most of them, have been lost in the eastern lands due to civil wars. Perhaps those hadīths were transmitted in them and they have not reached us.” (Quoted in Al-Madkhal ilā ‘Ulūm al-Hadīth al-Sharīf, p. 93) Finally, Muftī ‘Abd al-Mālik mentions the following important point: It should be known that the presence of some weak hadīths or hadīths that do not have a basis in some books of Fiqh does not depreciate the value of that Fiqh, because the weakness of these specific evidences which some of the later Fuqahā’ cite does not necessitate the weakness of the rulings for which the evidences were cited, because there may be other strong evidences in which there is no weakness or defect. This is the reality which those of the people of knowledge know who have acquaintance with the books of the Imām of the madhhab and the books of his students and those below them from the luminaries of the madhhab who combined between the sciences of transmission and comprehension. This issue was explained adequately by our teacher, Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwāmah, in his book which is deserving of being written in gold: Athar al-Hadīth al-Sharīf fi Khtilāf al-A’immat al-Fuqahā’ (pp. 141-51). Were it not for the lengthiness of his discussion I would have quoted it in its entirety due to its richness and value.” (Al-Madkhal ilā ‘Ulūm al-Hadīth al-Sharīf, p. 104-5) Darul Tahqiq Compiled by Mufti Zameelur Rahman
  3. Haidh pattern changing to ten days Q: A woman's haidh normally lasts for 7 days. However, last month, her haidh was for 10 days. 1. If she stopped bleeding after 7 days this month, is it permissible for her to have relations with her husband؟ 2. During haidh, what part of the wife's body can the husband take enjoyment from ? A: 1. Since her haidh pattern changed to ten days, she should refrain from having relations with her husband for the entire duration of ten days. 2. During haidh, it is permissible for the husband to take enjoyment from the wife's body from above the navel and below the knee. At the time of intimacy, the area between the navel till the knee (including the knee) must be covered. And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best. والعادة تثبت بمرة واحدة في الحيض والنفاس دما أو طهرا إن كانا صحيحين (ذخر المتأهلين صـ 25) لو انقطع دمها دون عادتها يكره قربانها وإن اغتسلت حتى تمضي عادتها وعليها أن تصلي وتصوم للاحتياط هكذا في التبيين (الفتاوى الهندية 1/39) وأما الحائض والنفساء فحكمهما مثل حكم الجنب إلا إنه لا يجب عليهما الصلاة حتى لا يجب القضاء عليهما بعد الطهارة ولا يباح لزوجهما قربانهما (تحفة الفقهاء 1/32) (وقربان ما تحت الإزار) أي ويمنع الحيض قربان زوجها ما تحت إزارها لقوله تعالى ولا تقربوهن حتى يطهرن وتحرم المباشرة ما بين السرة والركبة عند أبي حنيفة وأبي يوسف (تبيين الحقائق 1/57) ويحرم وطؤها ويكفر مستحله ويستمتع بها ما فوق الإزار (الاختيار 1/28) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  4. Why fathers are neglected in old age A must read for all fathers! (and mothers too!) In the lifetime of most Nigerian families (but is now universally applicable), there are 3 dispensations of power: 1) The first 25 years in the life of the family (father, mother, children) where power indisputably rests with the father. 2) After the kids have grown and started working and the power shifts to the mother. 3) When the kids move out of the family house or start their own families and the power moves to the children. The 1st dispensation Total dominance of the father. He is the lion of the tribe of his house. The boss. During this dispensation, the father rules with an iron fist. He barks orders & determines what does or does not happen. The father often metes out corporal punishment to the recalcitrant children. They grow to fear him more than they love him. The father is the provider for the family & everyone is aware of that fact with all resultant consequences. The 2nd dispensation The children have finished school and have started working. Power now shifts to the mother. When the children start earning their own money, for some reason, it’s their mothers they decide to look after. They are closer to her. While the father was in charge, he was busy with the business of providing. He didn’t have much time to be a friend to the children. They spent more time with their mum and invariably grew closer to her. They also see their mum as co-victims of the father’s tyranny. The mother takes centre stage at this point. She is the first to know what’s happening with the children & she has advantage. Should any of the daughters give birth, she is the one that goes for babysitting and the children spoil her with gifts. At this stage, the father is wishing for some bond with the children like they have with their mother but that boat has sailed. Because the mother doesn’t rely much on the father for her needs at this stage, she is less likely to tolerate his lordship. The 3rd & last dispensation Power has shifted to the children. They are self-sufficient, live on their own & have own families. More often than not, whenever there is a quarrel between father & mother, the children side the mother. Years of joint-victimhood at play. Children have been known to come to the house to warn their father not to ‘disturb’ their mother. Woe to the father if his finances are precarious at this stage. This causes most men to fall ill & develop different complications. By this time the forces are arrayed against you. Stroke, hypertension, high-blood pressure. The man has a large family but no relationship with them in later life. A deeply troubling thought. Lesson: Moral, dear men, while the power lies with us, let us wield it with posterity in mind. It won’t be with us forever. 1) With the way you are treating your wife now, how will she treat you when power shifts to her? 2) What relationship do you have with your family? Loving dad or despotic, tyrannical provider? 3) Remember, the children always side with their mother. Aim to do enough to at least get a fair hearing in future moments of family strife. 4) Invest wisely for the future so that you won’t have to beg to be taken care of if despite your best efforts, you find yourself alone. Advice to children: It is not good to abandon your father who denied himself to get you prepared for life & who sacrificially sowed to make you who you are. Honour both your parents and take good care of them in their old age. That is how you too will sow into your future. Don’t let neglecting your father (or mother) be a curse on you into your future. Advice to mothers: Don’t incite your children against their father. Parenthood is not easy despite its joys. May Allah Ta’ala help each and every one of us and grant us the correct understanding. Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  5. Hazrat Moulana Muhammad Ilyaas (rahmatullahi ‘alaih) once mentioned the following: The actual meaning of zikr is for a person to fulfil the command of Allah Ta‘ala that relates to him in every given situation. Allah Ta‘ala commands us in the Qur’aan Majeed saying: یٰۤاَیُّهَا الَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوْا لَا تُلْهِکُمْ اَمْوَالُکُمْ وَلَاۤ اَوْلَادُکُمْ عَنْ ذِکْرِ اللّٰه O you who believe! Do not let your wealth or children turn you away from the remembrance (command) of Allah Ta‘ala. (Surah Munaafiqoon v. 9) Hence, while one is at home interacting with his family and children, or while one is engaged in trade and commerce, if he ensures that he remains obedient to Allah Ta‘ala and does not break His commands while fulfilling these worldly needs, then even though he is engaged in these occupations, he will be regarded as a person engaged in the remembrance of Allah Ta‘ala. (Malfoozaat Hazrat Moulana Muhammad Ilyaas (rahmatullahi ‘alaih) pg. 57) Ihyauddeen.co.za
  6. Emotional Intelligence in work of Deen A major problem in our communities is that though we have moral intelligence i.e. understanding the right and the wrong, the Halaal and the Haraam, etc. however we are not good at communicating it to others in the emotional intelligent way which is crucial in teaching, counselling and communicating with others. The living Miracle of his Personality Finally, the personality of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam was such that every person felt he/she was the most beloved to him. ‘Amr ibn Al-‘As reported, I said, “Which person is most beloved to you?” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam, said, “Aisha.” I said, “I mean among men.” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “Her father.” I said, “Then who?” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “Umar ibn al-Khattab,” and he mentioned some other men. [Bukhari] He felt such love from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam he thought he would be high on the list. In our case too, we all feel a deep, personal connection to him especially more so when we study Seerah. To everyone he is “My Nabi” regardless of where we are in the world and regardless of the different colour, ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Even to the sinful he is “My Nabi”! This is the living moracle of his personality.
  7. Part 3 – Empathy This is the ability to understand the emotions of others. Just as the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam brought revolution to this world in terms of Tawheed, justice, etc. he also brought revolution in empathy, showing care and concern to other people and even to animals. Empathy with family members He was deeply aware of the feelings of his family members. He once said to his wife A’ishah RA, “Indeed, I can tell when you are angry or pleased with me.” A’ishah RA said, “How do you know that, O Messenger of Allah?” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “Verily, when you are pleased, you say: Yes, by the Lord of Muhammad! But when we you are upset, you say: No, by the Lord of Abraham!” I said, “Yes, I do not leave out anything but your name.” [Bukhari] He was aware his wife was upset with him and this comes from the deep level of connection he had with others. When we are deeply connected with someone, just by their expression or the way they look, walk, talk we will know that they are feeling sad or upset. Empathy for Newcomers to a Gathering Making space in gathering for the newcomer is from the teachings of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam. Just by shifting slightly even if there is space acknowledges the new comer and makes him/her feel welcome and connected. In this day and age when people are more connected to phones and internet, many have no emotional connection with anyone and most cannot express themselves. People often need just a kind word to make their day and this is especially so for young people. Showing love to children shows care and concern without which they stop talking to us and find others to talk to and when asked about it they say they tried to express their feelings but when there was no response, they stopped talking. Often, they cannot express themselves but they are calling out by being cranky or in other ways however their call is ignored. We should listen to them and even if they cannot talk to you, hug them. Empathy for the Youth Someone mentioned regarding a young man that he did not pray Tahajjud Salaah (as everyone prayed Tahajjud Salaah in those days). How did the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam react? He said what a good young man he was if only he prayed Tahajjud. So he appreciated and praised the young man first and then gave constructive feedback in a light way which would make a person want to do something. Praising children makes them feel appreciated and encourages them to want to do more Showing love to Children When the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam showed love to children, it was very revolutionary at that time as people did not express love for children. People found it strange that the he hugged and kissed the children of the Sahabah RA. Once Aqra bin Habis saw the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam kiss his grandson and said, “I have ten children; I have never kissed any of them.” Thereupon, the Prophet said, “He who shows no mercy, will receive no mercy.” [Muslim] Expression of Grief Until recent times, in many cultures, men did not cry however in Islam it is ok to show/express emotion by crying. When Zainab’s RA son was dying, she called for her father, the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam. The child was lifted up to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam while his breath was disturbed in his chest. On seeing this his eyes streamed with tears. Sa’d bin ‘Ubadah said “O Messenger of Allah! What is this?” He (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam replied, “It is compassion which Allah has placed in the hearts of His slaves, Allah is compassionate only to those among His slaves who are compassionate (to others)” [Bukhari] Empathy with Animals The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam was also sensitive to the feelings of animals who could not express themselves. If the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam saw any animal over-burdened or ill-fed he would pull up alongside the owner and say, “Fear God in your treatment of animals.” [Abu Dawood]
  8. Part 2 – Self-management What is meant by self-management is how we react to emotions as sometimes our emotions get the best of us and we react before we can think about the situation and we later regret it (referred to as emotional hijacking). EI people do not make rash decisions. They pause before saying or doing anything realising that emotions can be temporary and the harm caused by haste can be permanent. What is the Islamic perspective? In a Hadith the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “Composure (being unhurried) is from Allah and haste is from Shaytaan” [Tirmidhi] Anger-management The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “The judge should not issue a ruling between two people while he is angry.” [Bukhari] Anger is necessary to fight any wrong however it has to be applied with justice and righteousness. Imam Ghazali (Rahimahullah) said anger is allowed at certain times, for certain reasons and in certain ways. Therefore, there are conditions attached. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam felt anger too and he felt grief, sadness, etc. but it was how he managed it, channelling it to a positive way and he also taught others how to channel their emotions to a positive way. This can be seen in many incidents of his life. His wife Safiyyah bint Huyayy RA, who was from a Jewish background, told him how the other wives teasing her about her Jewish origin made her feel sad. He said, ‘You should tell them, ‘How could you be better than me when my husband is Muhammad, my father is Haaroon (Aaron) and my uncle is Moosa (Moses)?’” [Tirmithi] Some Sahaba RA who were amongst those most severely tortured for accepting Islam, once emotionally complained to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam, “Would you seek help for us? Would you pray to Allah for us?” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam responded by affirming their emotions. He understood what they were going through and channelled their emotions to a positive way of thinking. He said, “Among the nations before you a believing man would be put in a ditch that was dug for him, and a saw would be put over his head and he would be cut into two pieces; yet that torture would not make him give up his religion. His body would be combed with iron combs that would remove his flesh from the bones and nerves, yet that would not make him abandon his religion. By Allah, this religion will prevail in a way that a traveller from Sana, Yemen to Hadramaut, Yemen will fear none but Allah, and a sheep will not fear the attack of a wolf, but you people are hasty!” [Bukhari] In this way the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam taught others how to manage their feelings.
  9. Part 1 – Self-awareness Since the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam was guided by Wahy (Revelation) his self-awareness came from Allah ta’ala. He was made aware of his personality through verses of the Qur’an. In Surah Aali ‘Imraan (Verse 159) Allah ta’ala says, فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ فَإِذَا عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَوَكِّلِينَ So because (of) Mercy from Allah you dealt gently with them. And if you had been rude (and) harsh (at) heart, surely they (would have) dispersed from around you. Then pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter. Then when you have decided, then put trust on Allah. Indeed, Allah loves the ones who put trust (in Him) This verse was in relation to the Battle of Uhud where some of the Muslims had disappointed the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam when they left the post despite instructions not to do so. Though the Sahabah RA had caused him grief the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam did not adopt a harsh attitude towards them. He did not rebuke or reproach them for their misdemeanor. A person’s true character shows in rough and stressful times when they are hurt by others or when someone they depend on, lets them down, however the noble character and personality of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam shines through and this is the sign of a true leader who, when people go through a rough and down time, brings them back up again. Example of his Self-awareness and Self-management It is mentioned in Hadith how, when he was angry, his face changed colour however he did not react angrily in word or act as the following incident shows. After the Battle of Hunayn the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam distributed the spoils of war first giving to those whose hearts were to be won i.e. some of the Quraysh who had only recently accepted Islam, as a conciliatory gesture. Abu Sufyan and his two sons Yazid and Mu’awiya were given 100 camels. Safwan was at his side while he rode through the valley of Ji’rranah and sensing Safwan’s wonder at the vast riches the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam offered him an entire pasture of camels, sheep and goats. He responded by acknowledging his goodness and accepted Islam. This was not meant as a means of buying loyalty or to convert people but was meant to strengthen them. He wanted their hearts to soften towards Islam and hearts did soften. They realised the magnanimity of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam and that he cared about them, and their hearts were won over. Others however noticed their smaller shares and a person mentioned that justice had not been done. This was reported to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam and upon hearing this remark the colour of his face changed red and he then said, “Who would do justice, if Allah and His Messenger do not do justice?” He further said, “May Allah have mercy upon Musa; he was tormented more than this, but he showed patience. Analysis Upon hearing the remark, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam felt anger (as indicated by the colour of his face changing) however he did not react upon his emotions. He first spoke about the justice of Allah and His Messenger and then he gave his own response which was a reflection on a past incident and a reminder to himself to remain patient. The many Hadith regarding anger and its management are examples of self-awareness and self-management which he taught others. Self-awareness in Du’a In the Masnoon Du’a there is self-awareness. A beautiful example in the life of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam is the Du’a he made after the incident of Ta’if which occurred when he was extremely vulnerable after ‘Aami Huzn (Year of grief) during which he lost both his external support with the death of Abu Taalib, and his personal support with the death of his beloved wife and supporter from the beginning, Khadeejah RA. During this time of vulnerability, he decided to visit Ta’if to give Da’wah which teaches us to motivate ourselves when demotivated by circumstances. He was ridiculed, stoned and chased out of town which must have been a very humiliating and painful experience. He took refuge in an orchard; exhausted and rejected, he collapsed in the orchard and made a broken hearted Du’a to Allah ta’ala; اللهم إليك أشكو ضعف قوتي وقلة حيلتي وهواني على الناس ياأرحم الراحمين أنت أرحم الراحمين أنت رب المستضعفين وأنت ربي إلى من تكلني إلى عدو يتجهمني أم الى عدو ملكته امرى إن لم يكن بك غضب علي فلا أبالي ولكن عافيتك هي أوسع لي أعوذ بنور وجهك الذي أضاءت له السموات و الأرض وأشرقت له الظلمات وصلح عليه أمر الدنيا والأخره أن ينزل بي غضبك أو يحل علي سخطك لك العتبى حتى ترضى ولاحول ولاقوة إلابك To You, my Lord, I complain of my weakness, lack of support and the humiliation I am made to receive. Most Compassionate and Merciful! You are the Lord of the weak, and you are my Lord. To whom do You leave me? To a distant person who receives me with hostility? Or to an enemy You have given power over me? As long as you are not displeased with me, I do not care what I face. I would, however, be much happier with Your mercy. I seek refuge in the light of Your face by which all darkness is dispelled and both this life and the life to come are put in their right course against incurring your wrath or being the subject of your anger. To You I submit, until I earn Your pleasure. Everything is powerless without your support. In this situation of being rejected, with no human resources and no value in the eyes of the people, in total humility and realizing his weakness, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam articulated his feelings in a Du’a, complaining to Allah ta’ala but at the same time hopeful. Self-awareness in Shukr, Sabr, Tawakkul To express Shukr (Gratitude) after eating and drinking from the blessings of Allah ta’ala, upon awakening after a restful night, upon relieving one’s self, etc. is self-awareness and an expression of internal feelings. To have Sabr (Patience) and not be overwhelmed during difficulty is another example of self-awareness and self-management. Sabr is an oft mentioned subject in the Qur’an and Hadith. To have Tawakkul (Reliance on Allah ta’ala) and turn to Allah ta’ala asking for protection i.e. reciting the Du’a when leaving home and other such Du’a, is realising one’s dependence on Allah ta’ala for protection.
  10. Emotional Intelligence of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam From a talk by Ustadhah S. Ahmed Zaynab Academy Online 17 November 2019 Definition of EI (Emotional Intelligence) Emotional Intelligence is the ability to be self-aware of one’s own emotions as well as the emotions of others (empathy) while being able to control and manage one’s own emotions. EI has three components: · Self-awareness · Self-management When one is aware of, understands and acknowledge one’s emotions, then one can manage them better. We need to know what we are feeling and why we are feeling this way in order to figure out the best way to react. · Empathy Empathy is the ability to be aware of the emotions of others and understand from their perspective. By mastering all three components one can enhance one’s personal and professional life. History of EI Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term ‘Emotional Intelligence’ in 1990. Later Daniel Goleman wrote a book called, “Emotional Intelligence.” He said that it was not cognitive intelligence that guaranteed business success but emotional intelligence. According to him, one key benefit is that “emotional intelligence can help people make better decisions.” This increased effectiveness is invaluable for business, essential for education, and transformational for personal life. He described emotionally intelligent people as those with four characteristics: They were good at understanding their own emotions (self-awareness) They were good at managing their emotions (self-management) They were empathetic to the emotional drives of other people (social awareness) They were good at handling other people’s emotions (social skills) (History of EI is not from the talk) Emotional Intelligence in the Light of the Sunnah As Muslims we should look at EI in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah of our Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam and in terms of the success of the Aakhirah. Self-awareness for us is not just being aware of our emotions and managing them, but also includes our intentions. When we study the Seerah and Hadith we see that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam was an extremely emotionally intelligent person. There are lessons for us in becoming emotionally intelligent people in the way he understood his own emotions, acknowledged and managed them and the way he interacted with everyone around him, teaching them to be emotionally intelligent people. When overcome with grief or in stressful situations we are not even aware of what we are feeling and often end up blaming others. Therefore cognition/realisation of feelings is very important in combatting negative feelings and channelling them to positive ones
  11. Someone came to the Mother of Khwaja Fariduddin Masud رضي الله عنه and said," to her your son is a great saint of Allah, every none muslim, who comes into his companyembraces Islam, hundreds of thousands of people have been guided to the straight path, due to him. How fortunate you are to be the Mother of such a great saint and Wali of Allah." She smiled and said "Rather how fortunate he is to have a mother who is a lover of Allah. Let me tell you how farid has reached the position he has, When he was a newborn before I would suckle him I would do wudu and then as he suckled I would recite the words of the Quran. As he grew older, I would do the chores around the house, he would follow me around and my tongue would be absorbed in zikr and durood, the remembrance of Allah and his messenger. Whilst others engaged in telling lies, I have never uttered a word of untruth, others spend their time slandering and backbiting others I have never uttered about anyone unless it was to point out a good quality of theirs. I would spend my nights, and days in the Ibadah of Allah. and never have these eyes of mine look or gazed at those things that Allah has forbidden. Before doing any action or uttering any word, I would first reflect whether I would be able to account for it on the day of qiyamah. If I did not have the taqwa in my heart if I had not been an abidaa, zakira, and zahida for all my life then how would Fariduddin have achieved such heights. Rather you should congratulate him for having a mother like me. The questioner said " I was told that Paradise lays at the feet of the mother only now do I fully realise, the significance of what that means." Julaybib
  12. It was harder than I thought, trying to write this piece. I did stop and think several times over about the long tiresome journey I have been on, what to put down and how I would come across to you, the reader. Well, that’s for you to judge, so let me get started. My earliest memory of the onset of my OCD was when I was thirteen. I had visited my mother’s side of the family in Pakistan, something I wasn’t too keen on doing, nor seeing any family for that matter. I can’t remember how exactly the conversation had started but my uncle had said after going to the bathroom you should read the first three kalima on your hands to ‘make them clean.’ I didn’t think twice of it and began to incorporate this after every occasion on going to the bathroom. I started to take this aspect of my routine quite seriously without realising why, but it wasn’t till my brother shouted one day ‘why are you still washing your hands?!’ That I stopped to think I was starting to spend a long time washing. Over a short period of time, my rituals began to grow and so did my anxiety. I would question if I was reading these verses correctly and to compensate, would read them again, and again to ‘make sure’ that on the next occasion I would get it right. I started to wash my arms, my face, my whole body and to the point where I would always change my clothes after visiting the bathroom. It’s fair to say, my family thought I was going mad, heck, I was acting like it. I would get very tense if I didn’t complete my ordered routine, a simple task of washing hands became such a troublesome chore that took hours on end to complete. I could not see anything else or think of anything or anyone. I had to get my routine done my way and that is that. At the time, as you can imagine with one family bathroom in the house, it caused a fair bit of quarrels, especially when we all needed to rush out in the morning. My mum, whom I had never been close to, was the closed off, harsh, old-school traditional Pakistani type. She would shout insults at me thinking I was possessed by some sort of jinn. My older brother thought I was insane, my father’s silence was deafening and my little sister bore the brunt of my temper. Something which I can never forget, to this day. High school became more difficult; I would go on and act ‘normal’ in school as I would avoid using public toilets like the plague. It provided some comfort not having to undertake my rituals but things became harder. I was losing sleep, concentration and the motivation to study. I hadn’t told anyone about my ‘problem’ as they would think I’m mad. Surely. A part of me did begin to think something was wrong. Was I truly mad? Why couldn’t I just spend a few seconds washing my hands? All these questions ran through my head, but as soon as I would start, I had to finish my rituals of bathing and changing of clothes. I knew my thoughts and actions were irrational, but in the heat of the moment, I did not care, I had to complete it till I felt right. Self-doubt consumed me. To give some perspective, I could spend six hours a day on this all, maybe more. Oh yes. I had become angry, at myself and my family for not understanding, withdrawn and isolated both at school and especially at home. I never had much confidence to begin with, but had lost all as my OCD and depression exacerbated. As year 12 was upon me, I didn’t know where the time had went. School mates were selecting universities to go to, careers, and their aspirations. I had none. I would go to school just to get a break from the torturous rituals I would inflict on myself every day. Insults were flung my way on a daily basis at home, though to be fair, in hindsight, I was difficult to live with. I was anxious and frustrated and my need to complete these agonizing rituals day in day out was starting to take its toll. My family were embarrassed and ashamed of me and I was embarrassed and ashamed of myself. No matter how hard I tried, I could not stop. It’s difficult to describe how much anxiety my rituals gave me, knowing what I was doing was illogical, which became a heavy burden on my family and I. Some students in the year had dreams of becoming a doctor, I just wanted to get through the day. Feelings of hopelessness and a failure consumed me day in day out especially because I could not talk to anyone. Anxiety caused by a need to wash? Ridiculous! I felt I could not say anything not only in fear of judgment but ridicule. I was in a bubble that I couldn’t break out of, nor could anyone come in to help me from being suffocated. Things got very tough and eventually my father brought a psychiatrist home to see me. I was diagnosed with OCD at 16 and was advised to take the remainder of the year off as I couldn’t cope with school let alone the exam stress. My father and I walked around the house like strangers, my mother and brother could not stand the sight of me. I wanted it all to end. I had started to self-harm, but more for the attention than to take my life. I wanted someone to understand that I couldn’t help it and to say ‘it will be okay.’ I had hit rock bottom and I did not know who to turn to. I had given up; I thought I might as well try praying my salah, what could I lose? I cried my eyes out during my supplication, I begged to be normal, to be happy. I began to pray more often, hoping Allah might hear me. I can’t remember at what point it was, but I felt some comfort, found some strength to carry on and I did. I retook year 12 the following September and it coincided with my CBT sessions, which was of no help. I found I needed someone to talk to rather than guidance on how to stop the rituals. I just continued to pray and hoped that somehow things will work out and I will do well. Retaking the year 12 and going onto A-levels were no easy feat. My OCD was still not better, I still felt incredibly low but I had some fight in me to try hard and do well. I wanted to make my family proud and get good results. My tension and OCD rituals increased with the impending exam stress and I ended up not doing well. I prayed so hard, but why me? Why couldn’t something go right? I did go to university in the end and studied Psychology as I wanted to help people who too had mental health issues. Whilst most people would balance their work and social life, I couldn’t afford to. My rituals would take up so much time, what little time I had remaining would be to study. I was determined to do things right and to do well for myself and my family. I would feel guilty for all that I put them through, I love them and know they love me and only wanted to help but were helpless in the face of the situation. I had pushed myself over the three years during my undergraduate and was proud to earn a First class Honors, Alhamdulillah. This was and is the proudest moment of my life so far. Since then, I have been on a roller coaster of emotions in finding my way through adult life. I became dependent on anti-depressants for a year and half and wanted to stop before I got married. I feel as if I have lost more than a decade of my life to this monster known as OCD and depression. Both consumed me; stole precious moments, and damaged relationships with friends and family. My OCD is at a somewhat manageable level now, but I know it will always be a part of my life. I’m at the stage now, where I have really low days which has an adverse effect on my marriage but I turn to salah, and I keep reminding myself that ‘Allah does not burden a soul beyond it can bear (2:286)’ It is through this verse I keep trying to meander my way through day to day life and find comfort that although this life can be full of sorrow, the hereafter is more important. Don’t get me wrong, I have had days when I just want to give up and say enough. But I can’t. I think of my family, I think of my Lord. Patience is indeed a virtue, but so is belief and hope in Allah, where inshaAllah (God-willing) we will all be blessed with paradise, where the ultimate peace of mind and happiness rests, and that is what is keeping me going. (Submitted anonymously to muslimvibe.com)
  13. Getting close to our Creator Allah is a fundamental need of every human being. This is the essence of being . Having this pursuit in life in-and-of itself provides healing for our chaotic inner selves. It also leads to: Allah’s love Greater productivity Confidence Satisfaction and joy Therefore, it is essential to exert mindful effort in seeking closeness to, and blessings from, your Creator. Getting closer to Allah requires a few things from you: Strong intention to get closer to Allah Patience Consistency Avoid doing nothing or doing things, not for the sake of Allah Let’s first consider our worth to Allah . If you want to know your worth to Allah , then see what you are doing with your life. Are you pleasing Allah or disappointing Him? Don’t like your answer? Well, there is good news. The fact that you are seeking closeness to Allah means He wants you to remember Him. Being productive is very important as a Muslim. It is a sign of Allah’s mercy that you have come to seek beneficial knowledge from websites like this one. A righteous deed is like a pearl necklace – when it breaks, all the pearls follow one another quickly. We need to struggle to achieve great things. ِِِAnd the harder the struggle is, the better the outcome becomes. Getting close to Allah takes time. We cannot expect everything to magically fall into place by doing one righteous deed. You need to depend on Allah . Always trust that what He has planned for you is the best you can have, for this life and the hereafter. Here are some tips to achieve closeness to Allah : 1. Dua (Supplication) We forget that we need Allah’s help and strength to guide us. When we get too caught up with dunya (this life) we often think we can do it on our own without His help. Sometimes we substitute Barakah for a desire to enter the hustle culture and then wonder why we feel frazzled at work or home. When we do this we lose our productivity. This is why we have to know that nothing changes without the strength and power of Allah . We need to ask Him for His help, especially if it is to get closer to Him or become better at worshipping Him. We need to seek refuge in Allah in everything. This helps us to address the negative thoughts we have, our lack of productivity or even our lack of faith. We need to ask Allah to help us and guide us to the Straight Path. Allah says in the Qur’an: 2. Stay Away from Poisons You need to get any poisons out of your life. Poison has many forms. Fix your heart, by staying away from anything that Allah doesn’t love. If you are around friends that make you sin and make you disappoint Allah , then you need to get them out of your life. 3. Get to Know Allah [SWT] Through His Beautiful Names How can you love Allah and want to get closer to Him if you don’t know Him that well? We fall in love with people as we get to know them more and realize that they have a lot of beautiful qualities and characteristics. Of course, Allah is above any analogy, but you need to know Him more. Wanting to get closer won’t do you any good on its own. You must learn to fall in love with your Creator. Start with the name of Al-Wadud, the Ever-Loving. Allah’s love for you is unconditional. He does not need or want anything from you in return. He loves you and so He keeps giving you even if you disobey Him. Ask Allah with His Names. He is the One who is closest to you (Qareeb). So ask Him to bring you closer to Him. Call on Him using the name Al-Wadud and ask Him to love you more and make you love Him more. It’s as simple as that. We tend to overthink stuff and forget that if we seek refuge in Allah , He will make everything easier on us. 4. Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah ) Remembering Allah is essential in achieving closeness to Him. You can remember him by engaging in dhikr (remembrance) and tasbeeh (praise). Say Astaghfirullah a lot to erase your sins. Say Alhamdulillah so Allah will give you more. Look outside your window and say Subhan-Allah about His beautiful creations. The most elegant form of remembering Allah is by looking at His creations. When you are in between tasks like driving or walking, remember Allah . Listen to Islamic lectures that speak of Allah’s glory. Surround yourself with people who remind you of Allah . Attend halaqas or religious circles in masjids. If you like, you can even create your own gathering of remembrance. The more you remember Allah , the more He will descend unique peace upon you. See what happens when you are sitting in a gathering that is filled with Allah’s remembrance… Allah’s Messenger [SAW] said: 5. Follow the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad By following the Sunnah of our prophet we will gain the love of Allah . When you gain the love of Allah , you will get closer to him. Following the Sunnah of the Prophet makes you a better person. You will have better behaviours and ethics. Read more about the Prophet ; fall in love with your Messenger. After all, he was a mercy to all mankind. Allah says so in the Qu’ran: 6. Stay Connected to the Qur’an Reading or memorizing the Qur’an alone is not enough. Understand it and act upon it. Try your best to act the way we are asked to in the Qur’an. Reflect on its meanings; it will give you answers to your daily life’s complications. When you read the Qur’an and work to understand it better you are more likely to reach the level of Ihsan. You will want to do everything right. In the form of a man, Gabriel/Jibreel once entered a gathering where the Prophet was sitting. One of the questions the angel asked was to elaborate on the term “Ihsan”. Wrapping It All Up Be productive, seek knowledge and take action. The more you love Allah , the more you will do to get closer to Him. ِAnd the more you get closer to Him, the more He will get closer to you, and the more Barakah you will witness in your life. Additionally, the more you will want to learn about the Sunnah and the Qur’an, the closer you will become to reaching the level of Ihsan (excellence). When you reach that level, you will feel Allah’s love and you will be satisfied with everything He gives you. You will be productive because you won’t want to waste time without pleasing Him . You will be confident in everything that you do in your life because you will fully trust in Allah . May Allah guide us to the path that takes us closer to Him. Ameen. Productivemuslim.com
  14. Answered by Ustadha Umm Yusuf Abdul Sattar Verified by Mufti Abdur Rahman ibn Yusuf In the name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful Thank you for your question. In terms of the proper dress code for a Muslim woman, there is no standard; it varies from culture to culture. However, the key is that any clothing worn by a Muslim woman should always adhere to the following requirements: The entire body must be covered. The clothing must not be form-fitting; rather, it should be loose and flowing, such that the contours and shape of the body are not discernible, particularly the chest and hips. The clothing must not be transparent. The clothing should not draw unnecessary attention by its color or design. As for niqab, it is necessary (wajib) according to the Hanafi school of thought. Given the prevalence of temptation between the sexes, niqab is a fundamental protection against immodesty and sin. Therefore, when a woman leaves the confines of her home, she should conceal herself with both hijab and niqab, such that no part of her body is left exposed. In explanation of the verses of hijab, (Surah Al-Ahzab, 59 & Surah An-Nur, 30-31), it has been relayed by the Mufassireen that Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas said that when the believing women emerge, they must draw their jilbabs (a long sheet that covers from head to feet) over their heads and faces and reveal only one eye. [Maarif-ul-Qur’an] The following hadith have been recorded in Abu Dawud: It has been narrated from Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), “May Allah have mercy on the early immigrant women. When the verse, ‘That they should draw their veils over their bosoms’ was revealed, they tore their thick outer garments and made veils from them.” The muhaditheen have interpreted this to mean that the Sahabiat covered their faces. It has also been reported by Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), “Riders would pass us when we accompanied the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) while we were in ihram. When they came by us, one of us would let down her jilbab from her head over her face, and when they had passed on, we would uncover our faces.” It has been narrated by Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her), “When the verse, ‘That they should cast their outer garments over their persons,’ was revealed, the women of Ansar came out as if they had crows over their heads and draped over them were black clothes that they would wear.” It has been clearly established from the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and the scholars of our ummah that the Sahabiat were the epitome of modesty and righteousness. May Allah, the Most Exalted, give us the iman to live as they lived and worship as they worshipped. Ustadha Umm Yusuf Abdul Sattar Zamzam Academy
  15. Depression is a condition which affects a growing population of individuals around the world. It does not discriminate with regard to race, educational background, social status or religion. Despite the fact that there is nothing to be ashamed of, individuals who suffer from this condition usually bear it quietly for fear of the stigma of being labelled as having a mental incapacity. Islam being not just a religion but also a complete way of life has provided us with a solution out of every problem, and depression is one problem the solution to which can be found in the teachings of Islam. I must stress here that I will not discuss anti-depressants as steps for walking out of depression, the reason being, I consider them to be more chemical than practical. Speaking from personal knowledge and experience, we shall examine six ways of rising above the trials and tribulations of depression: 1. Reciting Suratul Nas: Basically, depression mostly consists of feelings of self-doubt and extremely low self-esteem which I can attribute to the deceptive whisperings of Shaitan. When one peruses through the meaning of Suratul Nas, you will notice it is mostly a prayer for protection from the whisperings of Shaitan. Consistently reciting Surah tul Nas, whenever feelings of self-doubts surface; will safeguard one from depression and uplift the mood of one who suffers from depression. 2. Reciting the duas for overcoming anxiety and sorrow: ‘O Allaah, I am Your servant, son of Your servant, son of Your maidservant, my forelock is in Your hand, Your command over me is forever executed and Your decree over me is just. I ask You by every name belonging to You which You name Yourself with, or revealed in Your Book, or You taught to any of Your creation, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the unseen with You, that You make the Qur’aan the life of my heart and the light of my breast, and a departure for my sorrow and a release for my anxiety.’[Hisnul Muslim]. and ‘O Allaah, I take refuge in You from anxiety and sorrow, weakness and laziness, miserliness and cowardice, the burden of debts and from being over powered by men.’[Hisnul Muslim]. 3. Take up or join a charitable cause: It is a proven fact that giving one’s time to providing others with happiness by engaging in charitable causes also has an effect on a person’s mood, countenance and disposition. It’s a simple formula; you give happiness, you get happiness. A charitable cause in this sense need not be something huge in terms of financial consideration. It could be anything from volunteering at a nearby orphanage, soup kitchen, organizing a clothes collection to give to the needy or simply feeding one needy person with a meal a day. Once you start to put a smile on people’s faces, inshaAllah your mood will improve dramatically. 4. Take walks and appreciate nature: One major feature of depression is that it takes hold of sufferers and drains their mental vitality. It is common to find that depressed individuals lose the zeal to interact with people, recede into their own mental shells or confine themselves to their homes, thereby further plunging themselves into the hold of depression. Although it is not as easy as it seems, taking walks and appreciating nature will definitely uplift the spirit and lighten the mood. Speaking from personal experience, I can say seeing the beauty of Allah’s creation and appreciating things as simple as the interaction of birds in the sky, the scenery of the land can be a step towards walking out of depression. 5. Start a new hobby: As the English saying goes “An idle mind is the devil’s workshop.” If someone suffering from depression stays idle, while isolating himself from the world, then there is a greater chance of one spiraling deeper into depression. Starting a new hobby can also act as an effective barrier against depression. Hobbies such as reading a book, starting an interactive Islamic blog, exercising or reciting the Qur’an are all productive hobbies. I must stress here that listening to music, watching movies or engaging in other frivolous and non-rewarding are not hobbies in this case. 6. Think about how easy your life is: If all the aforementioned tips fail, then this will certainly jolt you out of your reverie. Think about what you’re going through and ask yourself “Can it in any way compare to what the Prophet Muhammad went through?” “Am I going through even 1% of what he went through?” He lost his parents at a very young age. He lost his wife and uncle at a time when he needed their support the most. He was persecuted by his kinsmen and banished from his own homeland. What on earth are you going through that even remotely compares to that? I know fighting depression is not as easy as it sounds but inshaAllah, with determination and sincerity, the above steps will help in the fight to step out of it. About the Author: Usman Shamaki is a legal practitioner based in Nigeria. Though this is the first article he has written in a public forum, it is his intention to keep writing in future. Source
  16. Answer to a question regarding Islam and depression Source: Islam Online Archive According to psychological studies, a large percentage of people today are subject to some kind of depression, even small children, so it is important to explore this issue in relation to being better Muslims. The Islamic system aims to create a balance in the Muslim’s life, by putting life matters into perspective, rearranging priorities accordingly, and harmonizing all circles of relationships between the individual and his inner and outer environments: *{Seek the life to come by means of what God granted you, but do not neglect your rightful share in this world. Do good to others as God has done good to you. Do not seek to spread corruption in the land, for God does not love those who do this.}* (Al-Qasas 28:77) People feel depressed or sad when this harmonious equilibrium is disturbed, in which case Islam steps in, not to condemn the feeling, but to offer a solution for regaining psychological and mental balance. What Is Depression? You seem to know the difference between situational depression (temporary deep distress or sadness) and clinical depression, which is a mental health disorder that can affect the way you work, study, sleep, eat, and enjoy pleasurable activities. A depressive disorder is more than a passing mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness, and it cannot be willed or wished away, because it is a change in the chemicals of the brain(neurochemistry) which trigger a certain mood, and it needs professional help for treatment. The causes of depression are numerous: genetic, psychological, and environmental factors are often involved. Yet, the relation between the chemistry of your brain and your experience in life is a two-way street: true your brain affects how you handle your life situations, but also the way you solve your problems and handle challenges greatly affect the mood-chemistry of your brain. So, people who have low self-esteem, who are consistently pessimistic, who are readily overwhelmed by stress, or who have a severe physical illness are prone to depression. Can Muslims Be Depressed? To become Muslim, you submit your will to God alone and no one else, and you trust that He will take good care of you no matter what happens as long as you keep your side of the relationship with Him. You admit your limitations as a human, so you go through life looking ahead positively, worrying only about what is in your knowledge and ability as a human, and you leave the rest to God’s wisdom. Existential concerns can cause serious distress as one tries to understand: why am I here, where am I going, what is the point of living if I am going to die anyway? As a Muslim, you get affected by life’s troubles and disturbing thoughts like everyone else, but you can deal with them much better because you have a clear roadmap of where you came from, where you are going and why, so you have a head start having this fundamental knowledge from its source. In other words, you are resistant to existential emptiness, so your focus is on taking control over your life to make the most of it according to the purpose it was given to you for, and you make decisions that will not cause you to feel worse in bad times. Someone who feels completely lost and alone in the face of a crisis would probably feel helpless and depressed. But someone who feels supported by a compassionate God who genuinely cares, who listens to desperate pleas, and who grants generous help, has a better chance of getting back on track much faster because there is a strong helping hand to reach for while dealing with life’s troubles. Depression: Condemned in Islam? Islam does not require us to be superhuman. If one experiences negative feelings, he is encouraged to resist them with positive thoughts and actions if possible, or to seek professional help if the case is clinical. We are required to take charge of our lives since we are accountable for our deeds and decisions, both for ourselves and for others who will be affected, and we are not allowed to hate or harm ourselves; instead we are taught dignity, self respect and protection both as a right and a duty: *{And make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction; but do good; for Allah loves those who do good.}* (Al-Baqarah 2:195) *{Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah has been to you Most Merciful!}* (An-Nisaa’ 4:29) Self hatred results from low self esteem in reaction to feelings of worthlessness or guilt. In Islam you always have hope of God’s mercy even if you have committed the worst sins: *{And never give up hope of Allah’s soothing mercy: truly no one despairs of Allah’s soothing mercy, except those who have no faith.}* (Yusuf 12:87) There is no place for despair because you are encouraged to have confidence in knowing it is God Himself who is in charge of everything, the All Seeing, All Knowing, and All Fair and Wise God: *{… and for those who fear Allah, He (ever) prepares a way out, and He provides for him from (sources) he never could imagine. And if anyone puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is (Allah) for him. For Allah will surely accomplish His purpose: verily, for all things has Allah appointed a due proportion.}* (Al-Talaq 65:2-3) You are certain there is no impossible situation which has no solution: *{So, verily, with every difficulty, there is relief: Verily, with every difficulty there is relief.}* (Al-Sharh 94:5-6) You also have a simple and effective prescription against grief and anxiety. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: No person suffers any anxiety or grief, and says this supplication but Allah will take away his sorrow and grief, and give him in their stead joy. O Allah, I am Your slave, son of Your slave, son of Your female slave, my forelock is in Your hand, Your command over me is forever executed and Your decree over me is just. I ask You by every Name belonging to You which You named Yourself with, or revealed in Your Book, or You taught to any of Your creation, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the unseen with You, that You make the Quran the life of my heart and the light of my breast, and a departure for my sorrow and a release for my anxiety). (Ahmad)
  17. When entering a town or city, one should recite the following duaa thrice: اَللَّهُمّ بَارك لنَا فِيهَا O Allah, grant us barakah in this place Thereafter, one should recite the following duaa: اَللَّهُمَّ ارْزُقنَا جَنَاهَا وَحَبِّبنَا إِلَى أَهلِهَا وَحَبِّبْ صَالِحِى اَهلِهَا إِلَينَا O Allah, give us of its fruits and produce and make us beloved to its people and make the pious of its people beloved to us. عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال كنا نسافر مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فإذا رأى القرية يريد ان يدخلها قال اللهم بارك لنا فيها ثلاث مرات اللهم ارزقنا جناها وحببنا إلى أهلها وحبب صالحى اهلها إلينا (المعجم الأوسط للطبراني رقم 4755) Hazrat ibn Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) reports: “We (the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum)) would travel with Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). When Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) saw a town which he intended entering, he would recite the following duaa.” اَللَّهُمّ بَارك لنَا فِيهَا اَللَّهُمّ بَارك لنَا فِيهَا اَللَّهُمّ بَارك لنَا فِيهَا اَللَّهُمَّ ارْزُقنَا جَنَاهَا وَحَبِّبنَا إِلَى أَهلِهَا وَحَبِّبْ صَالِحِى اَهلِهَا إِلَينَا Ihyauddeen.co.za
  18. When do you stop reading Qasr? Some people say you stop when you get to your home (which means if you stop at someone else’s home you are still mussafir even though it’s in your home boundary) or would you stop as soon as you in your home town boundary. (Questioned published as received) A. A Shari’ traveller (Musaafir) will continue to perform short (Qasr) Salaah until he/she enters the boundaries of his/her city/hometown. Therefore, if one enters the boundaries of his/her city/hometown, one’s status of a Shari’ traveller will end and one will perform full Salaah even if one stopped at another location or at someone’s else’s home within the boundaries of his/her city/hometown. (Fataawa Raheemiyyah 5/173) And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  19. Q. If someone reads full salaah instead of short salaah on travel, should they make qadha of those salaah? (Question published as received) A. If a person performs the complete 4 Rakaats Fardh Salaah instead of 2 Rakaats on a journey, mistakenly or due to miscalculation of the distance of travel etc., the Salaah performed will be valid. However, if the Salaah time remains and a person is made aware of his/her mistake, it will be necessary to repeat the Salaah during the Salaah time. If the Salaah time expires, it will not be necessary to repeat it. On the other hand, if a person performs the complete 4 Rakaats Fardh Salaah instead of the 2 Rakaats Fardh Salaah on a journey knowingly and intentionally, it will be necessary to repeat all such Salaah performed in this way. (Al Bahrur-Raaiq 2/141 – Khairul Fataawa 2/681-682) And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  20. Supermoms A book, Perfect Madness by Judith Warner, tells us that during her research, Warner discovered that: “Seventy percent of American moms say they find motherhood today ‘incredibly stressful.’” “Thirty percent of mothers of young children reportedly suffer from depression.” In the lands where all that glitters is somehow perceived to be gold and therefore desirable, women are discovering that playing roles that were not ordained for them by God is not all it is cracked up to be. Women in the West, who have long been battling both themselves and the natural order to be “superwomen,” are finding that banging their heads on the glass ceiling is giving them more than a headache. They are finding themselves on a merry-go-round that will not stop. Their makeup and their hair must be perfect; their size must be unrealistically thin; their children must be perfect, talented, and high achievers; their houses must be spotless; and all this must be achieved in the stolen hours between working and sleeping. This is more than just struggling against the glass ceiling in pursuit of career goals: It is banging your head against a wall on a relentless and ongoing basis. As Judith Warner states, “I have seen so many mothers banging their heads against a wall: treating their pain – the chronic headache of their lives – with sleeping pills, antidepressants and anxiety meds, and a more and more potent, more and more vicious self-and-other-attacking form of anxious perfectionism.” The chronic headache of their lives …! Is that a life? This is mere survival in a life of stress and loneliness. The superwoman goal is unachievable not because women are incapable, but because they fail to see that fulfilling natural and predestined roles is undoubtedly the real super achievement. Playing mother, wife, and career woman all at the same time is not an enviable position, and, except in cases of necessity, the woman’s role as caregiver and homemaker should take precedence over career and outside activities. Islam defines women as superwomen – but with a different meaning. Islam recognizes that the role of wife and mother is of paramount importance. Islam defines marriage as half of the religion. Islam clearly states that Heaven lies at the feet of mothers. Islam goes much further than just recognition; it clearly defines the roles that women play and states the rights and obligations with clarity and common sense. The role of a mother in bringing up children is greater than that of a father. She is responsible for their emotional, behavioural, and intellectual development. She is responsible for instilling the love of Islam in them, especially in their early formative years. When a woman understands the teachings of Islam and her own role in life, she understands her complete responsibility for the upbringing of her children, as is referred to in the Quran: “O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones.” (Quran 66:6) More than 40 years ago, Muslim women who were secure in their roles and their lives could see the damage being caused by a Western lifestyle. In 1962 after observing her Western sisters, Salma Al-Haffar said in the Damacus newspaper Al-Ayyam,: “It is truly a shame that women lose the most precious thing that nature has given them, that is, their femininity, and then their happiness, because the constant cycle of exhausting work has caused them to lose the small paradise which is the natural refuge of women and men alike, a refuge that can only flourish under the care of a mother who stays at home. The happiness of individuals and society as a whole is to be found at home, in the lap of the family; the family is the source of inspiration, goodness and creativity.” Nowadays, a woman is often forced to make choices that are not easy. Often, she feels that she must work to help financially support the family. Often, she is the family’s sole breadwinner. However, before we focus blame on the stresses and demands of society today and blame them for the destruction of family values and the pain and anguish of failing supermoms, let’s recall how we have unrealistically idealized women’s lives in the 21st century. On the other hand, the lives of Muslim women must be guided only by the precepts of the Quran and the Sunnah. We must not be fooled by slogans such as “times have changed.” The Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, was sent with a message for all mankind, in all times and in all places. The guidelines sent down to us by our Creator, God Almighty, are perfect and cover all situations. God made it clear that a woman’s first responsibility is to her Creator, then to her husband, and then to her home. There is nothing in Islam that prevents a woman from continuing her education, from working or from pursuing outside activities. Nothing, that is, except the well-being of her family. The importance that Islam places upon marriage is clear. “And among His signs is this that He has created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquillity with them; and He has put love and mercy between you. Verily in that are signs for those who reflect.” (Quran 30:21) The usual by-product of marriage is children, and these children are the future of society. What greater role can there be than that of mother? How can the women who fulfill this role be regarded as anything but superwomen? Women who understand their religion are secure in the fact that God Most High knows what is best for His slaves. The motherhood that needs to be sought is one that is compatible with God Most High. That is it, nothing more. If we achieve this, we are the real superwomen; the true supermoms. By Sister Aisha Stacy Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  21. Gender Equality Q: Muslim women are told that they should not leave their homes in order to work and that they are not allowed to interact freely with the opposite gender. Likewise, they are told that they should be obedient to their husbands. Does Islam not afford men and women equal rights, or are men superior to women in Islam? A: Before discussing the issue in question, it is necessary to refresh some fundamental beliefs and facts which are extremely important to understand the Islamic perspective. The following are among our fundamental beliefs: Allah Ta’ala is our Creator and Sustainer. We belong to Him alone and to Him we shall return. Allah Ta’ala, being our Creator and Master, has the right to command us as He wills, and we, being His creation and slaves, have the duty to obey His command. A slave does not have the right to question the authority of his Master. Rather, he will have to obey the Master’s command at all times and under all circumstances. Allah Ta’ala is most loving and compassionate towards His servants. Every command of His is full of justice and wisdom, and is for the betterment of humanity at large. A Believer accepts every word of the Qur’aan Majeed as the Divine word of Allah Ta’ala and wholeheartedly submits to every command of the Qur’aan Majeed, whether his puny logic can fathom the wisdom of the command or not. After having understood these fundamental beliefs of Islam, the question then is, “What is the position of women in Islam, and what are the commands of Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) which are directed towards women?” In order to understand the position which Islam has afforded to women, it is imperative to first reflect over the position of women before the advent of Islam. The Position of Women before the Advent of Islam The advent of Islam occurred at a time when the world was engulfed in sin and was steeped in the lowest ebb of darkness. This era was regarded as the darkest age in the history of mankind. Cheating, robbing, killing, gambling, usurping the rights of orphans and widows and even burying female infants alive was the order of the day. Women were degraded to such an extent that the European countries did not even accept women to be human beings! Women had no place in religion and were considered unfit for engaging in worship. In some councils of Rome, it was decided, after much discussion, that a woman is a dirty animal. Among the Arabs, it was considered permissible for a father to kill or even bury his daughter alive. In fact, this heinous crime was deemed to be a mark of honour and a standard of nobility. There were some who held the opinion that a woman’s life had no value. Hence, if a person killed a woman, he did not have to pay blood-money or be charged with retaliatory action. As far as the Hindus were concerned, when the husband died, his wife too was burnt alive with his dead body. In the year 586 AC, France showed its ‘compassion’ for women by passing a resolution – after great deliberation and controversy – that a woman is actually a human being, but she has been created for the sole purpose of serving man! In essence, immorality and indecency had reached its pinnacle, where women had no social recognition and were openly ill-treated and physically abused. It was in this age of ignorance and oppression that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) – may our lives be sacrificed for him – was sent to rescue mankind from the darkness of kufr and usher them into the light of Imaan. The Position of Women after the Advent of Islam Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) strove to rescue the Arabs from the wrong practices they were immersed in and instil within them the true values of Islam. The light of Islam began to spread until the golden era eventually dawned upon the world, where the nation that was once accustomed to physically and emotionally ill-treating their women became the greatest benefactors of mankind and the greatest protectors of women’s rights the world had ever seen! The men of such a nation, who at one time would deprive their women of all rights and degrade them to being inherited among the belongings of the deceased, were now upholding the honour of their women and fulfilling their rights. They now treated their women with the greatest compassion and mercy and safeguarded them against every type of worldly and Deeni harm. All this was purely on account of them upholding the Mubaarak Sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the teachings of Islam in their lives. What are the Teachings of Islam in regard to Upholding the Rights of Women? Islam has conferred the greatest respect and honour to women. In the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala has commanded that the rights of women be upheld, and at no point should any form of abuse and ill-treatment be shown to them. Allah Ta’ala declares, وَعَاشِرُوْهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ “Deal with them (your wives) in a good manner (with respect and dignity) (Surah Nisaa, verse 19) Similarly, in the Hadith, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) has mentioned, خيركم خيركم لأهله وأنا خيركم لأهلي “The best among you are those who treat their wives kindly, and I am the best of you in treating my wives with kindness.” (Tirmizi #3895) While addressing the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) on the occasion of the farewell Hajj, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) emphasized the importance of fulfilling the rights of women in the following words, “Fear Allah Ta’ala regarding women, for you have taken them (into your nikaah) with the trust of Allah Ta’ala (i.e. they are an amaanah from Allah Ta’ala).” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) also said, “As for the rights that you owe to your wives, then Allah Ta’ala has commanded that you treat them well in providing clothing and sustenance for them.” (Muslim #1218 ; Tirmizi #1163) Islam has advocated kindness and compassion towards women at every juncture. Hence, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) taught the ummah that to spend on one’s wife and to keep her happy is actually an act of ibaadah (worship). Even at the time of divorce, when the couple find themselves incompatible or cannot reconcile their differences and wish to separate, Islam commands the husband to separate with dignity and respect, and not to oppress her in any way. On one occasion, a group of women came to the home of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and complained of their husbands ill-treating them. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) was greatly disturbed and strongly condemned the ill-conduct of those husbands. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, “Such people are not the good among you.” (Abu Dawood #2146) From this Hadith, we understand that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) prohibited showing ill-conduct and abuse towards women and explained to the ummah that such people are not good and obedient servants of Allah Ta’ala. In essence, there is no religion that had bestowed such kindness, compassion and honour to women like the kindness, compassion and honour afforded to them by Islam. The Islamic Position of Men and Women in regard to Worldly Administration For any administration to function smoothly and efficiently, there are two requirements: The first is to identify the different positions in the administration, and the second is for each person to fulfil his/her role in the administration. Consider the example of a government, business, company, hospital or school. In all these organizations, there will be a head and those who will be under the head. If all work together, with respect, cooperation and fulfilling their appointed roles, then each organization will function harmoniously and will be productive and progressive. Similar is the case of the family unit. Allah Ta’ala has set roles for husbands and wives, and Allah Ta’ala has commanded that the husbands will be the head of the family unit in guiding them, protecting them, providing for them and fulfilling their needs. Hence, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) instructed Hazrat Faatimah (radhiyallahu ‘anha) (at the time of her nikaah with Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu)) to fulfil the responsibilities within the home, while instructing Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to fulfil the responsibilities out of the home. (Musannaf Ibni Abi Shaibah #29677) If one understands Deen correctly, without bias and prejudice, one will realise that Islam has not degraded women, but has given them a role which allows them to live a life of honour within the comfort of their homes, concealed from the gazes of strange men, like a priceless pearl concealed in an oyster. The honour which Allah Ta’ala has afforded women can be gauged from the fact that Allah Ta’ala has burdened the husband with the additional responsibility of venturing out of the home to earn a halaal livelihood in order to fulfil the needs of his wife and children. Allah Ta’ala says: اَلرِّجَالُ قَوّٰمُوْنَ عَلَی النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللّٰهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلٰی بَعْضٍ “Men have been appointed as protectors over their women on account of the fact that Allah Ta’ala has granted some of them (men) superiority over others (women).” (Surah Nisaa, verse 34) In another verse of the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala says: وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَیْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ “Men have been granted a level of superiority over them (women).” (Surah Baqarah, verse 228) From these two verses of the Qur’aan Majeed, one clearly understands that the superiority and position which men have been granted over women was in actual fact a grace and blessing for women from the side of Allah Ta’ala, as they are provided for and protected by their menfolk. These verses in no way indicate towards women being underprivileged or degraded in the world. Islam has made Provisions for Women under All Circumstances Islam has made provisions for the needs of women to be fulfilled under all circumstances. Prior to nikaah, it is the responsibility of the father to take care of his daughter. After nikaah, it is the responsibility of the husband to take care of his wife. In the event of the husband’s demise or separation, Shari’ah commands that the needs of the women be taken care of by their close family members (e.g. the father, brother, uncle, etc. according to the various situations). In essence, the verses of the Qur’aan Majeed which explain that men have been granted a level of superiority over women refer to the responsibility men have been assigned with in regard to protecting women, fending for them and fulfilling the obligation which they owe towards them. However, one should bear in mind that these differences in rank among men and women are only decreed by Allah Ta’ala for the purpose of fulfilling their divinely appointed roles in the world. It does not mean that all men are superior to all women in the sight of Allah Ta’ala and in the Hereafter. The Basis of Superiority between Men and Women in the Sight of Allah Ta’ala As far as the true position of men and women in the sight of Allah Ta’ala is concerned, then the basis of superiority is piety, righteousness and taqwa. In the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala declares: اِنَّ اَكْرَمَکُمْ عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ اَتْقٰکُمْ “Indeed the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah Ta’ala is the one who has the most taqwa (righteousness in his life).” (Surah Hujuraat, verse 13) The purpose of coming into this world is to strive for the Hereafter. Thus, when striving for the Hereafter is the common goal, then women are in no way at a disadvantage, but have been given an equal opportunity to excel and progress, on condition that they fulfil the role which Allah Ta’ala has chosen for them. Furthermore, when the basis of superiority in the sight of Allah Ta’ala is piety and righteousness, it is clear that women can make great strides and even surpass men in rank and in acquiring the proximity of Allah Ta’ala – provided they adhere to the commands of Allah Ta’ala. The Great Opportunities Offered to Women in Islam Allah Ta’ala has blessed the women of this ummah with great opportunities to reach Allah Ta’ala and acquire the lofty ranks of the Hereafter. However, this is on condition that they fulfil the command of Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). Allah Ta’ala commands women in the Qur’aan Majeed, وَقَرْنَ فِیْ بُیُوْتِکُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِیَّةِ الْاُوْلٰی “O women! Remain within your homes and do not come out of your homes making a display of your beauty like the former days of ignorance.” (Surah Ahzaab, verse 33) The Best for Women On one occasion, Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was seated by Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) when Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) asked, “What is best for a woman?” All the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) remained silent and nobody answered. Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said, “When I returned home, I informed Hazrat Faatimah (radhiyallahu ‘anha) regarding the question which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) posed before the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), and asked her the same question, ‘What is best for a woman?’ In answer, she replied, ‘The best thing is that they do not see men and nor do men see them.’” Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then said, “When I mentioned her answer to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), he became pleased and said, ‘Faatimah is part of me.’” (Kanzul Ummaal #46012) Being Concealed from the Gazes of Strange Men & Performing Salaah in Her Home Once Hazrat Ummu Humaid (radhiyallahu ‘anha), the wife of Hazrat Abu Humaid As-Saa’idi (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), came to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and said, “O Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), I long to perform Salaah behind you.” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) replied, “I am aware that you long and desire to perform Salaah behind me. However, your Salaah in your bedroom is more rewarding than your Salaah in any other part of your home. The Salaah in any other part of your home is more rewarding than the Salaah in your enclosed courtyard. The Salaah in your enclosed courtyard is more rewarding than the Salaah in the Musjid of your locality. The Salaah in the Musjid of your locality is more rewarding than your Salaah in my Musjid (Musjid-e-Nabawi).” Hazrat Ummu Humaid (radhiyallahu ‘anha) (in obedience and compliance with the mubaarak desire of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)) instructed that a small place be reserved for her Salaah in the innermost portion of her bedroom, and she would devotedly perform all her Salaah at that place until the end of her life. (Saheeh Ibni Hibbaan #2217) Being Obedient to the Husband and Cooperating in Good Hazrat Asmaa bint Yazeed Al-Ansaariyyah (radhiyallahu ‘anha), a Sahaabiyyah from the Banu Abdil Ash-hal clan, once came to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) while he was seated among the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) and addressed him in the following words: “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! I have come to you as a representative of the women. May my life be sacrificed for you! Every single woman, in the east and west, whether she has heard that I have come to you or not, will have exactly the same question as myself. Verily Allah Ta’ala has sent you with the truth to men and women. We brought Imaan in you and in Allah Ta’ala who deputed you. We, the women, live within the confines of our homes and are restricted from exposing ourselves and doing many things that the men are able to fulfill. We remain confined to our homes. We allow you men to fulfil your needs and desires with us, and we bear your children. You, the men, have been favoured by Allah Ta’ala by being able to attend the Jumu‘ah Salaah and other Salaahs in congregation (whereas we women perform our salaah within our homes). You are able to visit the sick and be present at funerals. You perform Hajj after Hajj and even more virtuous than that is your participating in jihad in the path of Allah Ta’ala. When any of you men leave your home to perform Hajj or umrah or to guard the borders of the Islamic territories, it is none other than us women who protect your wealth for you. We sew your clothes for you. We raise and care for your children. Do we not have a share in your reward, O Rasul of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)?” On hearing the question of this woman, Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) turned his face towards the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) and asked, “Have you ever heard a woman ask a question regarding her Deen more excellent than the question of this woman?” The Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) replied, “O Rasul of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)! We never imagined that a woman could be inspired to ask a question of this nature!” Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) turned to her and said, “Return, O woman, and inform all the women you represent that for you to display excellent conduct with your husband, seek to keep him happy and try your utmost to comply and cooperate with him will enable you to be equal with him in all the good deeds which you have mentioned that men carry out.” Hazrat Asmaa (radhiyallahu ‘anha) was so delighted with the answer of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), that as she walked away, she continued to exclaim “Allahu Akbar!” and “La ilaaha illallah!” out of joy and excitement. (Shu‘abul Imaan #8369) From the abovementioned incidents, we understand that there are many great opportunities which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) explained for the women of his ummah. However, they will only acquire progress and acceptance if they fulfil the role which Allah Ta’ala has chosen for them and they are pleased with the decree of Allah Ta’ala. The Plot of the West When one studies and understands Islam correctly, then the falsehood of kufr becomes absolutely clear. One realizes that the concept of gender equality promoted by the West is nothing but a fallacy. In the name of women’s liberation and gender equality, they have in actual fact enslaved women and robbed them entirely of all happiness. They have used many stratagems to create a mindset of liberalism and freedom among the masses. Through the media, TV shows, movies, magazines, newspapers, social networks, billboards, the secular curriculums in schools and universities, etc., they have succeeded in shaping the mind of the common person and making the concept of gender equality appeal to his rationale. The idealized picture which they create in the minds of the common person is that in order for a woman to be progressive, she has to stand up for her rights and show that she is equal to a man. If she leads an Islamic lifestyle, she will be tantamount to a slave living in bondage. Through her treading on the path of Islam and its teachings of purdah and motherhood, her personal progress will be totally limited and hindered. If she is concealed in her home, she will be deprived of making a meaningful contribution to her community and society. Therefore, the only way to ‘liberate’ her is to offer her the ‘gift’ of ‘freedom’- freedom from all restrictions and shackles. Let us now look at the other side of the coin in order to discover the rot within the alien culture of the West and the reality behind gender equality. The Reality of Women’s Liberation and Gender Equality The West has dragged women out of their homes to earn a living in the name of liberation. In this way, they have deprived women of their Shar’ee right to remain in the home and be supported by their husbands. While a woman is working, she still has to bear her children and attend to them as a mother. As a result, she is shouldered with the double responsibility of generating an income as well as mothering her children and attending to the needs of her household. The husband becomes relaxed and expects the wife to also contribute towards the running expenses of the home – all in the name of gender equality. The poor woman is enslaved to the corporate environment and its demands, while she is forced to fulfil the role of a wife and a mother within the home. In the workplace, she has to conduct herself as a professional, and even after hours, she has to see to her clientele and deal with work related issues, thereby making it difficult for her to give her children the attention that they need from their mother. As a result, the children grow up without motherly love, causing them to become delinquents in society. While in the workplace, she is generally forced to compromise her Islamic dress and code of conduct to conform to the environment and appease her superiors. The environment of the workplace is an anti-Islamic environment where intermingling of men and women freely takes place and the laws of Shari’ah (in regard to purdah, etc.) are violated. Many women have to bow down to the dictates and orders of their employers in order to secure their material gain and interests. Reports of rape, sexual harassment and marital infidelity are on the increase on account of exposing women and taking them out to the workplace. The outcome of this is nothing but a recipe for the breakdown of the family unit. The Unparalleled & Beautiful Culture of Islam On the other hand, when one views the honour, respect and protection which Islam affords a woman within the confines of her home, then one realizes that the beautiful culture of Islam is unparalleled. After many Western women had studied Islam and personally witnessed the rot within the Western culture, and realized the humiliation and disgrace they were immersed in, they abandoned their life of humiliation and embraced the beauty of Islam. In regard to the beautiful Deen of Islam, Hazrat Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said: إنا كنا أذل قوم فأعزنا الله بالإسلام فمهما نطلب العز بغير ما أعزنا الله به أذلنا الله "We were the most disgraced of people. Allah Ta’ala then gave us honour through Islam. If we ever seek honour in something besides that through which Allah Ta’ala has honoured us (Islam), Allah Ta’ala will disgrace us." (Haakim #207) And Allah Ta'ala knows best. فاتقوا الله في النساء فإنكم أخذتموهن بأمان الله ... ولهن عليكم رزقهن وكسوتهن بالمعروف (صحيح مسلم، الرقم: 1218) عن إياس بن عبد الله بن أبي ذباب قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تضربوا إماء الله فجاء عمر إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال ذئرن النساء على أزواجهن فرخص في ضربهن فأطاف بآل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نساء كثير يشكون أزواجهن فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لقد طاف بآل محمد نساء كثير يشكون أزواجهن ليس أولئك بخياركم (سنن أبي داود، الرقم: 2146) عن ضمرة بن حبيب قال قضى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على ابنته فاطمة بخدمة البيت وقضى على علي بما كان خارجا من البيت من الخدمة (مصنف ابن أبي شيبة، الرقم: 29677) عن علي أنه كان عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أي شيء خير للمرأة فسكتوا قال فلما رجعت قلت لفاطمة أي شيء خير للنساء قالت لا يرين الرجال ولا يرونهن فذكرت ذلك للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال إنما فاطمة بضعة مني (البزار، حل وضعف) (كنز العمال، الرقم: 46012) عن عبد الله بن سويد الأنصاري عن عمته أم حميد امرأة أبي حميد الساعدي أنها جاءت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت يا رسول الله إني أحب الصلاة معك قال قد علمت أنك تحبين الصلاة معي وصلاتك في بيتك خير من صلاتك في حجرتك وصلاتك في حجرتك خير من صلاتك في دارك وصلاتك في دارك خير من صلاتك في مسجد قومك وصلاتك في مسجد قومك خير من صلاتك في مسجدي قال فأمرت فبني لها مسجد في أقصى شيء من بيتها وأظلمه وكانت تصلي فيه حتى لقيت الله جل وعل (صحيح ابن حبان، الرقم: 2217) عن أسماء بنت يزيد الأنصارية من بني عبد الأشهل أنها أتت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو بين أصحابه فقالت بأبي أنت وأمي إني وافدة النساء إليك واعلم نفسي لك الفداء أما إنه ما من امرأة كائنة في شرق ولا غرب سمعت بمخرجي هذا أو لم تسمع إلا وهي على مثل رأيي إن الله بعثك بالحق إلى الرجال والنساء فآمنا بك وبإلاهك الذي أرسلك وإنا معشر النساء محصورات مقصورات قواعد بيوتكم ومقضى شهواتكم وحاملات أولادكم وإنكم معاشر الرجال فضلتم علينا بالجمعة والجماعات وعيادة المرضى وشهود الجنائز والحج بعد الحج وأفضل من ذلك الجهاد في سبيل الله وإن الرجل منكم إذا أخرج حاجا أو معتمرا ومرابطا حفظنا لكم أموالكم وغزلنا لكم أثوابا وربينا لكم أولادكم فما نشارككم في الأجر يا رسول الله قال فالتفت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى أصحابه بوجهه كله ثم قال هل سمعتم مقالة امرأة قط أحسن من مسألتها في أمر دينها من هذه فقالوا يا رسول الله ما ظننا أن امرأة تهتدي إلى مثل هذا فالتفت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إليها ثم قال لها انصرفي أيتها المرأة وأعلمي من خلفك من النساء أن حسن تبعل إحداكن لزوجها وطلبها مرضاته واتباعها موافقته تعدل ذلك كله قال فأدبرت المرأة وهي تهلل وتكبر استبشارا (شعب الإيمان، الرقم: 8369) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach) Category: Women's Issues
  22. الْقَابِضُ الْبَاسِطُ الْقَابِضُ andالْبَاسِطُ will be discussed together. These are the names which have meanings which are opposite to each other. They work in tandem and that is why they are used together. Translation الْقَابِضُ is translated as The Withholder and The Restrainer so The One Who restrains, constricts, contracts. الْبَاسِطُis translated as The Reliever, The Expander and The Unfolder. The One Who expands, unfolds, relieves. الْقَابِضُ has the meaning of closing in or constricting and الْبَاسِطُhas the meaning of opening up or expanding. Scholars say whether it’s a person’s Akhlaaq/personality, or Rizq, or their bodies and their souls, if Allah ta’ala wants to expand them or constrict them then no one can stop Him. Therefore this expanding and constricting applies to everything. Some say that الْقَابِضُ is The One Who takes the Rooh out of the body at the time of death and for life, الْبَاسِطُ is The One Who spreads the Rooh throughout the body. These words are often used in terms of going astray or being guided.الْقَابِضُ would mean to be misguided or going astray andالْبَاسِطُ means to be guided, expanded. The State of Bast & Qabdh It can also be used in terms of the heart and feelings of hope and fear i.e. feeling Allah ta’ala’s Majesty and Rahmah, feeling His beauty and kindness and having hope which would beالْبَاسِطُ and this is an expansion. When a person feels fear and restricted in terms of the feelings of Allah ta’ala then that is الْقَابِضُ Some Scholars take a spiritual take on this. We go through difficulties in life where we sometimes feel spiritually low and that is the state of Qabdh. It is a state of constriction where the heart is constricted and does not feel the closeness as much as it should. The state of Bast is when the heart opens up and one has a spiritual high and makes spiritual progress. Everything is in the Hands of Allah ta’ala Allah ta’ala can make a poor person a king or a king into a pauper. He can make a weak person strong or vice versa and this all is in the hands of Allah ta’ala. Many times Allah ta’ala shows us in the world. Two people start the same job, one of whom is very intelligent, educated, qualified, experienced, etc. and you think this person will attain success. The other person who is less educated, intelligent and experienced is expected to fail however it is for the less educated, less intelligent person that the job expands and he succeeds and Allah ta’ala is الْبَاسِطُ. For the other person Alah ta’ala is الْقَابِضُ i.e. He is restraining/holding. Story of Taaloot (Surah Baqarah, verse 246-252) The Bani Isra’eel asked their Prophet to give them a king who would lead them against their enemy but they had their own concept of who the king should be. Allah ta’ala chose Taaloot who was of the Bani Isra’eel, a young and hardworking man however not regarded by the Bani Isra’eel as capable of being a king. Allah ta’ala says, وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ Allah grants kingship to whom He pleases and Allah has boundless knowledge. [last part of verse 247 of Surah Baqarah] Sometimes a person may have the image of being a great leader but does not have the ability while a person who is not regarded as capable, can turn out to be a better leader. This is something in which Allah ta’ala is الْبَاسِطُ and الْقَابِضُ Wisdom of Expansion What is the Hikmat behind Allah ta’ala being الْبَاسِطُ and الْقَابِضُ? Whenever Allah has put Bast (Expansion) in something there must be Khayr and Hikmat in it and if Allah ta’ala puts Qabdh (Restriction) in something there must be Khayr and Hikmat in it. This is mentioned in Surah Shura, verse 27, وَلَوْ بَسَطَ اللَّهُ الرِّزْقَ لِعِبَادِهِ لَبَغَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَٰكِنْ يُنَزِّلُ بِقَدَرٍ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِنَّهُ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرٌ بَصِيرٌ Had Allah bestowed abundance upon His servants, they would have transgressed beyond bounds in the earth; that's why He sends down in due measure as He pleases; He is well aware and observant of His servants. If Allah ta’ala had spread out Rizq to all His creation where it was easy and made open where everyone was well to do and everyone had a lot then Allah ta’ala says, there would have been Fasaad (Rebellion or excess) on earth and this is human nature that when people have wealth there will be Fasaad and no one can escape it i.e. no one can say it would not happen to me because when Allah ta’ala says something in the Qur’an, it means it applies to all human beings with maybe the Ambiyaa being excluded. When people have wealth it has an effect and the biggest effect is that the person is not dependant on or controlled by anyone and they feel important. Hirs (Desire for the world) also increases and the end result is that the person becomes aggressive about possessions. This verse shows Hikmat. Instead of giving everything to everyone, Allah ta’ala distributed Rizq (Wealth, looks, knowledge, happiness, wisdom, intelligence etc. as Rizq includes everything) according to His knowledge and Wisdom. Sometimes you see people who outwardly have a perfect life but there will always be something they do not have. A couple who have everything they want may not have children and that is their struggle because if they had everything then it would be too perfect. Or sometimes people do have everything however soon it may get taken away or they may die early. Therefore even if everything is good we should realise that it is a test and it can get taken away. Allah ta’ala has made a system where people are dependent on one another to some extent. If a person has a lot of wealth but no knowledge then they need someone to teach them. How can a person be generous if everyone had wealth and there was no poverty? So this dependency is not a bad thing. We just look at our own personal wants and our fears are limited to our own life but Allah ta’ala gives and takes looking at the benefit of all of humanity. Saying this does not mean we should be complacent with poverty or injustice. We should still help others as this is part of our Deen. وَجَعَلْنَا بَعْضَكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ فِتْنَةً أَتَصْبِرُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ رَبُّكَ بَصِيرًا In fact, We test you by means of one another. Now, will you show patience, for your Rabb is Ever Observant. [Last part of verse 20: Surah Furqaan] Having differences in Rizq is all part of being tested, having Sabr when not having something and making Shukr when in good conditions. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “Look at those who are beneath you and do not look at those who are above you, for it is more suitable that you should not consider as less the blessing of Allah.” [Ibn Majah] Use in Du’a يا باسِطَ الْيَدَيْنِ بِاارَّحْمَةِ O You who have opened Your hands for mercy! This is part of a long Du’a (Not sure if it is authentic as there is a story attached to it) It means we spread out our hands knowing the Rahmah of Allah ta’ala. There are many Du’as which ask Allah t’ala to be Baasit – to open up, to give. We should ask Allah ta’ala for His grace and to increase our love for Him. Counsel In terms of Aqeedah, to know Allah ta’ala controls all these levers in our lives and no one can increase or decrease in something except Allah ta’ala. To make Du’a for ease in Rizq and also to put effort in it in a Halaal way. A person should realise both states. When in a situation of Qabdh (Constriction), spiritually, physically, financial, health etc. then we should think of this as Allah ta’ala being just and make Sabr. We should know our reality and that we do not even deserve so many of the things. When we are in a situation of Bast (Expansion) then we should regard it as the Fadhl of Allah ta’ala that it is His generosity and make Shukr. Hearts Constrict & Expand through speech Imam Ghazali (Rahimahullah) says that there are people who can constrict and expand hearts through their speech and this is so true as we do have speakers and preachers who help and guide people. It is interesting to see this power which Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam referred to. Two men came from the East and addressed the people who wondered at their eloquent speeches. On that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘layhi wasallam said, “Some eloquent speech is as effective as magic.” [Bukhari] When speakers remind people of the blessings of Allah ta’ala the hearts expand and when they hear of the punishment of Allah ta’ala their hearts constrict in fear. Allah ta’ala uses both in the Qur’an as encouragement and to expand and also to constrict when we read about Jahannam. *~~*~~*
  23. الْعَلِيمُ Translation الْعَلِيمُ is translated as The All-Knowing and The Omnipotent. It comes from عَلِمَ – to know, and when it is used for Allah ta’ala it means “To know everything about all matters.” Definition Allah ta’ala always knew and always will know everything that was or will be. Nothing is hidden from Him and Allah ta’ala has prior knowledge about everything that will happen i.e. Taqdeer. He knows about the Baatin (Internal) and the Dhaahir (External) and nothing can be forgotten. His knowledge is Muheet – mentioned in Aayatul Kursi; يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ He knows what is before them and what is behind them. They cannot gain access to anything out of His knowledge except what He pleases. His knowledge encompasses everything. In the Qur’an This name is mentioned 157 times in the Qur’an. It is described in many different ways in the Qur’an. وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ He has created everything and is aware of everything.[Surah An’aam: 101] إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ - He has full knowledge indeed of all that is in [your] hearts [Surah Mulk:13] Allah ta’ala knows the workings of the hearts. الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ are often paired together i.e. He has pure and full knowledge of everything andHe also has perfect wisdom. سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ “Glory be to you, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise” [Surah Baqarah:32] Belief in Allah ta’ala being All-Knowing It is part of our Aqeedah to believe that Allah ta’ala is All-Knowing. It is ingrained and embedded in us from childhood that Allah ta’ala knows everything but there are other ideologies within Islam or on the fringe of Islam where people believe that Allah ta’ala does not know or is not concerned with the detail. Some religions have the concept that Allah ta’ala made the universal laws of nature and kind of pressed the “on” button and then let it go and so is not involved now. Our Aqeedah is that Allah ta’ala has knowledge of every detail and He knows the intricacies of our private lives and regarding the universe. This concept is mentioned in many places in the Qur’an some of which are repeated multiple times in different variations. Some examples: إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ - Fear Allah; surely Allah hears all and knows all. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower. [Surah Hujuraat: 1] وَهُوَ اللَّهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّكُمْ وَجَهْرَكُمْ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُونَ He is the same One Allah in both the heavens and the earth. He knows what you conceal, what you reveal and what you do [Surah An’aam:3] Allah ta’ala knows what a person does outwardly and what the intention may be. ‘Ilmul Ghayb Another concept is that of ‘Ilmul Ghayb which is the knowledge of the unseen. وَعِنْدَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۚ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِنْ وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا رَطْبٍ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ He Alone has the keys of the unseen treasures, of which no one knows except Him. He knows whatever is in the land and in the sea; there is not a single leaf that falls without His knowledge, there is neither a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry which has not been recorded in a Clear Book. [Surah An’aam:59] This concept is specific to Allah ta’ala alone and no one can share in it, not even the Prophets AS. Yes Allah ta’ala shared some knowledge with Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam i.e. regarding the signs of the end of time but it was shared like Wahy and we see in hadith certain episodes where he (salallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) was informed by Jibra’eel AS regarding certain events but the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam did not know on his own and this is not ‘Ilmul Ghayb. This knowledge is beyond human intelligence and senses. The problem arises when people give this trait to others. There are certain groups in parts on the world who believe that Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam had knowledge of the unseen world and that is why it is important to know the Asmaaul Husnaa which are part of our Aqeedah and we should know what our beliefs are. Episode: Jibra’eel AS informed Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam about the poisoned meat which was given to him by a Jewish woman. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alahi wasallam said, “You bring to me, for (judgment) your disputes, some of you perhaps being more eloquent in their plea than others, so I give judgment on their behalf according to what I hear from them. (Bear in mind, in my judgment) if I slice off anything for him from the right of his brother, he should not accept that, for I sliced off for him a portion from the Hell.” [Muslim] If the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam had knowledge of the unseen he would have no need to say this. Therefore many Hadith contradict the belief of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam having ‘Ilmul Ghayb. Allah ta’ala says in the Qur’an, قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا Tell them: The Spirit is at my Rabb's command and I am not given any knowledge of it but a little. [Surah Isra 85] Concept of Haadhir/Naadhir The concept of Haadhir (to be everywhere) and Naadhir (to see everything) is attributed to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam by some people which he (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) never claimed and in the Qur’an and in many Hadith it is clearly mentioned he is a human being. قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ - O Muhammad, tell them: "I am but a human being like you [Surah Kahf: 110] No one has knowledge of the unseen world and it is shown to us in many ways. We think that with science we can predict things and no matter how scientifically sound people are, with all their expertise, are often proven wrong. When the Tsunami occurred in Indonesia, it happened so quickly that even though there was a system in place they could not warn people and there was great loss and devastation. Therefore even with all the technology, we have not reached the level of knowing. Only Allah ta’ala knows. إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْأَرْحَامِ ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ مَاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَدًا ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ بِأَيِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ Surely Allah Alone has the knowledge of the Hour, He is the One Who sends down the rain and He knows what is in the wombs. No one knows what he will earn the next day; and no one knows in what land he will die. Surely, Allah knows all this and is aware of everything. [Surah Luqman: 34] With ultrasound we can now know what is in the womb, male or female and even if the child has some disease but what is his/her personality going to be like? Only Allah ta’ala has the knowledge of the unseen world. No one can know 100% about everything. Concept of Fortune-telling There is the concept of fortune telling and reading horoscopes which we see in all cultures and which tells people what is going to happen in the next hour, day or year. Though there may be elements of truth is these things, it is incomplete and not permissible to attribute this power to someone i.e. he/she can tell the future. This is very dangerous where sometimes people are put on an Islamic pedestal and position of power. Where the signs of astrology are concerned i.e. Aries. Libra, Gemini etc. which describes people’s characteristics, they are different and not really fortune telling. We should be careful how we word things as well. How do we know that our child will be protected if he becomes a Haafidh. Allah ta’ala preserve their Imaan, but we do not know. We should show humility and accept that we do not know everything. Only Allah ta’ala knows. Counsel The counsel to human beings about this is that we can share in this trait on a very limited level. We should know that our knowledge is very limited compared to the knowledge of Allah ta’ala. The story of Khidr AS and Musa AS, mentioned in Surah Kahf shows this. When they were both by the sea, a bird came and dipped its beak in the sea, and Khidr AS said to Musa AS, “My knowledge and your knowledge and the knowledge of all of creation, in comparison to the knowledge of Allah, is like what this bird has taken from the sea.” Compared to Allah ta’ala’s knowledge our knowledge cannot even really be regarded as knowledge i.e. it is ignorance, similar to a child in nursery who knows his A B C but what is his knowledge compared to a person who has a PHD. We may be knowledgeable in some fields and some may be knowledgeable in other fields. People of wisdom will see this. We live in the age of TMI – too much information and with education and qualifications people think they can understand everything including matters of Deen and this very dangerous. No educated person will self-diagnose his illness. He will consult a doctor who is an expert in medicine. Similarly we should realise our limitations even if we are educated. If we have questions regarding Deen then we need to consult a Scholar who is the expert in these matters. The story of Khidr AS and Musa AS shows that there are always other people who know more than us either in different perspectives or different fields. Khidr AS had a different relationship with Allah ta’ala and he had different types of knowledge and his duties were different to Musa AS. It is part of humility to know there are different types of knowledge and to acknowledge where we are weak. Even though we may be experts in certain fields, we may need to go to a Scholar for Tajweed or Tafseer and we learn from one another. No one has complete knowledge of any one topic or all matters. Therefore we can share in this Sifat in a very limited way and to extend it to the future or to the other people or the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam is wrong. Du’a There is too much information in this age and not all of it is beneficial so ask for beneficial knowledge in Du’a and ask to be able to act upon as knowledge without action is like no knowledge. اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ عِلْمًا نَافِعًا O Allah, I ask You for beneficial knowledge اللهُمَّ علِّمنا مَا يَنْفَعُنا وَانْفَعْنا بِما عَلَّمتَنَا وزِدْنَا عِلما O Allah, help us learn what is beneficial to us, help us benefit from what You have enabled us to learn, and increase to our knowledge.  *~~*~~*
  24. The attached chart shows the rulings applicable in different situations RULES APPLICABLE AT THE END OF BLEEDING.docx
  25. Q. If a woman’ menses stops 5 minutes before the Fajr Salaah enters, does she have to make Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaahs? A. There are 3 possible scenarios that may occur in such a case: 1. A woman’s blood stops during the days of menstruation (3-10 days) prior to her habit with insufficient time to take a complete Ghusal before the time of Salaah expires. For e.g. a woman’s menstrual habit is 7 days and the blood stops on day 5 at 5 minutes before the expiry of the Esha time. In this case, the performance/Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaah is not compulsory. 2. A woman’s blood stops during the days of menstruation (3-10 days) at her habit with insufficient time to take a complete Ghusal before the time of Salaah expires. For e.g. a woman’s menstrual habit is 7 days and the blood stops on day 7 at 5 minutes before the expiry of the Esha time. In this case, the performance/Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaah is not compulsory. Ø N.B. In the above two scenarios, the time for the Ghusal is considered part of the menstrual period. The time for Ghusal includes the time it takes to perform the minimal Ghusal, getting dressed, facing the direction of the Qiblah and saying `Allah' of `Allahu Akbar' for the opening of the Salaah. This is approximately 15 minutes in these modern times under normal circumstances. 3. A woman’s blood stops during the days of menstruation (3-10 days) at the maximum (10 days) with insufficient time to take a Ghusal before the time of Salaah expires. For e.g. a woman’s menstrual habit is 7 days and the blood stops on day 10 at 5 minutes before the expiry of the Esha time. In this case, the performance/Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaah is compulsory. (Dhukrul Mutaahhileen Wannisaa’) And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
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