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Coronavirus Advice

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Coronavirus Advice

 

Coronavirus Advice

10 Questions regarding Coronavirus

In light of the spread of Coronavirus, what is your advice for British Muslims on the following:

1) Should we perform Ṣalāh at home or in the Masjid?

2) Should we bring our own prayer mat to the Masjid?

3) If someone is affected with Coronavirus or is quarantined, what should he do for Jumuʿah Ṣalāh?

4) If the government places restrictions on gatherings including on religious places, what is your advice?

5) Should we avoid shaking hands with fellow Muslims?

6) Are we permitted to travel abroad?

7) What is your advice for those who have ʿUmrah and Hajj bookings?

8) Do you advise any supplications?

9) Should Qunūt Nāzilah be started in Fajr Ṣalāh?

10) Do you recommend any other actions during this crisis?

(These questions have been combined together for convenience)  

بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

Answers

These answers reflect the current situation in the UK as of 4 March 2020. The UK has not yet been affected significantly unlike some other countries. Further advice will be shared, should the situation change significantly.

1) Should we perform Ṣalāh at home or in the Masjid?

People should continue to perform Ṣalāh in the Masjid as normal. If anyone is diagnosed with Coronavirus or there is a real possibility of being affected due to the symptoms, they should perform Ṣalāh at home. This must be based on real symptoms, for example, fever, not just having a minor runny nose, for example.

2) Should we bring our own prayer mat to the Masjid?

Ṣalāh should continue to be performed as usual in the Masjids on the carpets.

3) If someone is affected with Coronavirus or is quarantined, what should he do for Jumuʿah Ṣalāh?

A person who is affected with the virus or is quarantined should perform Ẓuhr Ṣalāh. If, however, there are four adult males together in the quarantine or in hospital, and they wish to perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh, this is permitted. The Khuṭbah (sermon) can be short by reciting Sūrah al-Fātiḥah and a few other Sūrahs of the Qurʾān. There are also short Arabic Khuṭbahs available online which can be used.

4) If the government places restrictions on gatherings including on religious places, what is your advice?

Currently, there are no restrictions in the UK on gatherings, therefore this question is hypothetical. If any such restrictions are imposed, specific advice will be issued accordingly. Nevertheless, two possible scenarios are outlined:

In the event of a complete restriction on gatherings including in religious places, people should perform Ṣalāh at home in congregation with their families. Ẓuhr Ṣalāh will be performed instead of Jumuʿah Ṣalāh. If, however, they wish to perform Jumuʿah Ṣalāh, they can do so, as long as there are four adult males including the Imam.

If partial restrictions are imposed, for example less than 50 people can gather, then multiple congregations should be arranged in one Masjid, particularly for Jumuʿah Ṣalāh, with the times staggered. In this scenario, it will be permitted to have multiple congregational prayers in the same Masjid due to necessity. Each community would coordinate this according to their size and also make use of halls and rooms in the Masjid as necessary.

5) Should we avoid shaking hands with fellow Muslims?

The emphasised Sunnah is the Islamic greeting of Assalāmu ʿalaykum. Shaking hands (muṣafaḥah) is desirable, however, not mandatory or emphasised in the same way as the verbal greeting of Salām.

Therefore, if a person is diagnosed or thinks he may be affected with this virus, he should avoid shaking hands and suffice with the verbal Salām. Otherwise, there is no need to abstain from shaking hands and people should continue handshakes as usual. As Muslims, we wash our hands many times a day during ablution, before and after eating, and otherwise.

Nevertheless, if, someone decides not to shake his hands, a person should not be offended. Those who decide to avoid the handshake should suffice with the verbal Salām without making any other physical gestures or using other body parts.

6) Are we permitted to travel abroad?

The Prophet ﷺ said, “If you hear of an [outbreak of] plague in a land, do not enter it; and if the plague occurs in a place while you are in it, do not leave that place” (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 5728). Therefore, those living in the UK must avoid those areas of the world which have been affected severely. The advice of the Foreign Office and medical professionals in this regard should be noted. Generally, it is advised that all unnecessary international travel is avoided.

7) What is your advice for those who have ʿUmrah and Hajj bookings?

People with ʿUmrah and Hajj bookings should follow the advice of the Saudi authorities. Currently, ʿUmrah has been suspended until mid-April. People should be content with the decree of Allah Almighty and note that actions are according to intentions, and all those who intended to travel for ʿUmrah, will attain its reward, inshāʾ Allah.

The situation for Ramaḍān and Hajj is not yet clear and people should wait for official advice. If limited quotas are placed for Hajj, priority should be given to those performing their obligatory Hajj.

8) Do you advise any supplications?

There are many relevant masnūn supplications. A few are mentioned here:

Supplication 1

Anas ibn Mālik (d. 93/711-2, may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet ﷺ would say:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْبَرَصِ وَالْجُنُونِ وَالْجُذَامِ وَمِنْ سَيِّئِ الأَسْقَامِ

‘O Allah, I seek refuge in You from vitiligo, madness, leprosy, and bad diseases’ (Sunan Abī Dāwūd, 1554, the ḥadīth is ṣaḥīḥ)

This supplication should be read regularly at all times.

Supplication 2

ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān (d. 35/656, may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “Whoever reads three times in the morning and evening:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الَّذِي لاَ يَضُرُّ مَعَ اسْمِهِ شَيْءٌ فِي الأَرْضِ وَلاَ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيم

‘In the Name of Allah, by whose Name nothing in the earth or the heaven is harmed, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing’, nothing will harm him (Sunan al-Tirmidhī, 3388; Sunan Abī Dāwūd, 5088, the ḥadīth is ṣaḥīḥ).

This supplication should be read thrice in the morning and thrice in the evening.

Supplication 3

ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿUmar (d. 73/693, may Allah be pleased with him) said, “The Prophet ﷺ would not abandon these words in the evening and the morning:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الْعَافِيَةَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ، اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الْعَفْوَ وَالْعَافِيَةَ فِي دِينِي وَدُنْيَايَ وَأَهْلِي وَمَالِي، اللَّهُمَّ اسْتُرْ عَوْرَاتِي وَآمِنْ رَوْعَاتِي، اللَّهُمَّ احْفَظْنِي مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيَّ، وَمِنْ خَلْفِي، وَعَنْ يَمِينِي، وَعَنْ شِمَالِي، وَمِنْ فَوْقِي، وَأَعُوذُ بِعَظَمَتِكَ أَنْ أُغْتَالَ مِنْ تَحْتِي

‘O Allah, I ask You for wellbeing in this world and the hereafter. O Allah, I ask You for forgiveness and wellbeing in my religious and worldly affairs, and my family and my wealth. O Allah, conceal my faults and keep me safe from my fears. O Allah, protect me from the front and from behind, and on my right and on my left and from above, and I seek refuge in Your greatness from receiving unexpected harm from beneath me.’” (Sunan Abī Dāwūd, 5074; Sunan Ibn Mājah, 3871; the ḥadīth is ṣaḥīḥ).

This supplication should be read at least once in the morning and once in the evening.

9) Should Qunūt Nāzilah be started in Fajr Ṣalāh?

Scholars have mixed views regarding Qunūt Nāzilah due to such outbreaks. The ḥanbalīs suggest it is not established because when such incidents occurred in the era of the companions, there is no mention of Qunūt Nāzilah in the ḥadīths. On the other hand, the ḥanafīs and shāfiʿīs encourage Qunūt Nāzilah during such outbreaks.

Given the suffering of the Ummah, Qunūt Nāzilah should already be read regularly as outlined in an earlier answer, and therefore it is highly recommended to incorporate the supplications pertaining to the outbreak in the Qunūt.

10) Do you recommend any other actions during this crisis?

A Muslim should reflect on this global outbreak and realise that this is a reminder from Allah to awaken our hearts. Allah Almighty is The Almighty and Powerful. Nothing happens without His decree. The human being is very weak. Despite advancements in science and technology, the world powers have been unable to prevent its spread and stop the deaths.

Death is a reality and our stay in this world is for a short period. We should turn to Allah and repent for our sins and pledge to abstain from sins and spend a life in accordance with Islamic teachings. Some of the specific actions include:

  • Repent to Allah Almighty.
  • Contemplate death and prepare for the hereafter.
  • Supplicate to Allah Almighty with the aforementioned supplications and other supplications.
  • Perform two rakʿat nafl Ṣalāh regularly and supplicate to Allah Almighty therein and thereafter for protection. This Ṣalāh is to be performed individually.
  • Remember Allah continuously and engage in His remembrance, in particular takbīr and tasbīḥ.
  • Read durūd in abundance.
  • Give optional charity, as charity removes calamities.
  • Keep the gaze lowered and avoid all obscene statements and actions. A ḥadīth from the Prophet ﷺ mentions, “Immorality never appears among a people to such an extent that they commit it openly, but plagues and diseases that were never known among the predecessors will spread among them” (Sunan Ibn Mājah, 4019; declared ṣaḥīḥ in al-Mustadrak, 8623).

Finally, if a person is diagnosed with this virus, he should believe that this is from Allah Almighty, The Wise who has decided to test him, and that if he exercises patience he will be rewarded and his sins will be forgiven. If a Muslim dies in this illness, he is afforded the status of a martyr.

Although medical professionals will attempt to identify the source of the disease, which is understandable to contain the disease, we should avoid attributing blame and believe that everything occurs with the decree and power of Allah Almighty.

عن أنس مرفوعا: لا عدوى ولا طِيَرة، ويعجبني الفأل الصالح: الكلمة الحسنة، رواه البخاري (٥٧٥٦). وعن أبي هريرة مرفوعا: لا عدوى ولا طيرة، ولا هامة ولا صفر، وفر من المجذوم كما تفر من الأسد، رواه البخاري (٥٧٠٧). وعن أبي هريرة مرفوعا: لا عدوى ولا صفر ولا هامة، فقال أعرابي: يا رسول الله، فما بال إبلي، تكون في الرمل كأنها الظباء، فيأتي البعير الأجرب فيدخل بينها فيجربها؟ فقال: فمن أعدى الأول؟ رواه البخاري (٥٧١٧). وعن أبي هريرة مرفوعا: لا يوردن ممرض على مصح، رواه البخاري (٥٧٧١). وعن أبي هريرة مرفوعا: المبطون شهيد، والمطعون شهيد، رواه البخاري (٥٧٣٣). وعن أسامة بن زيد مرفوعا: إذا سمعتم بالطاعون بأرض فلا تدخلوها، وإذا وقع بأرض وأنتم بها فلا تخرجوا منها، رواه البخاري (٥٧٢٨). قال محمد في الموطأ (٩٥٥): هذا حديث معروف قد روي عن غير واحد، فلا بأس إذا وقع بأرض أن لا يدخلها اجتنابا له، انتهى. وعن ابن عباس مرفوعا: لا ضرر ولا ضرار، رواه ابن ماجه (٢٣٤٠) بسند فيه جابر الجعفي، ورواه الحاكم (٢٣٤٥) من حديث أبي سعيد الخدري وصححه على شرط مسلم وأقره الذهبي. وعن ابن عمر مرفوعا: من أكل من هذه الشجرة – يعني الثوم – فلا يقربن مسجدنا، رواه البخاري (٨٥٣)۔

قال الخطابي في شرح البخاري (٣/٢١١٨): قوله: لا عدوى، يريد أن شيئا لا يعدى من قبل ذاته وطبعه، وما كان من ضرر وفساد فإنما هو بمشيئة الله وقضائه وقدره، ولذلك قال صلى الله عليه وسلم حين قيل: جرب بعير، فأجرب مائة بعير، فمن أعدى الأول، يريد أن الأول إذا كان مضافا إلى الله عز وجل، فالثاني بمثابته. وقد قيل في هذا وجه آخر، وهو أن المراد به بعض الأدواء والعاهات دون بعض، وذلك كالطاعون يقع ببلد فيهرب منه خوفا من العدوى، فنهى عنه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وقال: إذا كان ببلد فلا تدخلوه، وإذا كان بالبلد الذي أنتم به فلا تخرجوا منه، أي: كأنكم تظنون أن الفرار من قدر الله ينجيكم منه، ومعنى قوله: لا تدخلوه، أي: ليكون أسكن لنفوسكم وأطيب لعيشكم، انتهى۔

وقال في معالم السنن (٤/٢٣٤): وليس المعنى في النهي عن هذا الصنيع من أن المرضى تعدي الصحاح، ولكن الصحاح إذا مرضت بإذن الله وتقديره وقع في نفس صاحبه أن ذلك إنما كان من قبل العدوى، فيفتنه ذلك ويشككه في أمره، فأمر باجتنابه والمباعدة عنه لهذا المعنى. وقد يحتمل أن يكون ذلك من قبل الماء والمرعى، فتستوبله الماشية، فإذا شاركها في ذلك الماء الوارد عليها أصابه مثل ذلك الداء، والقوم بجهلهم يسمونه عدوى، وإنما هو فعل الله تبارك وتعالى بتأثير الطبيعة على سبيل التوسط في ذلك، انتهى۔

وقال ابن بطال في شرح البخاري (٢/٤٦٦): وفيه: دليل أن كل ما يتأذى به كالمجذوم وشبهه يبعد عن المسجد وحلق الذكر، وقد قال سحنون: لا أرى الجمعة تجب على المجذوم، واحتج بقوله عليه السلام: من أكل من هذه الشجرة فلا يقربن مسجدنا، وأفتى أبو عمر أحمد بن عبد الملك بن هاشم في رجل شكا جيرانه أنه يؤذيهم في المسجد بلسانه، قال: يخرج عن المسجد، ويبعد عنه، ونزع بهذا الحديث، وقال: أذاه أكثر من أذى الثوم، وهذا الحديث أصل في نفي كل ما يتأذى به، انتهى۔

وقال العيني في عمدة القاري (٦/١٤٦) تبعا لابن الملقن في التوضيح (٧/٣٤٢): ويلحق بما نص عليه في الحديث كل ما له رائحة كريهة من المأكولات وغيرها، وإنما خص الثوم هنا بالذكر، وفي غيره أيضا بالبصل والكراث لكثرة أكلهم بها، وكذلك ألحق بذلك بعضهم من بفيه بخر، أو به جرح له رائحة، وكذلك القصاب والسماك والمجذوم والأبرص أولى بالإلحاق، وصرح بالمجذوم ابن بطال. ثم نقل العيني كلامه المذكور. وكلام العيني حكاه ابن عابدين في رد المحتار (١/٦٦١) ملخصا وأقره۔

وقال ابن بطال في شرح البخاري (٩/٤١٢): قال ابن حبيب: وكذلك يمنع المجذوم من المسجد والدخول بين الناس واختلاطه بهم كما روي عن عمر أنه مر بامرأة مجذومة تطوف بالبيت فقال لها: يا أمة الله، اقعدي في بيتك ولا تؤذي الناس، انتهى۔

وقال النووي في شرح مسلم (١٤/١٧٣): قال القاضي: في هذا الحديث من الفقه ما قاله بعض العلماء أنه ينبغي إذا عرف أحد بالإصابة بالعين أن يجتنب ويتحرز منه، وينبغي للإمام منعه من مداخلة الناس ويأمره بلزوم بيته، فإن كان فقيرا رزقه ما يكفيه ويكف أذاه عن الناس، فضرره أشد من ضرر آكل الثوم والبصل الذي منعه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم دخول المسجد، لئلا يؤذي المسلمين، ومن ضرر المجذوم الذي منعه عمر رضي الله عنه والعلماء بعده الاختلاط بالناس، ومن ضرر المؤذيات من المواشي التي يؤمر بتغريبها إلى حيث لا يتأذى به أحد، وهذا الذي قاله هذا القائل صحيح متعين ولا يعرف عن غيره تصريح بخلافه، انتهى. وقال (١٤/٢٢٨): قال القاضي: قالوا: ويمنع من المسجد والاختلاط بالناس، قال: وكذلك اختلفوا في أنهم إذا كثروا هل يؤمرون أن يتخذوا لأنفسهم موضعا منفردا خارجا عن الناس ولا يمنعوا من التصرف في منافعهم، وعليه أكثر الناس، أم لا يلزمهم التنحي، قال: ولم يختلفوا في القليل منهم في أنهم لا يمنعون، قال: ولايمنعون من صلاة الجمعة مع الناس ويمنعون من غيرها. قال: ولو استضر أهل قرية فيهم جذمى بمخالطتهم في الماء، فإن قدروا على استنباط ماء بلا ضرر أمروا به، وإلا استنبطه لهم الآخرون، أو أقاموا من يستقى لهم وإلا فلا يمنعون، انتهى. وراجع إكمال المعلم (٧/٨٥ و ١٦٤) للقاضي عياض۔

وقال ابن نجيم في البحر الرائق (٢/١٨١): قوله (كالخسوف والظلمة والريح والفزع) أي حيث يصلي الناس فرادى، لأنه قد خسف القمر في عهده عليه السلام مرارا، ولم ينقل أنه جمع الناس له ولأن الجمع فيه متعسر كالزلازل والصواعق وانتشار الكواكب والضوء الهائل بالليل والثلج والأمطار الدائمة وعموم الأمراض والخوف الغالب من العدو ونحو ذلك من الأفزاع والأهوال، لأن ذلك كله من الآيات المخوفة، والله تعالى يخوف عباده ليتركوا المعاصي ويرجعوا إلى الطاعة التي فيها فوزهم وخلاصهم، وأقرب أحوال العبد في الرجوع إلى ربه الصلاة، انتهى۔

وقال ابن نجيم في الأشباه والنظائر (ص ٣٣١): فائدة في الدعاء برفع الطاعون: سئلت عنه في طاعون سنة تسع وستين وتسع مائة بالقاهرة فأجبت بأني لم أره صريحا، ولكن صرح في الغاية وعزاه الشمني إليها بأنه إذا نزل بالمسلمين نازلة. قنت الإمام في صلاة الفجر، وهو قول الثوري وأحمد، وقال جمهور أهل الحديث: القنوت عند النوازل مشروع في الصلاة كلها، انتهى. وفي فتح القدير أن مشروعية القنوت للنازلة مستمر لم ينسخ، وبه قال جماعة من أهل الحديث، وحملوا عليه حديث أبي جعفر عن أنس رضي الله عنه: ما زال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقنت حتى فارق الدنيا، أي عند النوازل، وما ذكرنا من أخبار الخلفاء يفيد تقرره لفعلهم ذلك بعده صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، وقد قنت الصديق رضي الله عنه في محاربة الصحابة رضي الله عنهم مسيلمة الكذاب وعند محاربة أهل الكتاب، وكذلك قنت عمر رضي الله عنه، وكذلك قنت علي رضي الله عنه في محاربة معاوية، وقنت معاوية في محاربته، انتهى. فالقنوت عندنا في النازلة ثابت. وهو الدعاء برفعها. ولا شك أن الطاعون من أشد النوازل، قال في المصباح: النازلة المصيبة الشديدة تنزل بالناس، انتهى. وفي القاموس: النازلة الشديدة، انتهى. وفي الصحاح: النازلة الشديدة من شدائد الدهر تنزل بالناس، انتهى، وذكر في السراج الوهاج: قال الطحاوي: ولا يقنت في الفجر، عندنا من غير بلية، فإن وقعت بلية فلا بأس به كما فعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فإنه قنت شهرا فيها، يدعو على رعل وذكوان وبني لحيان ثم تركه، كذا في الملتقط، انتهى. فإن قلت: هل له صلاة؟ قلت: هو كالخسوف لما في منية المفتي قبيل الزكاة: في الخسوف والظلمة، في النهار واشتداد الريح والمطر والثلج والأفزاع وعموم المرض يصلي وحدانا، انتهى. ولا شك أن الطاعون من قبيل عموم المرض، فتسن له ركعتان فرادى، وذكر الزيلعي في خسوف القمر أنه يتضرع كل واحد لنفسه، وكذا في الظلمة الهائلة بالنهار والريح الشديدة والزلازل والصواعق وانتشار الكواكب والضوء الهائل بالليل والثلج والأمطار الدائمة وعموم الأمراض والخوف الغالب من العدو ونحو ذلك من الأفزاع والأهوال، لأن كل ذلك من الآيات المخوفة، انتهى. فإن قلت: هل يشرع الاجتماع للدعاء برفعه كما يفعله الناس بالقاهرة بالجبل؟ قلت: هو كخسوف القمر، وقد قال في خزانة المفتين: والصلاة في خسوف القمر تؤدى فرادى، وكذلك في الظلمة والريح والفزع، لا بأس بأن يصلوا فرادى ويدعون ويتضرعون إلى أن يزول ذلك، انتهى. فظاهره أنهم يجتمعون للدعاء والتضرع، لأنه أقرب إلى الإجابة، وإن كانت الصلاة فرادى، وفي المجتبى في خسوف القمر: وقيل: الجماعة جائزة عندنا لكنها ليست سنة، انتهى، وفي السراج الوهاج: يصلي كل واحد لنفسه في خسوف القمر وكذا في غير الخسوف من الأفزاع كالريح الشديدة والظلمة الهائلة من العدو والأمطار الدائمة والأفزاع الغالبة، وحكمها حكم خسوف القمر، كذا في الوجيز، وحاصله: أن العبد ينبغي له أن يفزع إلى الصلاة عند كل حادثة، فقد كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا أحزنه أمر صلى،، انتهى، وذكر شيخ الإسلام العيني رحمه الله في شرح الهداية: الريح الشديدة والظلمة الهائلة بالنهار والثلج والأمطار الدائمة والصواعق والزلازل وانتشار الكواكب والضوء الهائل بالليل وعموم الأمراض وغير ذلك من النوازل والأهوال والأفزاع إذا وقعن، صلوا وحدانا وسألوا وتضرعوا، وكذا في الخوف الغالب من العدو، انتهى. فقد صرحوا بالاجتماع والدعاء بعموم الأمراض، وقد صرح شارحو البخاري ومسلم والمتكلمون على الطاعون كابن حجر بأن الوباء اسم لكل مرض عام وأن كل طاعون وباء، وليس كل وباء طاعونا، انتهى، فتصريح أصحابنا بالمرض العام بمنزلة تصريحهم بالوباء وقد علمت أنه يشمل الطاعون. وبه علم جواز الاجتماع للدعاء برفعه، لكن يصلون فرادى ركعتين ينوي ركعتي رفع الطاعون. وصرح ابن حجر بأن الاجتماع للدعاء برفعه بدعة وأطال الكلام فيه، انتهى۔

ووافقه ابن عابدين في رد المحتار (٢/١١) قال: قوله (إلا لنازلة) قال في الصحاح: النازلة الشديدة من شدائد الدهر، ولا شك أن الطاعون من أشد النوازل، أشباه، انتهى. وراجع فيه (٢/١٨٣). وهذا هو الذي جزم به الشافعية، قال النووي في شرح المهذب (٣/٤٩٤): الصحيح المشهور الذي قطع به الجمهور ان نزلت بالمسملين نازلة كخوف أو قحط أو وباء أو جراد أو نحو ذلك قنتوا في جميعها وإلا فلا، انتهى۔

والمرجح عند الحنابلة أن لا يقنت لدفع الوباء، قال ابن مفلح في الفروع (٢/٣٦٧): ويتوجه لا يقنت لدفع الوباء في الأظهر، ش، لأنه لم يثبت القنوت في طاعون عمواس ولا في غيره، ولأنه شهادة للأخبار، فلا يسأل رفعه، انتهى. وأقره البرهان بن مفلح في المبدع (٢/١٧) والمرداوي في الإنصاف (٢/١٧٥)۔

وجاء في الأصل (١/٣١١): قلت: أرأيت إماما خطب الناس يوم الجمعة ففزع الناس، فذهبوا كلهم إلا رجلا واحدا بقي معه، كم يصلي الإمام؟ قال: يصلي أربع ركعات، إلا أن يبقى معه ثلاثة رجال سواه فيصلي بهم الجمعة، وذلك أدنى ما يكون، انتهى. وصرح بنحوه في الجامع الصغير (ص ١١٢). وقال ابن قطلوبغا في التصحيح (ص ١٨٤) وأقره ابن عابدين (٢/١٥١): رُجح في الشروح دليله، واختاره المحبوبي والنسفي، انتهى۔

فائدة: قال ابن قتيبة في المعارف (١/٦٠١): حدثني أبو حاتم، عن الأصمعي، قال: أول طاعون في الإسلام طاعون عمواس بالشام، فيه مات معاذ بن جبل، وامرأتاه وابنه، وأبو عبيدة بن الجراح. وطاعون شيرويه بن كسرى بالعراق، في زمن واحد، وكانا جميعا في زمن عمر بن الخطاب. وبين طاعون شيرويه وبين طاعون عمواس مدة طويلة. ثم طاعون الجارف في زمن ابن الزبير سنة تسع وستين، وعلى البصرة يومئذ عبيد الله بن عبد الله بن معمر، ثم طاعون الفتيات، لأنه بدأ في العذارى والجواري بالبصرة، وبواسط وبالشام وبالكوفة، والحجاج يومئذ بواسط في ولاية عبد الملك بن مروان، ومات فيه عبد الملك بن مروان، أو بعده بقليل، ومات فيه أمية بن خالد بن عبد الله بن خالد بن أسيد، وعلي بن أصمع، وصعصعة بن حصن، وكان يقال له: طاعون الأشراف. ثم طاعون عدى بن أرطاة سنة مائة. ثم طاعون غراب سنة سبع وعشرين ومائة، وغراب رجل من الرباب، وكان أول من مات فيه في ولاية الوليد بن يزيد بن عبد الملك. ثم طاعون سلم بن قتيبة سنة إحدى وثلاثين ومائة في شعبان وشهر رمضان، وأقلع في شوال، ومات فيه أيوب السختياني. قال: وقال الأصمعي مرة أخرى: وقع طاعون سلم بالعراق يوم الخروج، يعنى يوم العيد، سنة إحدى وثلاثين، وبالشام سنة خمس وثلاثين، وكان إذا فتح أفرق منه صاحبه. وفي طاعون الأشراف يقول الشاعر:۔

وما ترك الطاعون من ذي قرابة ، إليه إذا كان الإياب يؤوب

ولم يقع بالمدينة ولا بمكة طاعون قط، انتهى كلام ابن قتيبة۔

وراجع رسالة السيوطى: ما رواه الواعون في أخبار الطاعون، وهي مطبوعة من دار القلم دمشق۔

Allah know best

Yusuf Shabbir

11 Rajab 1441 / 4 March 2020

Approved by: Mufti Shabbir Ahmad and Mufti Muhammad Tahir

 

https://islamicportal.co.uk/coronavirus-advice/

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10 Islamic Guidelines on Pandemics and Epidemics

by Mufti Faraz Adam

1. Quarantine

The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) encouraged quarantine:
“Do not put a sick one (animal) with a healthy one (animal)” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

“If you hear that a plague has hit a land, do not go to it; if it breaks out in a land where you are present, do not leave” (Bukhari)

 

2. Hygiene & Disinfecting

The Prophetic practice which Muslims are recommended to follow are full of hygienic practices:
a. Washing hands upon awakening
b. Performing ablution and washing five times a day for prayers.
c. Washing before/after eating
d. covering mouth when sneezing

 

3. Impermissibility to consume rodents, reptiles, insects and other potential carriers of disease

According to the Hanafi school, it is not permissible to consume rodents, reptiles, insects and other such creatures as they are from the Khaba’ith (filthy creatures)

 

4. Permissibility to cull infected creatures

It is permissible to cull infected creatures and animals to stop the spread of the outbreak.

 

5. Not sharing essential and hygiene items

Ibn Hajar advises against sharing items that are commonly used during an outbreak to prevent the spread of the outbreak. (Fath al-Bari)

 

6. Burying deceased immediately

Islam encourages immediate burial. One of the wisdoms of this is to contain any disease in the carrier from being passed on.

 

7. Researching for potential vaccines

The Prophet told us:
“There is a remedy for every malady, and when the remedy is applied to the disease it is cured with the permission of Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.” (Sahih Muslim)

 

8. Correct belief

We believe in what the Prophet told us:
Diseases are not intrinsically contagious.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

One only becomes infected by the permission of Allah. However, all precaution is encouraged due to knowing that Allah permits transfer through contact and His practice is to transfer through contacting infected people generally.

 

9. Cure is from Allah

One’s belief and focus should solely be on Allah as the Prophet Ibrahim taught us:
“It is He has created me, and it is He Who guides me; And it is He Who feeds me and gives me to drink. And when I am ill, it is He who cures me. (Qur’an 26:78-82)

 

10. Constant dua

Make constant due to Allah for protection from this pandemic, as He alone is the ultimate saviour and refuge.

Jamiatul Ulama

 

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How can Coronavirus be stopped?

 

In the name of Allah, The Almighty, The All Powerful

Across the world, people are worried about the spread of Coronavirus (Covid-19). Experts are working tirelessly to develop a vaccine and limit its spread. The breadth of this epidemic appears to be unprecedented. Precautionary measures are being adopted across the world as the death toll increases and the number of infected people spiral. From an Islamic perspective, it is recommended to adopt precautions as long as they are proportionate and do not contravene Islamic teachings.

There is, however, an important dimension to this epidemic which has not been given the due attention it deserves. As people of faith, it is our unshakable belief that such calamities and diseases are from Allah Almighty, who uses a variety of methods to remind, test and at times also punish the creation for their flagrant violations.

Allah Almighty mentions in the Quran (42:30):

وَمَا أَصَابَكُم مِّن مُّصِيبَةٍ فَبِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ

“And whatever affliction befalls you, it is due to what your hands have earned, and He pardons much.”

In another verse (30:41), Allah Almighty mentions:

ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ لِيُذِيقَهُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

“Corruption has appeared in the land and the sea due to what the hands of people have earned, so that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, so that they may return [to righteousness].”

It is therefore imperative for us to reflect and try to understand the possible underlying reasons for this crisis. In the specific context of this virus, the following portion from a lengthy statement of our beloved Prophet ﷺ comes to mind:

لم تظهر الفاحشة في قوم قط، حتى يعلنوا بها، إلا فشا فيهم الطاعون، والأوجاع التي لم تكن مضت في أسلافهم الذين مضوا

“Immorality never appears among a people to such an extent that they commit it openly, but such plagues and diseases will spread among them that did not occur among their predecessors” (Sunan Ibn Mājah, 4019; declared ṣaḥīḥ in al-Mustadrak, 8623).

Ḥāfiẓ Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 751/1350) writes in al-Ṭuruq al-Ḥukmiyyah (p.239),

ولا ريب أن تمكين النساء من اختلاطهن بالرجال أصل كل بلية وشر، وهو من أعظم أسباب نزول العقوبات العامة، كما أنه من أسباب فساد أمور العامة والخاصة، واختلاط الرجال بالنساء سبب لكثرة الفواحش والزنا، وهو من أسباب الموت العام، والطواعين المتصلة

“There is no doubt that enabling women to mix freely with men is the basis of every calamity and evil, and it is from the greatest causes for the descending of all-encompassing punishments, just as it is from the causes of corruption in public and private affairs. Mixing of men and women is a cause for the increase in immoral actions and zinā (adultery & fornication), and it is one of the causes of widespread death and continuous plagues.”

Historians like Ḥāfiẓ Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 597/1201) and Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Kathīr (d. 774/1373) have mentioned various examples of how Muslims reacted to such outbreaks in the past. In 449 (1057-8 CE), there was major epidemic in the Middle East and Asia which resulted in the death of at least 1.65 million people just in the region of Bukhara alone. Large graves were dug and 20-30 people were buried in one grave. The residents of homes that had alcohol would all die within the same night. In one residence, 18 corpses were found, and upon searching the house, alcohol was found therein. Another example of an ill person is cited who was in the agony of death, but his soul would not leave his body. His suffering continued until he pointed to the alcohol in his home. It was only after it was removed that his soul left his body and he passed away. When this epidemic broke out, people responded by pouring away the alcohol, breaking the instruments of music and entertainment, attaching themselves to the Masjids, reciting the Quran and worshipping Allah (al-Bidāyah wa al-Nihāyah, 13:130; al-Muntaẓam, 16:17; Badhl al-Māʿūn fī Faḍl al-Ṭāʿūn, p.365).

These texts and narratives illustrate the importance of reflecting on our actions, when such epidemics occur. Today, it has become unfashionable to discuss some of the sins that have become prevalent across the world. Reflecting on the state of Muslims and non-Muslims, who have all been enveloped in this epidemic, we find that there are some major sins that have increased substantially and openly over the past few decades. They include:

  1. ‪Homosexuality and transgenderism
  2. ‪Nudity, free-mixing, immodesty and pornography
  3. ‪Adultery and fornication
  4. ‪‪Defaming Prophets and the companions (Ṣaḥabah)
  5. Massacres and killings
  6. ‪Oppression, incarceration and torture
  7. ‪Drugs, alcohol and other intoxicants
  8. ‪Riba (usury)
  9. ‪Cheating
  10. ‪Extravagance

It is therefore imperative that along with adopting the precautions advised by the health experts, we reflect on these sins and recognise that such flagrant and blatant violations of the divine laws attract the anger and wrath of Allah Almighty, whether perpetrated by Muslims or non-Muslims. We must turn to Allah Almighty, repent for our sins and inaction and commit to His obedience. This epidemic should also strengthen our belief in Allah Almighty and serve us a reminder that Allah is The Almighty and Powerful, He created us and to Him we shall return, and the entire universe is powerless in front of him.

In addition to adopting precautions and abandoning sins, the following are some actions that can help bring this epidemic to an end:

  1. Perform the five obligatory Ṣalāh
  2. Regularly do Istigfār and Tawbah (repentance).
  3. Engage in the dhikr of Allah Almighty especially Tasbīḥ & Takbīr
  4. Regularly read durūd
  5. Give as much optional charity
  6. Perform two Rakʿat Nafl Ṣalāh individually
  7. Supplicate to Allah with masnūn supplications for well-being and protection (see this link for some examples)
  8. Do not panic-buy or hoard goods
  9. Exercise Ṣabr (patience), Shukr (gratitude) and Tawakkul (reliance)
  10. Contemplate death and the power of Allah Almighty

Finally, it is a matter of great regret that some Muslim businessmen are hiking up prices for certain goods that are in heavy demand. This is despicable and illustrates that such people are not taking heed from this epidemic. It is also against Islamic teachings to hoard wealth unnecessarily and to the detriment of others. There is no need to panic, we must remain calm and avoid over reacting or behaving in a disproportionate manner. May Allah protect and guide us all.

Yusuf Shabbir

21 Rajab 1441 / 16 March 2020

www.islamicportal.co.uk

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Use of alcohol based hand sanitizers & disinfectants
 
Q. Is it permissible to use Alcohol based Hand Sanitizers and to disinfect the Masjid with Alcohol based Disinfectants?
 
A. Generally, the hand sanitizers and disinfectants available today in the market that are described as alcohol-based, contain ethanol/ethyl alcohol. Ethanol Alcohol is a synthetic/artificial based Alcohol. It is not alcohol that is prohibited in Shariah.
 
Therefore, it is permissible to use hand sanitizers or disinfectants that contain ethanol alcohol to sanitize the hand and to disinfect the Masjid. 
 
And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best
 
Mufti Ismaeel Bassa
 
Confirmation:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
 

(The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.)

 
Fatwa Department
Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) 

Council of Muslim Theologians

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Dealing with Coronavirus

A booklet compiled by Shaykh Muhammad Saleem Dhorat (Hafidhahullaah)

Islamic Da'wah Academy (Leicester UK)

 

Whilst the recent outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) has brought about a sense of fear and panic amongst many, a true believer will have complete faith in his Creator and firmly believe that everything is from Allāh S and that He is All-Wise, hence in whatever He does lies goodness for us. Through this belief, one will find solace and peace in regards to the current situation.

Read more...

 

dealing_with_the_coronavirus

 

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Mufti Shabbir Ahmad said, “All those who are at home due to the Coronavirus should spend their time wisely and start memorising the Quran. Some of our scholars memorised the entire Quran in jail.”

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Reward of performing Ṣalāh in the Masjid

It is hoped from the mercy of Allah Almighty that a person performing Ṣalāh at home in these circumstances will attain the reward of performing Ṣalāh in the Masjid. This can be inferred from the following ḥadīth:

إذا مرض العبد، أو سافر، كتب له مثل ما كان يعمل مقيما صحيحا

“When a servant [of Allah] falls ill or travels, reward is written for him similar to his deeds when he was local in good health” (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī,).

Congregational Ṣalāh at home

Anyone who is self-isolating in a room within a house should perform Ṣalāh individually as mentioned above. All other members of the family should perform congregational Ṣalāh in the home, with an bālig (mature) male as the Imam.

In relation to the standing position, the following principles should be noted:

  • Females will always stand behind male(s) in a separate row whether one female or more.
  • Males will always stand behind the male Imam, unless there is only one male in which case he will stand to the right of the Imam, one step behind.

The following table illustrates this with some examples:

Family Standing position
Father and one female Female will stand in a new row behind
Father and one male Son will stand next to the father one step behind
Father and more than one son Sons will make a row behind the father (similar to the Masjid)
Father, mother and daughter Mother and daughter will make a row behind the father (similar to the Masjid)
Father, mother and 1 son Son will stand to the right of the father one step behind

 

Mother will stand alone in a row behind

Father, 2 sons, 2 daughters Sons will make a row behind the father

 

Daughters will make another row behind the sons

If the room is small, the males can stand to the right and left of the Imam one step behind.

If the Adhān has been performed in a Masjid in the local area, there is no need to perform Adhān at home. If it is performed, care should be taken not to disturb neighbours. Either way, before starting congregational Ṣalāh, the Iqāmah should be given by the Imam or any of the family members. Perhaps ask the children to take turns.

The Ṣalāh must be led by a bālig (mature) male. It is likely that the current situation continues through to the month of Ramaḍān. In this scenario, if the only ḥāfiẓ in the household is a young boy, there is no harm in acting upon the view of some ḥanafī jurists who permit a non-bālig to lead Tarāwīḥ Ṣalāh. However, in this scenario, an adult must lead ʿIshāʾ and Witr Ṣalāh (refer to our earlier answer for further details).

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Spiritual Advices | Time – A Most Valuable Commodity of a Believer During ‘Lockdown’

Allah Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala mentions in the Quraan-e-Kareem :

وَعَسَىٰ أَن تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ
But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you [Surah Baqarah 2:216]

From this Ayaah we understand that when we experience adverse conditions in life, there may be some favourable conditions hidden in it. Allah Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala knows best. We also understand, that we should always be positive and search for positive components within a negative situation.

During this ‘lockdown period‘, whilst we are restricted in worldly interactions, we are not locked down in terms of our Deeni duties. In fact, we have been unchained from worldly interactions and should take the opportunity of the free time to fulfil some of our religious duties.

Allah Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala mentions in the Quraan-e-Kareem :

وَالْعَصْرِ • إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ • إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ

By time, Indeed, mankind is in loss, except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds [Surah Al Asr 103:1/2/3]

Allah Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala has mentioned time as a most valuable commodity of a Believer and has given us this ‘free time as a test’. Use this time correctly. Indeed man is at a loss and does not use his time correctly. Everyone is at a loss with the exception of those people who bring Imaan or they practice on the dictates of their Imaan and do righteous deeds.

One poet explains the reality of life by explaining, “Your life is but a few breaths. Every breath we take is one part of our life, and with every one of those breaths one part of our life is decreasing“. Similarly, the 21 days of the lockdown period is like a block of ice. Just like ice melts away quickly, so too will these 21 days pass by very soon. After 21 days we should analyse our actions and deeds and not have any regrets of wasting our time.

Use this time wisely and attain closeness to Allah Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala. Increase your Tilawah (recitation) of the Quraan-e-Kareem ; Perform your Salaah on time ; Make the Zikr of Allah Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala ; Perform Ishraaq and Chast Salaah ; Spend quality time with your family.

May Allah Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala grant us Taufeeq and Hidaayah, to value our time and to use it to make RujooillAllah and Inaabat illallah (turning to Allah Ta’ala in repentance, obedience and supplication) and not be regretful and waste our time in a state of Ghaflah (heedlessness).

DOWNLOAD AUDIO EXPLANATION

 

Spiritual Advices of Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Mahmood | darulmahmood.net

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Pandemic… What should I do?
 
Indeed these are very trying times. In trying times, one must not remain casual and carefree. A carefree and heedless attitude in such situations is in fact dangerous, as it indicates indifference to Allah Ta‘ala. While one must take the necessary precautions within the limits of Shariah, that alone is not going to take away the virus. There is much more to do. Hereunder are some aspects to undertake in order to treat the root of the issue:
 
Shed tears before Allah Ta’ala
 
Repeatedly make deep, heartfelt taubah and istighfaar, and shed tears of remorse and regret. Allah Ta‘ala has declared in the Quraan: “Indeed Allah loves those who constantly repent...” (Surah Baqarah, v.222) Rasululah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) has said: “The one who cries out of the fear of Allah Ta‘ala will not enter the Fire.” (Tirmizi #1633). If all of us repent sincerely, the mercy and blessings of Allah Ta‘ala will descend upon everyone and the hardships will insha-Allah be uplifted.
 
Talk about Allah Ta’ala
 
More severe than the challenge to life and health is the challenge to imaan. Therefore, during challenges and hardships, we are much more in need of boosting our imaan than at other times. This requires that we talk much about Allah Ta‘ala, His Greatness, Power and Might. Repeatedly discuss His Qudrat (Power), that Allah Ta‘ala made the fire a garden for Nabi Ebrahim (’alaihis salaam) and He brought Nabi Yunus (’alaihis salaam) out of the belly of the fish. He controls the heavens and the earth. He has full control over every virus and every atom in the universe. We must therefore turn to Him. Keep talking about Allah Ta‘ala until His greatness settles deeply in the heart.
 
Prostrate before Allah Ta’ala
 
Whenever there was the slightest concern about anything, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) immediately hastened towards salaah. In trying times, one should perform much salaah. There can be no question of missing the five daily salaah at any time whatsoever. In challenging times, one should try to perform as many of the nafl salaah as well, such as tahajjud, ishraaq, duha, awwaabeen, etc. Regularly perform salaatul haajah (salaah of need) and engage in earnest Dua.
 
Be loyal to Allah Ta’ala
 
This is a time to shun all sins and adopt taqwa (Allah consciousness). The Glorious Quraan declares: “He who fears Allah (adopts taqwa), Allah Ta‘ala will give him a solution (from every problem) and grant him sustenance from sources he cannot imagine.” (Surah Talaaq, v. 3) The essence of taqwa is to give up all sin. This is our greatest need – to give up sin and become loyal to our Creator and Most Compassionate and Most Merciful Allah Ta‘ala.
 
Give sadaqah for Allah Ta’ala
 
With utmost sincerity, give for Allah Ta‘ala. Give as much as you can – and give without any fear of a decrease in wealth. Sadaqah (charity) repels calamities and in fact increases wealth. Give to anyone in need, Muslim or disbeliever. Nevertheless the first priority is to give to relatives in need. Also, in Lockdown time, when many will not be earning their salary for the weeks ahead, it will be more rewarding to give one’s own needy workers before giving others. They are the apparent means of helping one to earn one’s wealth and hence deserve special consideration in these trying times.
 
Join ties for the sake of Allah Ta’ala
 
If family relationships have been broken, join them for the sake of Allah Ta‘ala. Breaking family relationships results in deprivation of barakah in life and wealth and prevents one’s Duas from being accepted. Once, Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas‘ood (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) addressed those who were seated in his gathering: “I plead in the name of Allah Ta’ala to those who have severed family relationships to please leave the gathering. We wish to make Dua to our Rabb, whereas the doors of the heavens are closed to the one who cut ties.” (AlMu’jamul Kabeer #8793).
 
Turn to Allah Ta’ala
 
In short, turn to Allah Ta‘ala. Turn to Him in all sincerity and earnestness by means of all the actions advised above... and much more. Become His, and He will become ours. He alone has power over everything and He alone will remove all calamities and difficulties. May Allah Ta‘ala protect the entire Ummah from every hardship and bless all with the best of both worlds, Ameen.
 
Al-Haadi
 

Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
Council of Muslim Theologians

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