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  1. Gender Equality Q: Muslim women are told that they should not leave their homes in order to work and that they are not allowed to interact freely with the opposite gender. Likewise, they are told that they should be obedient to their husbands. Does Islam not afford men and women equal rights, or are men superior to women in Islam? A: Before discussing the issue in question, it is necessary to refresh some fundamental beliefs and facts which are extremely important to understand the Islamic perspective. The following are among our fundamental beliefs: Allah Ta’ala is our Creator and Sustainer. We belong to Him alone and to Him we shall return. Allah Ta’ala, being our Creator and Master, has the right to command us as He wills, and we, being His creation and slaves, have the duty to obey His command. A slave does not have the right to question the authority of his Master. Rather, he will have to obey the Master’s command at all times and under all circumstances. Allah Ta’ala is most loving and compassionate towards His servants. Every command of His is full of justice and wisdom, and is for the betterment of humanity at large. A Believer accepts every word of the Qur’aan Majeed as the Divine word of Allah Ta’ala and wholeheartedly submits to every command of the Qur’aan Majeed, whether his puny logic can fathom the wisdom of the command or not. After having understood these fundamental beliefs of Islam, the question then is, “What is the position of women in Islam, and what are the commands of Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) which are directed towards women?” In order to understand the position which Islam has afforded to women, it is imperative to first reflect over the position of women before the advent of Islam. The Position of Women before the Advent of Islam The advent of Islam occurred at a time when the world was engulfed in sin and was steeped in the lowest ebb of darkness. This era was regarded as the darkest age in the history of mankind. Cheating, robbing, killing, gambling, usurping the rights of orphans and widows and even burying female infants alive was the order of the day. Women were degraded to such an extent that the European countries did not even accept women to be human beings! Women had no place in religion and were considered unfit for engaging in worship. In some councils of Rome, it was decided, after much discussion, that a woman is a dirty animal. Among the Arabs, it was considered permissible for a father to kill or even bury his daughter alive. In fact, this heinous crime was deemed to be a mark of honour and a standard of nobility. There were some who held the opinion that a woman’s life had no value. Hence, if a person killed a woman, he did not have to pay blood-money or be charged with retaliatory action. As far as the Hindus were concerned, when the husband died, his wife too was burnt alive with his dead body. In the year 586 AC, France showed its ‘compassion’ for women by passing a resolution – after great deliberation and controversy – that a woman is actually a human being, but she has been created for the sole purpose of serving man! In essence, immorality and indecency had reached its pinnacle, where women had no social recognition and were openly ill-treated and physically abused. It was in this age of ignorance and oppression that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) – may our lives be sacrificed for him – was sent to rescue mankind from the darkness of kufr and usher them into the light of Imaan. The Position of Women after the Advent of Islam Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) strove to rescue the Arabs from the wrong practices they were immersed in and instil within them the true values of Islam. The light of Islam began to spread until the golden era eventually dawned upon the world, where the nation that was once accustomed to physically and emotionally ill-treating their women became the greatest benefactors of mankind and the greatest protectors of women’s rights the world had ever seen! The men of such a nation, who at one time would deprive their women of all rights and degrade them to being inherited among the belongings of the deceased, were now upholding the honour of their women and fulfilling their rights. They now treated their women with the greatest compassion and mercy and safeguarded them against every type of worldly and Deeni harm. All this was purely on account of them upholding the Mubaarak Sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the teachings of Islam in their lives. What are the Teachings of Islam in regard to Upholding the Rights of Women? Islam has conferred the greatest respect and honour to women. In the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala has commanded that the rights of women be upheld, and at no point should any form of abuse and ill-treatment be shown to them. Allah Ta’ala declares, وَعَاشِرُوْهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ “Deal with them (your wives) in a good manner (with respect and dignity) (Surah Nisaa, verse 19) Similarly, in the Hadith, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) has mentioned, خيركم خيركم لأهله وأنا خيركم لأهلي “The best among you are those who treat their wives kindly, and I am the best of you in treating my wives with kindness.” (Tirmizi #3895) While addressing the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) on the occasion of the farewell Hajj, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) emphasized the importance of fulfilling the rights of women in the following words, “Fear Allah Ta’ala regarding women, for you have taken them (into your nikaah) with the trust of Allah Ta’ala (i.e. they are an amaanah from Allah Ta’ala).” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) also said, “As for the rights that you owe to your wives, then Allah Ta’ala has commanded that you treat them well in providing clothing and sustenance for them.” (Muslim #1218 ; Tirmizi #1163) Islam has advocated kindness and compassion towards women at every juncture. Hence, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) taught the ummah that to spend on one’s wife and to keep her happy is actually an act of ibaadah (worship). Even at the time of divorce, when the couple find themselves incompatible or cannot reconcile their differences and wish to separate, Islam commands the husband to separate with dignity and respect, and not to oppress her in any way. On one occasion, a group of women came to the home of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and complained of their husbands ill-treating them. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) was greatly disturbed and strongly condemned the ill-conduct of those husbands. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, “Such people are not the good among you.” (Abu Dawood #2146) From this Hadith, we understand that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) prohibited showing ill-conduct and abuse towards women and explained to the ummah that such people are not good and obedient servants of Allah Ta’ala. In essence, there is no religion that had bestowed such kindness, compassion and honour to women like the kindness, compassion and honour afforded to them by Islam. The Islamic Position of Men and Women in regard to Worldly Administration For any administration to function smoothly and efficiently, there are two requirements: The first is to identify the different positions in the administration, and the second is for each person to fulfil his/her role in the administration. Consider the example of a government, business, company, hospital or school. In all these organizations, there will be a head and those who will be under the head. If all work together, with respect, cooperation and fulfilling their appointed roles, then each organization will function harmoniously and will be productive and progressive. Similar is the case of the family unit. Allah Ta’ala has set roles for husbands and wives, and Allah Ta’ala has commanded that the husbands will be the head of the family unit in guiding them, protecting them, providing for them and fulfilling their needs. Hence, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) instructed Hazrat Faatimah (radhiyallahu ‘anha) (at the time of her nikaah with Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu)) to fulfil the responsibilities within the home, while instructing Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to fulfil the responsibilities out of the home. (Musannaf Ibni Abi Shaibah #29677) If one understands Deen correctly, without bias and prejudice, one will realise that Islam has not degraded women, but has given them a role which allows them to live a life of honour within the comfort of their homes, concealed from the gazes of strange men, like a priceless pearl concealed in an oyster. The honour which Allah Ta’ala has afforded women can be gauged from the fact that Allah Ta’ala has burdened the husband with the additional responsibility of venturing out of the home to earn a halaal livelihood in order to fulfil the needs of his wife and children. Allah Ta’ala says: اَلرِّجَالُ قَوّٰمُوْنَ عَلَی النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللّٰهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلٰی بَعْضٍ “Men have been appointed as protectors over their women on account of the fact that Allah Ta’ala has granted some of them (men) superiority over others (women).” (Surah Nisaa, verse 34) In another verse of the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala says: وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَیْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ “Men have been granted a level of superiority over them (women).” (Surah Baqarah, verse 228) From these two verses of the Qur’aan Majeed, one clearly understands that the superiority and position which men have been granted over women was in actual fact a grace and blessing for women from the side of Allah Ta’ala, as they are provided for and protected by their menfolk. These verses in no way indicate towards women being underprivileged or degraded in the world. Islam has made Provisions for Women under All Circumstances Islam has made provisions for the needs of women to be fulfilled under all circumstances. Prior to nikaah, it is the responsibility of the father to take care of his daughter. After nikaah, it is the responsibility of the husband to take care of his wife. In the event of the husband’s demise or separation, Shari’ah commands that the needs of the women be taken care of by their close family members (e.g. the father, brother, uncle, etc. according to the various situations). In essence, the verses of the Qur’aan Majeed which explain that men have been granted a level of superiority over women refer to the responsibility men have been assigned with in regard to protecting women, fending for them and fulfilling the obligation which they owe towards them. However, one should bear in mind that these differences in rank among men and women are only decreed by Allah Ta’ala for the purpose of fulfilling their divinely appointed roles in the world. It does not mean that all men are superior to all women in the sight of Allah Ta’ala and in the Hereafter. The Basis of Superiority between Men and Women in the Sight of Allah Ta’ala As far as the true position of men and women in the sight of Allah Ta’ala is concerned, then the basis of superiority is piety, righteousness and taqwa. In the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala declares: اِنَّ اَكْرَمَکُمْ عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ اَتْقٰکُمْ “Indeed the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah Ta’ala is the one who has the most taqwa (righteousness in his life).” (Surah Hujuraat, verse 13) The purpose of coming into this world is to strive for the Hereafter. Thus, when striving for the Hereafter is the common goal, then women are in no way at a disadvantage, but have been given an equal opportunity to excel and progress, on condition that they fulfil the role which Allah Ta’ala has chosen for them. Furthermore, when the basis of superiority in the sight of Allah Ta’ala is piety and righteousness, it is clear that women can make great strides and even surpass men in rank and in acquiring the proximity of Allah Ta’ala – provided they adhere to the commands of Allah Ta’ala. The Great Opportunities Offered to Women in Islam Allah Ta’ala has blessed the women of this ummah with great opportunities to reach Allah Ta’ala and acquire the lofty ranks of the Hereafter. However, this is on condition that they fulfil the command of Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). Allah Ta’ala commands women in the Qur’aan Majeed, وَقَرْنَ فِیْ بُیُوْتِکُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِیَّةِ الْاُوْلٰی “O women! Remain within your homes and do not come out of your homes making a display of your beauty like the former days of ignorance.” (Surah Ahzaab, verse 33) The Best for Women On one occasion, Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was seated by Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) when Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) asked, “What is best for a woman?” All the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) remained silent and nobody answered. Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said, “When I returned home, I informed Hazrat Faatimah (radhiyallahu ‘anha) regarding the question which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) posed before the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), and asked her the same question, ‘What is best for a woman?’ In answer, she replied, ‘The best thing is that they do not see men and nor do men see them.’” Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then said, “When I mentioned her answer to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), he became pleased and said, ‘Faatimah is part of me.’” (Kanzul Ummaal #46012) Being Concealed from the Gazes of Strange Men & Performing Salaah in Her Home Once Hazrat Ummu Humaid (radhiyallahu ‘anha), the wife of Hazrat Abu Humaid As-Saa’idi (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), came to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and said, “O Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), I long to perform Salaah behind you.” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) replied, “I am aware that you long and desire to perform Salaah behind me. However, your Salaah in your bedroom is more rewarding than your Salaah in any other part of your home. The Salaah in any other part of your home is more rewarding than the Salaah in your enclosed courtyard. The Salaah in your enclosed courtyard is more rewarding than the Salaah in the Musjid of your locality. The Salaah in the Musjid of your locality is more rewarding than your Salaah in my Musjid (Musjid-e-Nabawi).” Hazrat Ummu Humaid (radhiyallahu ‘anha) (in obedience and compliance with the mubaarak desire of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)) instructed that a small place be reserved for her Salaah in the innermost portion of her bedroom, and she would devotedly perform all her Salaah at that place until the end of her life. (Saheeh Ibni Hibbaan #2217) Being Obedient to the Husband and Cooperating in Good Hazrat Asmaa bint Yazeed Al-Ansaariyyah (radhiyallahu ‘anha), a Sahaabiyyah from the Banu Abdil Ash-hal clan, once came to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) while he was seated among the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) and addressed him in the following words: “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! I have come to you as a representative of the women. May my life be sacrificed for you! Every single woman, in the east and west, whether she has heard that I have come to you or not, will have exactly the same question as myself. Verily Allah Ta’ala has sent you with the truth to men and women. We brought Imaan in you and in Allah Ta’ala who deputed you. We, the women, live within the confines of our homes and are restricted from exposing ourselves and doing many things that the men are able to fulfill. We remain confined to our homes. We allow you men to fulfil your needs and desires with us, and we bear your children. You, the men, have been favoured by Allah Ta’ala by being able to attend the Jumu‘ah Salaah and other Salaahs in congregation (whereas we women perform our salaah within our homes). You are able to visit the sick and be present at funerals. You perform Hajj after Hajj and even more virtuous than that is your participating in jihad in the path of Allah Ta’ala. When any of you men leave your home to perform Hajj or umrah or to guard the borders of the Islamic territories, it is none other than us women who protect your wealth for you. We sew your clothes for you. We raise and care for your children. Do we not have a share in your reward, O Rasul of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)?” On hearing the question of this woman, Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) turned his face towards the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) and asked, “Have you ever heard a woman ask a question regarding her Deen more excellent than the question of this woman?” The Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) replied, “O Rasul of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)! We never imagined that a woman could be inspired to ask a question of this nature!” Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) turned to her and said, “Return, O woman, and inform all the women you represent that for you to display excellent conduct with your husband, seek to keep him happy and try your utmost to comply and cooperate with him will enable you to be equal with him in all the good deeds which you have mentioned that men carry out.” Hazrat Asmaa (radhiyallahu ‘anha) was so delighted with the answer of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), that as she walked away, she continued to exclaim “Allahu Akbar!” and “La ilaaha illallah!” out of joy and excitement. (Shu‘abul Imaan #8369) From the abovementioned incidents, we understand that there are many great opportunities which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) explained for the women of his ummah. However, they will only acquire progress and acceptance if they fulfil the role which Allah Ta’ala has chosen for them and they are pleased with the decree of Allah Ta’ala. The Plot of the West When one studies and understands Islam correctly, then the falsehood of kufr becomes absolutely clear. One realizes that the concept of gender equality promoted by the West is nothing but a fallacy. In the name of women’s liberation and gender equality, they have in actual fact enslaved women and robbed them entirely of all happiness. They have used many stratagems to create a mindset of liberalism and freedom among the masses. Through the media, TV shows, movies, magazines, newspapers, social networks, billboards, the secular curriculums in schools and universities, etc., they have succeeded in shaping the mind of the common person and making the concept of gender equality appeal to his rationale. The idealized picture which they create in the minds of the common person is that in order for a woman to be progressive, she has to stand up for her rights and show that she is equal to a man. If she leads an Islamic lifestyle, she will be tantamount to a slave living in bondage. Through her treading on the path of Islam and its teachings of purdah and motherhood, her personal progress will be totally limited and hindered. If she is concealed in her home, she will be deprived of making a meaningful contribution to her community and society. Therefore, the only way to ‘liberate’ her is to offer her the ‘gift’ of ‘freedom’- freedom from all restrictions and shackles. Let us now look at the other side of the coin in order to discover the rot within the alien culture of the West and the reality behind gender equality. The Reality of Women’s Liberation and Gender Equality The West has dragged women out of their homes to earn a living in the name of liberation. In this way, they have deprived women of their Shar’ee right to remain in the home and be supported by their husbands. While a woman is working, she still has to bear her children and attend to them as a mother. As a result, she is shouldered with the double responsibility of generating an income as well as mothering her children and attending to the needs of her household. The husband becomes relaxed and expects the wife to also contribute towards the running expenses of the home – all in the name of gender equality. The poor woman is enslaved to the corporate environment and its demands, while she is forced to fulfil the role of a wife and a mother within the home. In the workplace, she has to conduct herself as a professional, and even after hours, she has to see to her clientele and deal with work related issues, thereby making it difficult for her to give her children the attention that they need from their mother. As a result, the children grow up without motherly love, causing them to become delinquents in society. While in the workplace, she is generally forced to compromise her Islamic dress and code of conduct to conform to the environment and appease her superiors. The environment of the workplace is an anti-Islamic environment where intermingling of men and women freely takes place and the laws of Shari’ah (in regard to purdah, etc.) are violated. Many women have to bow down to the dictates and orders of their employers in order to secure their material gain and interests. Reports of rape, sexual harassment and marital infidelity are on the increase on account of exposing women and taking them out to the workplace. The outcome of this is nothing but a recipe for the breakdown of the family unit. The Unparalleled & Beautiful Culture of Islam On the other hand, when one views the honour, respect and protection which Islam affords a woman within the confines of her home, then one realizes that the beautiful culture of Islam is unparalleled. After many Western women had studied Islam and personally witnessed the rot within the Western culture, and realized the humiliation and disgrace they were immersed in, they abandoned their life of humiliation and embraced the beauty of Islam. In regard to the beautiful Deen of Islam, Hazrat Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said: إنا كنا أذل قوم فأعزنا الله بالإسلام فمهما نطلب العز بغير ما أعزنا الله به أذلنا الله "We were the most disgraced of people. Allah Ta’ala then gave us honour through Islam. If we ever seek honour in something besides that through which Allah Ta’ala has honoured us (Islam), Allah Ta’ala will disgrace us." (Haakim #207) And Allah Ta'ala knows best. فاتقوا الله في النساء فإنكم أخذتموهن بأمان الله ... ولهن عليكم رزقهن وكسوتهن بالمعروف (صحيح مسلم، الرقم: 1218) عن إياس بن عبد الله بن أبي ذباب قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تضربوا إماء الله فجاء عمر إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال ذئرن النساء على أزواجهن فرخص في ضربهن فأطاف بآل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نساء كثير يشكون أزواجهن فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لقد طاف بآل محمد نساء كثير يشكون أزواجهن ليس أولئك بخياركم (سنن أبي داود، الرقم: 2146) عن ضمرة بن حبيب قال قضى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على ابنته فاطمة بخدمة البيت وقضى على علي بما كان خارجا من البيت من الخدمة (مصنف ابن أبي شيبة، الرقم: 29677) عن علي أنه كان عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أي شيء خير للمرأة فسكتوا قال فلما رجعت قلت لفاطمة أي شيء خير للنساء قالت لا يرين الرجال ولا يرونهن فذكرت ذلك للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال إنما فاطمة بضعة مني (البزار، حل وضعف) (كنز العمال، الرقم: 46012) عن عبد الله بن سويد الأنصاري عن عمته أم حميد امرأة أبي حميد الساعدي أنها جاءت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت يا رسول الله إني أحب الصلاة معك قال قد علمت أنك تحبين الصلاة معي وصلاتك في بيتك خير من صلاتك في حجرتك وصلاتك في حجرتك خير من صلاتك في دارك وصلاتك في دارك خير من صلاتك في مسجد قومك وصلاتك في مسجد قومك خير من صلاتك في مسجدي قال فأمرت فبني لها مسجد في أقصى شيء من بيتها وأظلمه وكانت تصلي فيه حتى لقيت الله جل وعل (صحيح ابن حبان، الرقم: 2217) عن أسماء بنت يزيد الأنصارية من بني عبد الأشهل أنها أتت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو بين أصحابه فقالت بأبي أنت وأمي إني وافدة النساء إليك واعلم نفسي لك الفداء أما إنه ما من امرأة كائنة في شرق ولا غرب سمعت بمخرجي هذا أو لم تسمع إلا وهي على مثل رأيي إن الله بعثك بالحق إلى الرجال والنساء فآمنا بك وبإلاهك الذي أرسلك وإنا معشر النساء محصورات مقصورات قواعد بيوتكم ومقضى شهواتكم وحاملات أولادكم وإنكم معاشر الرجال فضلتم علينا بالجمعة والجماعات وعيادة المرضى وشهود الجنائز والحج بعد الحج وأفضل من ذلك الجهاد في سبيل الله وإن الرجل منكم إذا أخرج حاجا أو معتمرا ومرابطا حفظنا لكم أموالكم وغزلنا لكم أثوابا وربينا لكم أولادكم فما نشارككم في الأجر يا رسول الله قال فالتفت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى أصحابه بوجهه كله ثم قال هل سمعتم مقالة امرأة قط أحسن من مسألتها في أمر دينها من هذه فقالوا يا رسول الله ما ظننا أن امرأة تهتدي إلى مثل هذا فالتفت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إليها ثم قال لها انصرفي أيتها المرأة وأعلمي من خلفك من النساء أن حسن تبعل إحداكن لزوجها وطلبها مرضاته واتباعها موافقته تعدل ذلك كله قال فأدبرت المرأة وهي تهلل وتكبر استبشارا (شعب الإيمان، الرقم: 8369) Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach) Category: Women's Issues
  2. The attached chart shows the rulings applicable in different situations RULES APPLICABLE AT THE END OF BLEEDING.docx
  3. Q. If a woman’ menses stops 5 minutes before the Fajr Salaah enters, does she have to make Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaahs? A. There are 3 possible scenarios that may occur in such a case: 1. A woman’s blood stops during the days of menstruation (3-10 days) prior to her habit with insufficient time to take a complete Ghusal before the time of Salaah expires. For e.g. a woman’s menstrual habit is 7 days and the blood stops on day 5 at 5 minutes before the expiry of the Esha time. In this case, the performance/Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaah is not compulsory. 2. A woman’s blood stops during the days of menstruation (3-10 days) at her habit with insufficient time to take a complete Ghusal before the time of Salaah expires. For e.g. a woman’s menstrual habit is 7 days and the blood stops on day 7 at 5 minutes before the expiry of the Esha time. In this case, the performance/Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaah is not compulsory. Ø N.B. In the above two scenarios, the time for the Ghusal is considered part of the menstrual period. The time for Ghusal includes the time it takes to perform the minimal Ghusal, getting dressed, facing the direction of the Qiblah and saying `Allah' of `Allahu Akbar' for the opening of the Salaah. This is approximately 15 minutes in these modern times under normal circumstances. 3. A woman’s blood stops during the days of menstruation (3-10 days) at the maximum (10 days) with insufficient time to take a Ghusal before the time of Salaah expires. For e.g. a woman’s menstrual habit is 7 days and the blood stops on day 10 at 5 minutes before the expiry of the Esha time. In this case, the performance/Qadha of the Esha and Witr Salaah is compulsory. (Dhukrul Mutaahhileen Wannisaa’) And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  4. Wearing Clothes with Good Intentions By Shaykh-ul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh There are many aspects of our day to day lives which we do not consider to be a part of Dīn. One example of this is purchasing and wearing clothes. When buying clothes and wearing them many of us only think about how we will appear to others. Due to lack of knowledge of Islamic teachings in this regard we fail to act correctly. In order to make this necessity of life into an act of virtue, the first thing we need to consider is our intention. Intentions when Spending Different people have different motives when buying and wearing clothes. A person can purchase clothes with either of the following intentions: • To look clean and tidy: When a person purchases clothes to appear neat and tidy for the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā, this will be regarded as a good deed which will bring reward. Such a person will be following the hadīth of our beloved Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam: Allāh is Beautiful and He loves Beauty. (Muslim) • To make others happy: When one has the intention to please one’s family, friends and close associates, this will also be an act of virtue, as giving happiness to others will earn the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. • To utilise the bounty of wealth to express gratitude that Allāh ta‘ālā has bestowed upon me the favour of wealth. This also brings the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said: Allāh loves to see His servants utilising and exposing the bounties He has bestowed upon them [as an expression of gratitude]. (Al-Bayhaqī) • To have a distinct appearance in order to stand out, be admired or show one’s status amongst society; such intentions are impermissible. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has said: Allāh ta‘ālā does not look at that person (mercifully) who wears a garment, with which he intends to boast and attract the attention of people, as long as that garment remains on him.” (At-Tabaranī) If a person does not have any of the above explicit intentions, then he will neither earn reward nor will he be questioned in the hereafter. Whether or not one has the correct intention for wearing good clothes can be gauged from the person being ready to wear clothes that are against his taste, but will make his dear ones happy. This point is beautifully illustrated in an episode from the life of Mawlānā Ashraf ‘Alī Thānwī rahimahullāh. Mawlānā Thānwī rahimahullāh had a personal disliking for wearing a collarless coat-like garment known as Sherwani and also for clothes made from shiny cloth. Once, on the night before ‘Īd, his wife gave him a Sherwani as a surprise gift. It was made of shiny cloth which she had secretly sewn by hand throughout the month of Ramadān. She desired that Hadrat Thānwī rahimahullāh wear this on ‘Īd! Despite not having any inclination towards the garment, he still wore it to the ‘Īd salāh to make her happy. Avoiding Extravagance As explained in the hadīth above, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has given a grave warning for those who wear clothes for show. It is this incorrect intention which also usually leads to one indulging in extravagant spending. Allāh ta‘ālā describes those who spend extravagantly in the Glorious Qur’ān as: Without doubt, the extravagant ones are the brothers of the Shayātīn… (17:27) Spending for show and to maintain one’s status in front of others can apply to clothing as well as other forms of expenditure. A person may move home to live in a particular area; buy a particular model of car; hold a wedding in a certain venue; buy a mobile phone of a particular brand, just to have a unique standing amongst his family, friends and community, or at the least to keep up and not appear backward and out of touch. It is concerning to note that a large element of our community is engaged in spending with such motives, which leads to the displeasure of Allāh ta‘ālā, and for which we will be questioned on the Day of Judgement. Therefore, before purchasing anything, we must correct our intentions and also avoid extravagance. We can buy nice things with the correct intentions mentioned above and without spending excessively. For example, if we have a choice between two coats both of which will fulfil our needs, but one costs £50 and the other £90 due to the brand, then we should not purchase the one costing £90 only because it will show off our status. The Spending of the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum Whilst we are all aware of the unparalleled physical and monetary sacrifice that the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum gave for the sake of Dīn, we find incidents of the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum using expensive items. For example, it is reported that: Sayyidunā ‘Abd-ur-Rahmān ibn ‘Awf radhiyallāhu ‘anhu would wear a garment or suit of clothing worth four or five hundred (dirhams). (At-Tabaqāt Al-Kubrā ibn Sa‘d) We must be very careful not to use such incidents from the lives of the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum, to justify extravagance in our expenditure. The following points will help us to understand the context of their actions: • After the demise of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, when Islām spread across many countries, Allāh ta‘ālā bestowed the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum with so much wealth that even after spending vast amounts in the Path of Allāh ta‘ālā with an open heart, they still had surplus wealth from which they spent on themselves. It was never the case that the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum spent a large share of their wealth on expensive items for their own use and ignored other avenues of spending. They always gave priority to the life of the hereafter over this world; • Whenever they bought anything nice or expensive, it was not out of pride, to feel good or to show their status; rather their motive was to practice on the following hadīth of Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam: Allāh loves to see His servants utilising and exposing the bounties He has bestowed upon them [as an expression of gratitude and not boastfully]. (Al-Bayhaqī) Through the blessed company of Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum had purified their souls. Therefore, when spending upon themselves they were able to do so with the intention of practicing upon this hadīth, without falling victim to pride or the intention of showing off, by acquiring expensive items; • Another motive for such spending by the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum was to increase in their gratitude to Allāh ta‘ālā. It is human nature that the greater a favour or blessing one receives, the greater will be the feeling of gratitude. The Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum acquired expensive items to increase their gratitude to Allāh ta‘ālā. Again, it was the result of purifying the soul that they were able to do so, without corrupting their intentions for spending in such a manner; • Finally, it should be noted that the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum were indifferent as to whether they possessed something expensive or cheap. Unlike us, it wasn’t the case that they would become happy with nice things and unhappy if they possessed items of a low quality. The books are filled with stories of their spending wholeheartedly in the Path of Allāh. Rather, if they felt an inclination to a particular worldly possession they would spend it in the Path of Allāh ta‘ālā to practice upon the following verse of the Glorious Qur’ān: You shall never attain true righteousness unless you spend from what you love. (3:92) Therefore, we must not compare ourselves to the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum. Our hearts are filled with love for expensive things and are inclined towards them. In order to achieve a balance, we should look from the other perspective and think that despite desiring expensive things, I will make a sacrifice for the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā; I will use a cheaper item and spend the remainder in the Path of Allāh. Due to our weak spiritual condition, we should be seeking to act upon the Ahādīth that encourage abstinence from the luxuries of this world such as: He who renounces exquisite garments, despite him being able to obtain and don them, Allāh ta‘ālā will clothe that person with garments of honour. (Abū Dāwūd) Conclusion Therefore, when we are buying and wearing clothes we should make the good intentions noted above and avoid wearing clothes for show and spending extravagantly. Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has said: Eat, drink, wear clothes and spend in charity without extravagance and pride. (Al-Bukhārī) May Allāh ta‘ālā grant us the correct understanding of the whole Din and the ability to make every aspect of our lives into acts that earn His pleasure. Āmīn. © Riyādul Jannah (Vol. 27 No. 1, January 2018)
  5. The name of Rasulullallah Sallallahu alayhi Wasallam’s she-camel was Qaswaa’, the name of his horse was Luhaif and the name of his donkey was Ufair as stated in the Ahadith. The name of she-camel of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallah) was: Qaswa, as it is mentioned in a Hadith of Sahih Muslim: ثم رکب القصواء حتی اذا استوت بہ ناقتہ علی البیداء (اخرجہ مسلم ، الحج، باب حجة النبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم، رقم 1218) The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallah)had a she-camel called al-'Abda', that was never beaten in a race. [Bukhari] The name of the his horse was: Lukhaif, as in Sahih Bukhari: کان للنبی صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم فرساً یقال لہ: اللحیف۔ قال ابو عبد اللہ: وقال بعضھم: اللخیف (اخرجہ البخاری، الجھاد، باب اسم الفرس والحمار، رقم 2855) While the name of donkey was: Ufair (Bukhari, 2856) Once the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallah) borrowed the donkey of Hazrat Abu Talha, its name was: Mandoob.
  6. Avarice & Greed Allah Ta’ala says: “Do not cast your eyes on those things which We bestowed as an enjoyment to different kinds of people.” (Suratul Hijr , verse 88) Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam said: “Man becomes old, whilst two things increase: greed for wealth and greed for [longer] life.” (Bukhari) ______________________________ The nature of greed The engrossment of the heart with wealth, etc. is known as hirs (greed). Greed is the root of all ailments. It is therefore correct to describe it as the mother of all maladies. This is because all disputes and strife are the consequences of greed. It is because of greed that court cases and counter court cases take place. If people did not have the greed for wealth, no one would trample the rights of others. Even the cause of immorality is due to the greed for pleasure. It is the natural temperament of man that even if he possesses two valleys filled with wealth, wherein gold and silver are flowing like water, he will still desire a third. The more the demands of greed are satisfied, the greater will be its demands – like a person afflicted with a rash. The more he scratches, the worse the rash becomes. Allah Ta’ala says: “Does man ever receive whatever he desires?” (Suratun Najm, verse 24) In other words, it is not possible for man to fulfil all his desires. It is for this reason that the greedy person has no peace of mind. Nothing but the soil [grave] will satiate his greed. This is because before a wish can attain fulfilment, another develops. When he is not content with his portion (taqdeer), his heart desires that this should be fulfilled and that should be fulfilled, and so on. It is obvious that it is most difficult to fulfil all these desires and wishes. The result of non-fulfilment of a desire is frustration and worry. Although the greedy person may outwardly have children, wealth and everything else, his heart is perpetually afflicted with anxiety. ___________________________ Treatment 1. Reduce expenditure so that there is no anxiety to constantly earn more. Live within your means. 2. Do not concern yourself with the future and as to what would happen. 3. Bear in mind that the greedy and covetous person is always desirous and held in contempt. 4. Develop Contentment. Look at those who have less. Moulana Maseehullaah Khan (Rahimahullah) Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  7. Q. If a woman did not perform her Salaah after the time of Salaah enters and then she has her Haidh before performing her Salaah, does she have to make Qadha for it after her Haidh ends because she delayed performing the Salaah? (Question published as received) A. The performance of Salaah should not be delayed unnecessarily or intentionally but should be performed at its prescribed times. In an event of a woman not performing her obligatory (Fardh) Salaah on time and her menses (Haidh) commences before performing her Salaah during its prescribed time, it will not be obligatory upon her to make Qadha of the Salaah in which her menses commenced. N.B. The obligation/non-obligation of Salaah is dependent on the state of a person at the end of a Salaah time. (Shaami 2/131 - Tabyeenul Haqaaiq 1/215) And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
  8. Assalaamu 'alaykum warahmatullah sister Welcome to the forum. Jazaakillah for the helpful post. Please note advertising is not allowed on the forum even an email in the profile (which does not show to vistors)
  9. Ibnul Qayyim رحمه الله said the word الحزن does not appear in the Qur’aan except in the form of forbidding it ولا تهنو ولاتحزنوا or in the form of negating it فلاخوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون And the reason for this is because there is no benefit for having sadness in the heart. The most beloved thing to shaitan is to make the believing slave sad by taking him off track. The Prophet صلی الله عليه وسلم sought refuge in Allah سبحانه وتعالى from sadness. اللهم إني أعوذ بك من الهم والحزن Source Verses in full
  10. Q. How many days after Hajj is a Haaji’s Duas still accepted for forgiveness? A. A Haaji’s Dua of forgiveness for himself and for others continues from the days of Hajj until the 10th of Rabi-Ul-Awwal which is approximately 90 days. One may continue to request the Haaji to make Dua for himself/herself until the 10th of Rabi-Ul-Awwal. Sayyiduna Ibn Umar Radhiyallahu Anhuma reports, “The Haaji will be forgiven and for whom the Haaji seeks forgiveness, for the remainder of the Month of Zul-Hijjah (20 days from the 10th of Zul-Hijjah), the Month of Muharram (30 days), the Month of Safar (30 days) and 10 days of the Month of Rabi-Ul-Awwal (10 days).” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah) Note: The common notion that the Haaji’s Dua is accepted for 40 days from the days of Hajj is unsubstantiated. The Haaji’s Dua being accepted for approximately 90 days from the days of Hajj is substantiated. And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  11. Shaykh Google searching in the wrong places....only the sunnah can teach them how to handle us : )
  12. Understanding the Attributes of Allah – Part 1 of 4 In this first part of the seminar entitled “Understanding the Attributes of Allah” that took place in London, in December 2013, Shaykh Dr. Abul Hasan Hussain Ahmed explained the Importance of al-Isnad and Ijaza. The lecture demonstrated how to acquire sacred Islamic knowledge in the true way of the Salaf, and it is also an eye opener for those who claim to follow the Salafi Way but either fail to apply this methodology of receiving knowledge using the isnad and ijaza system, or completely dismiss it through their own faulty reasoning or stubornness. Hence, those who adhere to this classical tradition of acquiring and transmitting the Islamic sciences via means of the Isnad and Ijaza system are truly the adherents of the Salafus-Salihin (Pious predecessors), and its diammetrical opposite are mere claimants to that noble Way. Darul Tahqiq
  13. The story & sacrifice of Ibrahim Alayhis Salam His childhood: His father’s name was Aazar. Aazar was an idol worshipper who also created idols for others. He was misguided and led others towards misguidance. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) was nurtured in the centre of this community, where shirk and sins were rife. Many people complain that their childhood corrupted them. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) grew up in the worst of environments, surrounded by idols, yet he never used this as an excuse to sin. Over time, he slowly began to give Da’wah to his father. His father became angry and threatened to throw him out of the home. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) now had to choose between Allah and his father. He chose Allah and his father threw him out. Catapulted into the fire: Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) was later captured and accused of breaking the idols. The community decided to catapult him into a blazing fire. The flames were so fierce and high, the birds would not hover above it out of fear of being burnt. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) was chained and catapulted into the fire. There was no turning back now. Watching the horrific event unfold, Jibraeel (Alayhi Salam) request permission from Allah to approach Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam). Mid-air, he enquired if he could offer any assistance. Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) could have easily sought safety from the fire. But instead, he simply responded that I desire Allah to be pleased with me. Yet again, he chose Allah over his own self. Leaving His wife and child in the desert: One day Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) found himself stranded in a desert with his wife, Hajra (Alayhi Salam) and baby son, Ismail (Alayhi Salam). There was no food or water in sight. At that precise moment, Allah called Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) to leave his family. His soft heart could not bear to break the news to his wife. Thus, he lowered his head and slowly walked away. She enquired where he was going but was met with no reply. Immediately, she realised that this must be the call of Allah. When Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) nodded in the affirmative, she accepted his leave wholeheartedly. Yet again, he chose Allah over his own wife. Sacrificing Ismail (Alayhi Salam): Just like all parents, his love for Ismail (Alayhi Salam) grew stronger as he blossomed into a young man. At this point, Allah commanded him to slaughter Ismail (Alayhi Salam). His son Ismail (Alayhi Salam) was no ordinary child, for he too was destined to become a Prophet. Thus, he encouraged his own father to sacrifice him. Together, the father and son duo trekked a high mountain. Ismail (Alayhi Salam) then laid down before his father who grabbed an axe. Yet again, he chose Allah over his own son. Lessons to be learnt: 1) Be loyal to Allah and He will assist you: Throughout his life, Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) chose Allah first. He proved that Allah was dearer to him than his own father, wife, child and self. His faith was unshakeable and Allah was only testing it. He never sought to hurt his tender heart. So once he passed these tests, Allah delivered him into ease. When he chose Allah over his father and self, Allah commanded the fire to be cool for him. When he chose Allah over his wife, Allah caused the well of Zamzam to spring forth and quench their thirst. When he chose Allah over his son, Allah ordered a ram to be placed and his son was saved. Every phase that seemed like a breaking point, actually became a making point for Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam). This was due to his loyalty and sacrifice. Likewise, when life pushes you to breaking point, know that it can be a making point for you instead. Just be loyal to Allah and He will carry you through struggle, then He will carry you to ease. 2) The true spirit of Qurbani: In this worldly life, we have been blessed with many different relationships. The greatest relationship is our relationship with Allah. Therefore, Allah commands us to partake in Qurbani annually to renew our relationship with Him. It is not just a sacrifice. The spirit of Qurbani is to reflect upon the life and overall sacrifices of Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam). Thereafter, strive to emulate him by sacrificing sins and evil for the sake of Allah. Lastly, Allah honoured Ibrahim (Alayhi Salam) with the title Khaleelullah – the Friend of Allah. Thus, for those who wish to attain wilayah, befriend Allah by following the friend of Allah. May Allah grant us the ability to do so, Aameen. Moulana Dawood Seedat Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
  14. An Accepted Qurbaani – How? When Sayyiduna Aadam and Hawwa (alaihimas salaam) came to live in the world and started having children, it so happened that they had twins from every pregnancy, one of the two being a boy, while the other, a girl. When the issue of marriage came, since there was no one other than brothers and sisters – and a brother cannot be married to his sister – Allah Ta‘ala instructed that the boy born from one set of twins should marry the girl born from the other set of twins and vice-versa. But, the girl born with the first boy, Qaabil, was beautiful while the girl born with the second boy, Haabil, was unattractive. When the time of marriage came, the unattractive girl born with Haabil fell to the lot of Qaabil according to the law. This enraged Qaabil. He turned hostile to Haabil and started insisting that the girl born with him should be given to him in marriage. Sayyiduna Aadam (alaihis salaam) did not accept the demand. However, to remove the division between Haabil and Qaabil, he proposed that they should both offer their respective sacrifice for Allah Ta‘ala. Whoever has his sacrifice accepted will be the one to have that girl. He was certain that the sacrifice to be accepted will be the sacrifice of the one who has the right to marry her, that is, the sacrifice of Haabil. In that era, an open sign of a sacrifice being accepted was that a fire would come from the sky and consume the sacrifice; and the sacrifice which was not consumed by the fire was the sign of its non-acceptance. Haabil owned a flock of sheep and goats. He happily offered the sacrifice of the best and healthiest sheep he possessed. Qaabil was a grain farmer. He offered a few poor quality grains as his sacrifice. As was customary with them, a fire came from the sky and ate up the sacrifice offered by Haabil while the sacrifice offered by Qaabil remained lying where it was, untouched. Qaabil was further enraged and said to his brother: “I will kill you.” Haabil responded in a peaceful manner: “Allah Ta‘ala only accepts from those who possess taqwa (Allah consciousness).” That is, if you had been conscious of Allah Ta‘ala, practising taqwa and piety, your sacrifice too would have been accepted. Since you did not do so, the sacrifice was not accepted. Hence, why blame me for it? (Tafseer Ibni Katheer vol. 2, pg. 43 and Ma‘aariful Quraan vol. 3, pg. 112) Lessons: 1. If we desire that our Qurbani (sacrifice) be accepted in the Divine court, it is essential for us to adopt Taqwa in every aspect of our lives, since the meat and blood does not reach Allah Ta‘ala, rather it is the Taqwa which is seen by Him. 2. When we see that Allah Ta‘ala has given someone a particular blessing, we should regard our deprivation as a result of our own shortcomings and sins. Thus we should repent from our wrong ways instead of wishing and worrying about ways through which the other person could be made to lose the blessing that he is enjoying. uswatulmuslimah
  15. Quenching the Thirst of Others By Shaykh-ul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh Imām Al-Bukhārī rahimahullāh has narrated a hadīth on the authority of Sayyidunā Abū Hurayrah radhiyallāhu ‘anhu that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “A person, whilst on a journey, experienced extreme thirst. [Along the way, he came across a well so] he climbed down this well and drank from it. He then climbed out of the well and saw a dog panting and licking the moist soil due to [extreme] thirst. This person said [to himself], ‘Indeed this dog has faced the same dilemma [of thirst] that I faced.’ [So he climbed down the well again and] filled his leather sock with water. He then climbed out whilst holding his sock with his teeth and quenched the thirst of the dog. Allāh ta‘ālā appreciated his deed and forgave his sins. The Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum asked, ‘Is there reward for us in [being kind to] animals?’ Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam replied, ‘There is reward in [being kind to] every living creature’.” Many lessons can be derived from this hadīth, but I wish to draw your attention to a specific lesson, that of providing water for the creation of Allāh ta‘ālā. It is evident that the deed that attracted the Mercy of Allāh ta‘ālā was quenching the thirst of a dog. Water – A Gift from Allāh Water is an essential need of a human; a person can survive weeks without food, but only days without water. The body’s function is dependent on water and all its essential organs need a constant supply. As the body cannot make its own water, a person needs to supply the body with water. This important need of humans is provided by Allāh ta‘ālā himself in the form of rain, streams, rivers, lakes, seas and oceans. Allāh ta‘ālā states: ...and We have sent down pure water from the sky. (25:48) And We caused the earth to burst with springs... (54:12) Water – A Medium to Gain Great Reward Due to its importance and necessity, Allāh ta‘ālā has also promised great reward for those who provide water to the creation of Allāh ta‘ālā. In the above ḥadīth, we already learnt that it attracts the forgiveness of Allāh ta‘ālā. Many other ahādīth also mention further benefits: • Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated, “There is no sadaqah more rewarding than [providing] water.” (Al-Bayhaqī) • Upon being asked regarding the most virtuous form of sadaqah, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam replied, “[Providing] water.” (Abū Dāwūd) • Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam stated, “Whichever Muslim quenches the thirst of another Muslim, Allāh will grant him drink from Ar-Rahīq Al-Makhtūm.” (Abū Dāwūd) Ar-Rahīq Al-Makhtūm is a special wine of Jannah which has been promised for the special servants – the Abrār (the righteous). Allāh ta‘ālā says, Verily the Abrār will be in bounties, upon couches looking on. You will recognise the radiance of bounties in their faces. They will be given pure sealed wine to drink, the seal of which is musk. It is for this that the competitors should compete. (83:22-26) Water – A Means of Continuous Reward Sadaqah is of two types: 1. Sadaqah: where the reward is confined to the action and the reward is a single entry. For example, when someone feeds another person, a one-off reward is written for him; and 2. As-Sadaqah Al-Jāriyah: when the reward is continuous. In fact, it also continues after one’s demise. For example, authoring a book from which people benefit; for as long as people benefit from this knowledge, the author will continue to reap its reward. After one’s demise, the avenues to gain further reward by any action inevitably cease. A person finding himself in a bad state in the afterlife cannot carry out any deed to change his situation. Similarly, if he finds himself in a good state and he wishes to enhance his condition further, he is unable to carry out any deed to achieve this. At this juncture, a deceased person has two possibilities of earning reward: 1. Īsāl-uth-Thawāb: someone performing a good deed and sending him its reward; and 2. As-Sadaqah Al-Jāriyah: as explained above, a deed he carried out during his lifetime which is still generating reward for him. Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said, When a person dies, [reward for] his deeds are cut off from him except three [types]: [reward for] As-Sadaqah Al-Jāriyah, knowledge from which benefit is derived [by others]; and righteous children who pray for him. (Muslim) There are many forms of As-Sadaqah Al-Jāriyah a person can carry out. In one narration Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam listed seven and from amongst them he mentioned, “.…a stream which he causes to flow....” (Ibn Mājah) In another narration we find that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam also advised providing water as a form of Īsāl-uth-Thawāb. After the demise of his mother, Sayyidunā Sa‘d Ibn ‘Ubādah radhiyallāhu ‘anhu asked Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam which sadaqah would be most meritorious and rewarding. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam replied, “Providing water.” Sayyidunā Sa‘d radhiyallāhu ‘anhu then got a well dug and dedicated its reward for his mother. (Abū Dāwūd) ‘Allāmah Al-‘Aynī rahimahullāh has mentioned a hadīth wherein Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam visited a person who was in his last moments. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam asked him what he was observing [of the next world]. He explained, “I see two angels distancing themselves from me and two snakes coming closer; and I see evil increasing and goodness weakening.” The person sought help from Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam by requesting him to make du‘ā. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam supplicated, “O Allāh! Accept little [he has done] and forgive the large quantity [of evil deeds he has committed].” Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam then asked him what he was seeing now. He replied, “The two angels are coming closer and the two snakes are going away; and I see goodness increasing and evil weakening.” Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam asked him which of his actions he found most rewarding. He said, “Providing water.” (‘Umdah-al-Qārī) Sayyidunā Anas radhiyallāhu ‘anhu narrates that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “On the Day of Judgement, the people going to Jannah will be lined up in rows. A person destined for Jahannam [whilst passing by these rows] will come across a person [to whom he had provided water in this worldly life]. He will say to him, ‘Do you remember that day when you asked for water and I gave you water to drink.’ The person will [remember this favour and] intercede for him.” (Ibn Mājah) Warning on Not Sharing Water It is the sheer Grace of Allāh ta‘ālā that he has provided this necessity for survival in much abundance and in principle, it is for all people. Therefore, it would be extremely inhuman to deprive someone of water at the time of his need, especially when one has the means to provide it. Consequently, a grave warning has been cited for such wretched people whose hearts do not soften upon seeing others suffering thirst. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam has stated: There are three types of people; Allāh will neither talk to them, nor look towards them, nor purify them, and for them will be a painful punishment: One who has excess water in the path [along a route] and he prevents a traveller [passing by] from [using] it.... (Al-Bukhārī) Benefit in this World Providing water not only benefits a person in the hereafter, but it also has worldly benefits. A person once came to ‘Abdullāh ibn Al-Mubārak rahimahullāh complaining about a wound in a knee which was not healing for the past seven years, despite referring to doctors and treating it with various methods of treatment. ‘Abdullāh ibn Al-Mubārak rahimahullāh advised him to find a place where people are in need of water and provide water by digging a well. The person located a place and dug a well and Allāh ta‘ālā cured him. (Al-Bayhaqī) Imām Al-Bayhaqī rahimahullāh narrates that my teacher Imām Al-Hākim had a wound on his face. Despite many types of treatment, it could not be cured for a period of one year. He requested Abū ‘Uthmān Sābūnī rahimahullāh to make du‘ā for him in his weekly majlis on Friday. Abū ‘Uthmān rahimahullāh made du‘ā for him. The people who attended earnestly beseeched Allāh ta‘ālā saying āmīn to the du‘ā of the shaykh. The following Friday, a woman who had attended the previous week, sent a note to Imām Abū ‘Uthmān rahimahullāh. In the note she narrated that, after the previous majlis, she went home and earnestly prayed for Imām Al-Hākim rahimahullāh that night. She mentioned that she saw Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam in her dream as if he was advising her to tell Imām Al-Hākim rahimahullāh that he should provide water for the Muslims in abundance. When this note reached Imām Al-Hākim rahimahullāh, he ordered a siqāyah [a place where water is provided] to be constructed outside his home. When the construction was completed, it was filled with sweet water. Ice was also placed in it and people began drinking. Not even a week passed and he was cured and his face turned beautiful again. (Al-Bayhaqī) Providing Water to Others It is a great Mercy of Allāh ta‘ālā that we in England do not experience a shortage of water. Clean and abundant water is available at all times. We should be thankful to Allāh ta‘ālā for this great gift. There are so many people throughout the world who have to travel far distances to bring clean water for their homes. The short supply obliges them to get every family member to walk the long distance in order to obtain as much water as possible, including young children. Those of us who are fortunate to have water in abundance and sufficient wealth, should resolve to provide water to the less fortunate ones according to our means. This could be through: • arranging for wells to be dug; • providing water pumps; • providing water coolers; and • setting up drinking fountains. In whatever way possible, we should seek to quench the thirst of people and animals. Providing water to the general public on a hot summer day in this country or elsewhere, will also be a deed that will be greatly recompensed by Allāh ta‘ālā. Along with that, the wider community will be able to appreciate the beautiful teachings of the saviour of humanity, our beloved Nabī sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, who was sent as mercy for the world. May Allāh ta‘ālā grant us the ability to engage in this meritorious act as much as possible, in order to secure His Mercy in this life and in the hereafter. Āmīn. © Riyādul Jannah (Vol. 26 No. 3, March 2017)
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