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The Spirit of Udhiyah (Qurbānī)

 

by Shaykh Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh

 

During the months following Ramadān, Muslims the world over remember the life of the great Prophet, the Friend of Allāh ta‘ālā, Ibrāhīm ‘alayhis salām; a life full of sacrifice and submission to the will of Allāh ta‘ālā.

At a very young age, when in need of the support of his father, Ibrāhīm ‘alayhis salām was compelled to leave him. Then, during the final stages of his life, when in his old age and in need of the support of his young son, he was commanded by Allāh ta‘ālā to sacrifice him. Without hesitation, he was ready to submit to the Will of his Creator. Allāh ta‘ālā says:

 

And when (his son) reached an age in which he was able to walk with him, he said: “O my dear son, I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you, so see what is your view.” He said: “O my father! Do what you are commanded. Allāh willing, you will find me of the patient ones.”

 

So when they had both submitted (to Allāh’s Will), and he laid him down on his forehead, We called out to him: “O Ibrāhīm! You have indeed fulfilled the vision.” Surely, thus do we reward the doers of good. This was a clear trial. (37:102-106)

 

Allāh ta‘ālā granted this action of Ibrāhīm ‘alayhis salām so much acceptance that He made the Udhiyah (qurbānī/sacrifice) a symbol of this great act. When asked by the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum what Udhiyah is, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam replied:

 

It is the sunnah of your father Ibrāhīm ‘alayhis salām. (Ahmad, Ibn Mājah)

 

The act of Udhiyah brings enormous rewards and the Pleasure of the Lord. The Prophet sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam said:

 

The son of Ādam does no deed on the day of Udhiyah dearer to Allāh ta‘ālā than the sacrificing of animals. It (the sacrificed animal) will come on the Day of Qiyāmah with its horns and its hair and its hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allāh before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore sacrifice with a happy heart. (Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah)

 

Once, the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum asked Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam regarding the benefits of Udhiyah. He answered: “A reward for every hair.”

They asked: “And wool, O Prophet of Allāh?”

He said: “A reward for every fibre of the wool.” (Ahmad, Ibn Mājah)

 

Therefore, everyone who is able to offer Udhiyah should do so and acquire the rewards promised in the aḥādīth.

 

Who is Required to do Udhiyah?

The act of Udhiyah is in some cases wājib and in others nafl. A person must perform the wājib Udhiyah and endeavour to perform as many nafl as possible. In the case of the person who, during the days of Udhiyah (10th, 11th and 12th Dhul-Hijjah), possesses wealth to the amount which would make zakāh obligatory upon him, be it in the form of gold, silver, cash, merchandise or any item which is surplus to his needs, the Udhiyah will be wājib. Unlike in the case of zakāh, it is not necessary for this amount of wealth to be in one’s possession for an entire year. The compulsion of Udhiyah is established simply if wealth equivalent to the nisāb of zakāh is possessed during the specified days.

 

Some Misconceptions Regarding Udhiyah

Here, we need to clarify certain common misconceptions as regards this ‘ibādah.

 

1) One common misconception regarding Udhiyah is that it is merely a virtuous deed; it brings reward to the one who performs it and there is no blame if it is not done. This is a serious misunderstanding, for in most cases in the UK, it is wājib.

 

2) The second misunderstanding is assuming that the obligation of Udhiyah is shared between the entire household. This results in those members of the household upon whom Udhiyah is incumbent performing just one between them, feeling that the obligation has been fulfilled. This is not so. If a man possesses the nisāb of zakāh, one Udhiyah is wājib upon him. If his wife also possesses the nisāb, she will have to perform a separate Udhiyah. Similarly, if any of the children (provided they are bāligh) possess the amount of nisāb, Udhiyah will be compulsory on each one of them as well.

 

3) Another common misconception is that Udhiyah is carried out to allow people to eat meat which is considered blessed. With this in mind they are satisfied with eating Udhiyah meat that has reached them from others. There is no doubt that Udhiyah meat is blessed, as Udhiyah is the re-enactment of the sacrifice made by Ibrāhīm ‘alayhis salām, the Friend of Allāh, but it is even more importantly an obligation which needs fulfilling. Such people should worry about discharging the obligation of Udhiyah and not only be content with partaking of its blessed meat.

 

4) In many households, the father performs Udhiyah on behalf of all his family members without their knowledge or without their having requested him. We should understand that this approach to Udhiyah only amounts to a nafl Udhiyah. In the case of a father arranging the Udhiyah for his dependants, they need to make him their wakīl (agent) in order for these sacrifices to be considered valid.

 

It is clear from the above that we must become familiar with the masā’il and injunctions of Udhiyah. These masā’il can be learnt from various books as well as through consulting the ‘Ulamā and Muftis.

 

The Spirit of Sacrifice in Udhiyah

Just as the name itself suggests, Udhiyah (sacrifice) should be carried out taking its literal meaning into consideration. Generally, we arrange for our Udhiyah to be carried out at a cheap price in a poor country. No doubt this lifts the obligation, but it is not the type of Udhiyah that Allāh ta‘ālā would like to see. We will not experience the spirit of Udhiyah until we spend the amount that it takes to sacrifice e.g. a sheep in this country (which is often equivalent to the amount required to sacrifice a cow elsewhere). Allāh ta‘ālā has provided for us in abundance so we should express our shukr (gratitude) to Allāh ta‘ālā and not be miserly.

We should offer a Udhiyah in needy countries by all means, but we should also offer one in our own locality. By doing so we too can partake of the blessed meat.

 

The Custom of our Pious Predecessors

Shaykhul Hadīth, Shaykh Muhammad Zakariyyā rahimahullāh used to mention that during the three days of Udhiyah, no other food items should accompany the Udhiyah meat. The Shaykh would stress to the people that during these days, they were the guests of Allāh ta‘ālā and that the meat of Udhiyah was His Hospitality. We can gather from this how much our pious predecessors gave importance to Udhiyah. So let us perform Udhiyah in our localities as well as in those places where the destitute live who have no access to meat.

 

We should also offer Udhiyah on behalf of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, our parents, our teachers, our mashā’ikh, our well-wishers and benefactors, and also one on behalf of the whole Ummah. We may also perform Udhiyah on behalf of the various Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum, alternating between them on different occasions. The same applies for the Awliyā (friends of Allāh), the Muhaddithīn and the A’immah, all of whom we are indebted to.

 

My honourable father, Hāfiz Ibrāhīm Dhorat rahimahullāh used to keep an annual record of nafl Udhiyahs performed on behalf of all these great personalities. He also used to perform nafl Udhiyah every year on behalf of his parents and shaykh.

 

In this manner, our intended reward will reach the pious in the hereafter and, inshā’allāh, will be a reason for them to search for us on the Day of Judgement. We should also make this practice a habit whenever we have the opportunity to spend in the path of Allāh ta‘ālā. These acts will prove beneficial spiritually for our lives in this world and the hereafter.

 

May Allāh ta‘ālā give us the ability to offer Udhiyah in its true spirit, not feeling it a burden but with zeal and eagerness. Āmīn.

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"Lo! My Salāh and my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allāh, Lord of the worlds." (Glorious Qur’ān 6:162)

 

Udhiyah [Qurbānī]

By Shaykh Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh

 

 

Virtues Of Udhiyah [Qurbānī]

 

• Udhiyah is a practice commanded by Allāh ta‘ālā:

 

... So turn in prayer towards your Lord and sacrifice (animals). (108:2)

 

There is nothing dearer to Allāh ta‘ālā during the days of udhiyah than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of Judgement with its horns, hair, and hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allāh ta‘ālā before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore, sacrifice with an open and happy heart. (At-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah)

 

• Zayd ibn Arqam radhiyallāhu ‘anhu relates that the Companions radhiyallāhu ‘anhum asked, “O Rasūlullāh! What is udhiyah?” He replied, “It is the sunnah of your father Ibrāhīm ‘alayhis salām.” They asked again, “What benefit do we get from it?” He answered, “A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal).” “And (what reward is there for animals with) wool, O Rasūlullāh?” they asked. “A reward”, he said, “for every fibre of the wool.” (Ibn Mājah)

 

• When a person slaughters an udhiyah animal, he is forgiven at the fall of the first drop of blood, and verily, the animal shall be brought forward on the Day of Judgement with its blood, meat etc., and shall be increased in weight seventy times more than its own weight, and thereafter it will be placed on the scale of deeds. (Kanz-al-‘Ummāl)

 

 

On Whom is Udhiyah Wājib?

 

• Udhiyah is wājib on every Muslim who is of sound mind, mature (who has reached the age of puberty), muqīm (i.e. he is not a Shar‘ī traveller) and possesses the amount of fifty two and half tolas of silver (612.36 grams) or wealth equivalent to that value which is in excess of one’s aslī (basic) needs. It is not necessary that this amount be in one’s possession for a complete lunar year. It’s possession during the three days of udhiyah will make udhiyah obligatory. Udhiyah is not incumbent on a child or an insane person whether they own wealth equivalent to the amount above or not, nor is it wājib upon their guardians to perform it on their behalf. Similarly, it is not wājib on a Shar‘ī traveller.

 

NOTE: A Shar‘ī traveller is he who goes on a journey with an intention of travelling forty eight miles. He will be treated as a traveller as soon as he goes out of his town.

 

• It is highly virtuous for one on whom udhiyah is not wājib to offer sacrifice for the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. He will be eligible for all the reward mentioned in the ahādīth.

 

• During the days of udhiyah, sadaqah and charity cannot compensate for udhiyah nor fulfil the wājib. Udhiyah is a unique ‘ibādah. Just as zakāh cannot compensate for hajj, or sawm (fasting) cannot compensate for salāh, similarly charity cannot compensate for udhiyah. However, if the days of udhiyah had passed, and the udhiyah was not offered despite being obligatory due to not knowing, negligence or for some other reason, then it becomes wājib to give in sadaqah the price of udhiyah animal or the animal itself to the poor.

 

• If a traveller returned home or a person acquired the required wealth on the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah before sunset, it will be wājib upon him to perform udhiyah.

 

• A traveller who makes an intention of staying at a certain place for fifteen days or more, no longer remains a traveller. He must offer udhiyah if he possesses the prescribed amount.

 

 

Days of Udhiyah

 

• The days of udhiyah are the tenth, eleventh and twelfth of Dhul-Hijjah. The first day is better than the second, and the second better than the last.

 

 

Time for Udhiyah

 

• In towns and cities where Jumu‘ah and ‘Īd are performed, Udhiyah is not permissible before the ‘Īd salāh. If the Udhiyah has been offered before the ‘Īd salāh, it will have to be repeated. Therefore, the time for udhiyah commences after ‘Īd salāh on 10th Dhul-Hijjah until before the sunset of 12th Dhul-Hijjah.

 

• It is permissible, but not preferable to perform udhiyah at night.

 

 

The Udhiyah Animal

 

• It is permissible to offer in sacrifice a goat or she-goat, sheep of all kinds, cow, bull, buffalo or camel.

 

• It is necessary that the goat is one (full) year old, whether male or female. A cow, bull or buffalo will have to be two years old, and a camel five years. Animals that are younger are not suitable for udhiyah.

 

• A sheep (of any kind) not less than six months old, so strong and fat that it appears to be one year old will suffice for udhiyah, otherwise it will have to be one (full) year old.

 

• A cow, bull, buffalo or camel will suffice for seven persons provided no one’s share is less than one seventh and the niyyah (intention) of all partners is to attain thawāb (for udhiyah), and not merely to obtain meat.

 

• The udhiyah of only one person can be performed from a goat, sheep or ram.

 

• If an animal seller says that the animal has reached the required age, and outwardly there is no sign to disprove it, then it is permissible to rely on his statement.

 

• Animals that are castrated can be used for udhiyah. In fact this type of animal is preferable.

 

• The following cannot be used for udhiyah:

 

  1. Animals that are blind, one-eyed or have lost one-third or more of their eyesight.

  2. Animals that have lost a third of the ear or the tail. Similarly, the animal which has no ear from birth.

  3. An animal whose horn has been broken off from the root.

  4. An animal which has one leg lame to the extent that it walks on three legs only and is unable to use the fourth leg. 

  5. An animal so lean and thin that its bones have no marrow.

  6. An animal so weak that it cannot walk to the place of slaughtering on its own.

  7. An animal completely toothless or one that has lost most of its teeth.

• It is virtuous to purchase the animal for udhiyah a few days prior to slaughtering and care must be taken in feeding and nursing it.

 

 

Masnūn Method of Sacrifice

 

• It is more virtuous to slaughter the animal with one’s own hands. If one does not know how to slaughter, it is preferred that he remain present while someone else is sacrificing the animal. It is not necessary to make the niyyah (intention) of udhiyah with the tongue, however it is necessary to say ‘Bismillāhi Allāhu Akbar’ when slaughtering.

 

• Use a sharp knife and slaughter the animal quickly so that it does not suffer.

 

• Do not sharpen the knife in front of the animal.

 

• After slaughtering, do not skin the animal before it becomes completely cold.

 

• Do not slaughter one animal in the presence of another.

 

• It is mustahab (desirable) for one who intends to perform udhiyah to refrain from cutting hair or clipping nails from 1st Dhul-Hijjah to 10th Dhul-Hijjah, (i.e. until after udhiyah).

 

 

The Udhiyah Meat and Skin

 

• It is permissible to eat the udhiyah meat. It can also be distributed to relatives and friends, whether wealthy or poor, Muslims or non-Muslims. It is better to divide it into three parts: one for the family, one for relatives and friends and one for the poor and needy.

 

• The skin of the udhiyah animal can be kept for personal use, e.g. using it as a prayer-mat, water bag etc.

 

• If the skin of the udhiyah animal is sold, then it is wājib to give that amount in sadaqah to the poor (i.e. those who are eligible for zakāh).

 

• It is not permissible to give meat, fat, etc. of the sacrificed animal to the butcher as his wages.

 

• The meat of the animal slaughtered by partners should be shared by weight and not by estimation.

 

• The rope, cover, etc. of the animal should be given away as sadaqah.

 

 

Udhiyah On Behalf Of The Deceased

 

If one has been favoured by Allāh ta‘ālā with wealth, then he should also perform udhiyah on behalf of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, his Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum, his Ummah, the Prophets ‘alayhimus salām and for his own living or deceased relatives, friends and teachers who have conveyed Dīnī knowledge. 

 

One should always remember and never overlook our beloved Prophet sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam and perform udhiyah on his behalf. Abū Talhah radhiyallāhu ‘anhu has related that the Prophet sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam sacrificed one ram and while sacrificing another he said, “This is on behalf of every one of my Ummah who believed in me and testified (to my prophethood).” (At-Tabrānī)

 

It is a matter for deep thought and consideration that the Prophet sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam kept his Ummah in his mind while offering the sacrifice and it is deplorable for the Ummah not to remember him at the time of udhiyah.

 

 

© Islāmic Da'wah Academy

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Udhiya (Qurbani)


 


What is Udhiya?


 


‘Udhiya’ is an Arabic word meaning "blood sacrifice", and ‘Qurbani’ is an Urdu and Persian word derived from the Arabic word "Qurban" which literally means an act performed to seek Allah Ta’ala’s pleasure. It is technically used for the sacrifice of an animal slaughtered for the sake of Allah Ta’ala.


 


The sacrifice of an animal has always been a recognised form of worship in many religions, but in the ‘Shariah’ (Islamic sacred law) of The Last and Final Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (Peace be upon him) the sacrifice of an animal has been recognised as a form of ibadah (worship) during the three days of the month Zul Hijjah, namely the 10th, 11th, and 12th .


 


This is to commemorate the unparalleled sacrifice offered by the Prophet Sayyidna Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, when he, in pursuance to a command of Allah Ta’ala conveyed to him in a dream, prepared himself to slaughter his beloved son, Sayyidna Isma'il, Alayhi Salam, and actually intended to do so, but Allah Ta’ala the Almighty, after testing his submission, sent down a sheep and saved his son from the logical fate of slaughter. It is from that incident that the sacrifice of an animal became an obligatory duty to be performed by every Muslim who has the means to do it.


 


On who is it obligatory?


 


Qurbani is Wajib (obligatory) on every Muslim who is


  • Of sound mind - mature (has reached the age of puberty),
  • Muqeem  (i.e. he is not a traveller in terms of Sharia)

  • Possesses the amount of 612,36 grams of silver or wealth equivalent to that value which is in excess of one's basic needs and debts on any of the three days of Qurbani. It is not necessary that this amount be in one's possession for a complete lunar year. (please do consult your local Islamic Scholars for more details and exact value in your local currency)

 


What the Quran and Hadith says:


 


Allah Ta’ala Ta'ala, The Most Wise says:


 


"It is not their meat nor their blood that reaches Allâh, it is your piety that reaches Him. Indeed He has subjected them (animals) to you so that you may glorify Allah for guiding you, and give glad tidings to those who excel in good." (Quran-22:37)


 


The Noble Messenger of Allah Ta’ala(Peace be upon him) is reported to have said:


 


"For every hair that is on the sacrificial animal, one reward is recorded for the person making the Qurbâni."


 


"There is nothing dearer to Allâh during the days of Qurbâni than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of Qiyamah with its horns, hair and hooves (to be weighed in reward). The sacrifice is accepted by Allâh before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore sacrifice with an open and happy heart." (Hadith-Ibn Majah).


 


"Whoever has the capacity to sacrifice and does not do so, should not come to the place where the Eid prayer is offered." (Hadith-Ibn Majah).


 


Therefore not ignore this important part of Deen if you do have the means.There are many more details that relate to Qurbani which we have not covered in this brief article.


 


For a detailed article on the Laws & Virtues of Udhiya (Qurbani) please visit: eislam


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Sunnats and Aadaab of Qurbaani

 

 

1.      Qurbaani is a great and meritorious ibaadat in Deen. Special mention has been made regarding it in the Holy Qur’aan and its abundant virtues and significance have been emphasised in the Ahaadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Allah Ta’ala says:

لَن يَنَالَ اللَّـهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَـٰكِن يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَىٰ مِنكُمْ

 

It is neither the meat nor the blood (of the animal) that reaches Allah Ta’ala, instead it is the piety of your heart (ikhlaas) that reaches Him.

 

عن زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه قال قال أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : يا رسول الله ما هذه الأضاحي ؟ قال : سنة أبيكم إبراهيم عليه السلام. قالوا : فما لنا فيها يا رسول الله ؟ قال : بكل شعرة حسنة . قالوا : فالصوف يا رسول الله ؟ قال : بكل شعرة من الصوف حسنة.  رواه أحمد وابن ماجه (مشكوة المصابيح رقم 1476)

 

Hadhrat Zaid bin Arqam (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that the Sahaabah (Radhiallahu Anhum) once enquired from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam): O Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), what is the significance of this action of Qurbaani? Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied: “It is the practice of your forefather Hadhrat Ibraahim (Alaihis Salaam).” The Sahaabah then asked, “O Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), What reward will we receive through carrying it out?” Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, “For every strand of hair (on the back of the animal) you will receive a reward.”  The Sahaabah then asked: “O Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), what about wool?” Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied: “For every fibre of wool (on the back of the animal) you will receive a reward.”

 

2.      On the day of Eid, the best and most beloved action to Allah Ta’ala is the spilling of blood.

عَن عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنهَا قَالَت : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَسَلَّمَ : مَا عَمِلَ ابْنُ آدَمَ مِن عَمَلٍ يَومَ النَّحْرِ أَحَبَّ إلى اللهِ مِن إِهرَاقِ الدَّمِ وَإنَّهُ لَيَأتِي يَومَ القِيَامَةِ بِقُرُونِها وَأشْعَارِها وَأَظْلَافِها وَإنَّ الدَّم لَيَقَعُ مِن اللهِ بِمَكَانٍ قَبْلَ أَن يَقَعَ بِالأَرْضِ فَطِيبُوا بِهَا نَفْسًا. (مشكوة المصابيح رقم 1470)

 

Hadhrat Aaisha (Radhiallahu Anha) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “There is nothing dearer and more beloved to Allah Ta’ala (from the monetary transactions) during the days of Qurbaani than the spilling of blood (i.e. the sacrificing of animals). The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of Qiyaamah with its horns, hair and hooves.The sacrifice is accepted by Allah Ta’ala even before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore carry out the Qurbaani in a condition that your heart is pleased and happy to fulfil the command of Allah Ta’ala.

 

 

3.      Before the Qurbaani as well as at the time of Qurbaani one should not be cruel or ill-treat the animal in any way; rather he should treat it kindly and compassionately.

عن شداد بن أوس عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : " إن الله تبارك وتعالى كتب الإحسان على كل شيء فإذا قتلتم فأحسنوا القتلة وإذا ذبحتم فأحسنوا الذبح وليحد أحدكم شفرته وليرح ذبيحته " . رواه مسلم (مشكوة المصابيح رقم 4073)

 

Hadhrat Shaddaad bin Aus (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “Allah Ta’ala has ordained kindness upon everything. When you kill (the enemy in Jihaad), then kill in a good manner (i.e. do not mutilate the body etc.), and when you slaughter, then slaughter in a good manner and sharpen your knives and allow the animal to die easily.

 

4.      If one possesses the means, then it is mustahab for one to slaughter a nafl Qurbaani on behalf of Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), the Sahaabah (Radhiallahu Anhum) and the pious of the Ummah.

عن علي رضي الله عنه  أنه كان يضحى بكبشين أحدهما عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم والآخر عن نفسه فقيل له فقال أمرني به يعني النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فلا أدعه أبدا (ترمذي رقم 1495)

 

It is reported regarding Hadhrat Ali (Radhiallahu Anhu) that he used to slaughter every year at the time of Qurbaani two sheep, one on behalf of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the other on behalf of himself. When asked why he had slaughtered on behalf of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), he replied, “Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) had told me to do so, thus I will never leave it out throughout my life.”

 

5.      One should hasten to fulfil the obligation of Qurbaani. Carrying out the Qurbaani on the first day is more rewarding than the second day, and carrying out the Qurbaani on the second day is more rewarding than the third day.

عن جابر بن عبد الله قال : شهدت مع النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم الأضحى بالمصلى فلما قضى خطبته نزل عن منبره فأتى بكبش فذبحه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بيده وقال بسم الله والله أكبر هذا عني وعمن لم يضح من أمتي  (ترمذي رقم 1521)

 

Hadhrat Jaabir (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that I was present with Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) on the occasion of Eid ul Adha. When Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) completed the khutbah, he descended from the mimbar and a sheep was brought before him for Qurbaani. Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) slaughtered the sheep with his own hands while reciting the takbeer بسم الله والله أكبرThis Qurbaani is on behalf of myself and those from my ummah who cannot perform Qurbaani (i.e. the reward of this Qurbaani I convey it to those from my ummah who cannot perform Qurbaani.)

 

6.      It is Sunnah for one not to eat anything on the morning of Eid. The first thing one should consume should be the meat of the sacrificed animal.

عن ابن بريدة عن أبيه رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كان لا يخرج يوم الفطر حتى يأكل . وكان لا يأكل يوم النحر حتى يرجع (ابن ماجة رقم 1756)

 

Hadhrat Buraidah (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) would always eat something before leaving for the Eid salaah. However, on the occasion of Eid ul Adha he would not eat until he returned from the Eid salaah (and partook of the sacrificed animal).

 

7.      It is impermissible for one to fast on the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul Hijja.

عَنْ نُبَيْشَةَ الْهُذَلِيِّ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:  أَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ أَيَّامُ أَكْلٍ، وَشُرْبٍ، وَذِكْرِ اللهِ  (مسند أحمد رقم 20722)

 

It is reported from Nubaisha (Radhiallahu Anhu) that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: "The days of Tashreeq are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah Ta'ala.

 

8.      One should within one’s means, try to purchase the best animal for Qurbaani. The healthier (i.e. the more valuable) the animal is the more the reward one will receive in the Hereafter.

عن عائشة وعن أبي هريرة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كان إذا أراد أن يضحي اشترى كبشين عظيمين أقرنين أملحين موجوءين . فذبح أحدهما عن أمته لمن شهد لله بالتوحيد وشهد له بالبلاغ . وذبح الآخر عن محمد وعن آل محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم  (ابن ماجة رقم 3122)

 

Hadhrat Aaisha (Radhiallahu Anha) and Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah (Radhiallahu Anhu) had reported that when Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) intended making Qurbaani, he purchased two large-sized, horned, black and white, castrated rams. He slaughtered one on behalf of his entire ummah and the other one on behalf of himself and the family of Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). (i.e. he conveyed the thawaab of the first to his entire ummah, and the second to his family).

 

 

9.      It is mustahab to fatten the animal for Qurbaani.

قال يحيى بن سعيد سمعت أبا أمامة بن سهل قال كنا نسمن الأضحية بالمدينة وكان المسلمون يسمنون    (البخاري رقم 5553)

 

Yahya bin Saeed (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) reports that he heard Abu Umaamah bin Sahl (Radhiallahu Anhu) say: “We used to fatten our Qurbaani animals in Madina Tayyiba and all the Muslims (i.e. the Sahaabah) used to do the same .

 

10.      If one is capable, it is best for him to make Qurbaani of his animal himself. If this is not possible, then he should at least witness his qurbaani being done provided hijaab is observed between the males and the females (i.e. intermingling should not take place).

عن علي رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال يا فاطمة قومي فاشهدي أضحيتك فإن لك بأول قطرة تقطر من دمها مغفرة لكل ذنب أما إنه يجاء بلحمها ودمها توضع في ميزانك سبعين ضعفا قال أبو سعيد يا رسول الله هذا لآل محمد خاصة فإنهم أهل لما خصوا به من الخير أو للمسلمين عامة قال لآل محمد خاصة وللمسلمين عامة (الترغيب رقم 1662)

 

Hadhrat Ali (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that on one occasion Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) told Hadhrat Faatima (Radhiallahu Anha): “Witness your Qurbaani animal being sacrificed. With the first drop of blood that falls, your sins will be forgiven. Its meat and blood will be placed in your scale of good deeds and multiplied seventy times. Hadhrat Abu Saeed (Radhiallahu Anhu) asked Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam): “O Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is this reward exclusively reserved for your family or for all Muslims. Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied: “It is for all Muslims.”

 

 

11.      A woman can also slaughter her own animal provided she does not appear before strange men.

 

12.   Do not slaughter the animal in the view of other animals.

 

13.  One should use a sharp knife to slaughter. Do not cause difficulty to the animal by using a blunt knife at the time of slaughtering.

عن عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال أمر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بحد الشفار وأن توارى عن البهائم. وقال إذا ذبح أحدكم فليجهز (ابن ماجة رقم 3172)

 

Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Umar (Radhiallahu Anhuma) reports that Rasulullah (Sallalllahu Alaihi Wasallam) commanded that the knives be sharpened (before slaughtering the animal) and carry out the Qurbaani in a condition that it be concealed from the other animals. And when you slaughter the animal, then hasten in the slaughter.

 

14.  Do not sharpen the knife before the animal.

وعن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما أن رجلا أضجع شاة وهو يحد شفرته فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أتريد أن تميتها موتتين هلا أحددت شفرتك قبل أن تضجعها (الترغيب رقم 3422 )

 

Hadhrat ibn Abbaas (Radhiallahu Anhuma) reports that on one occasion a person had laid his animal down for slaughtering and was sharpening his knife (in view of the animal). Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) reprimanded him saying: “Do you want to kill this animal twice? Why didn’t you sharpen your knife before bringing your animal here to be slaughtered?” 

 

15.   One should bring the animal to the place of slaughter gently. One should not drag the animal.

عن ابن سيرين أن عمر رضي الله عنه رأى رجلا يسحب شاة برجلها ليذبحها فقال له ويلك قدها إلى الموت قودا جميلا (الترغيب رقم 1674)

 

Hadhrat ibn Sireen (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) reports that Hadhrat Umar (Radhiallahu Anhu) saw a man dragging his goat along by its leg to slaughter it. Hadhrat Umar (Radhiallahu Anhu) reprimanded him saying: “Woe be to you, why do you drag it? Lead it along towards its death in a beautiful manner.

 

16.  One should place the animal on its left side facing towards the qiblah.[1]

عن انس بن مالك رضي الله عنه قال : ضحى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بكبشين أملحين أقرنين ذبحهما بيده وسمى وكبر ووضع رجله على صفاحهما (ترمذي رقم 1494)

 

Hadhrat Anas (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) slaughtered two horned, black and white rams. He slaughtered them with his own hands while reciting the tasmiya and takbeer and placed his leg on their sides.

 

17.   One should not commence the skinning until the animal is completely cold and there is no sign of life left in the body. [2]

 

18.  The person cutting the animal should hold the knife with his right hand and cut the animal as swiftly as possible.

 

19.  At the time of slaughtering, one should recite the tasmiya in the following manner:

بِسمِ اللهِ اللهُ أكْبَر

In the name of Allah Ta’ala, and Allah Ta’ala is the greatest.

 

20.  If the tasmiya was left out intentionally the animal will be carrion.

وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللَّـهِ عَلَيْهِ

 

And do not eat (of that meat) on which the name of Allah Ta’ala had not been taken (at the time of slaughtering).

 

21.  Before slaughtering, it is sunnah for one to recite the following duaa:

                     إنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ عَلَى مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

إنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ اللهُمَّ مِنكَ وَ لَكَ 

 

I have firmly turned myself towards that Being who has created the heavens and the earth, while I am upon the Straight Deen of Ibraaheem )Alaihis Salaam), and I am not among the Mushrikeen. Verily, my Salaah, my sacrifice, my life and my death are for Allah Ta’ala, Lord of the worlds. He has no partner, with this I have been commanded and I am among the Muslimeen. O Allah! This sacrifice is due to You granting us the ability to do so and it is for You.

 

عن جابر بن عبد الله رضي الله عنه قال ذبح النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم الذبح كبشين أقرنين أملحين موجئين فلما وجههما قال : إنى وجهت وجهى للذى فطر السموات والأرض على ملة إبراهيم حنيفا وما أنا من المشركين إن صلاتى ونسكى ومحياى ومماتى لله رب العالمين لا شريك له وبذلك أمرت وأنا من المسلمين اللهم منك ولك عن محمد وأمته باسم الله والله أكبر. ثم ذبح. (مشكوة المصابيح رقم 1461)

 

Hadhrat Jaabir (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that on the day of Qurbaani, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) slaughtered two black and white, horned, castrated rams. When Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) placed them down to slaughter them, he recited the following duaa:

 

إنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

إنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ اللهُمَّ مِنكَ وَ لَكَ 

 

22.  It is mustahab that one eats from the Qurbaani animal and one feed others. Though it is permissible for one to keep the entire Qurbaani meat for one’s own needs, however it is best that the Qurbaani meat be divided into three portions. One portion should be kept for one’s immediate family, the second portion be distributed among one’s relatives and friends, and the third portion be distributed among the poor and needy.[3]

عن عابس بن ربيعة قال قلت لأم المؤمنين : أكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ينهى عن لحوم الأضاحي ؟ قالت لا ولكن قل من كان يضحي من الناس فأحب أن يطعم من لم يكن يضحي ولقد كنا نرفع الكراع فنأكله بعد عشرة أيام (ترمذي رقم 1511)

 

It is reported regarding Hadhrat Aabis bin Rabee’ah (Radhiallahu Anhu) that he once asked the mother of the believers Hadhrat Aaisha (Radhiallahu Anha): “Did Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) prevent us from eating the meat of the Qurbaani animal?” Hadhrat Aaisha (Radhiallahu Anha) replied, “No, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) allowed us to eat the meat of the Qurbaani animal as much and as long as we wish. However, during the mubaarak life of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) there were many people who were poor and could not carry out Qurbaani, hence Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) encouraged us to distribute the meat among them and to feed them. We would consume from the Qurbaani animals shoulder for over ten days.

 

23.    It is recorded in the Hadith that the best of actions carried out on the day of Qurbaani is the spilling of blood. However, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has explained that the action that will earn one greater reward is joining of family ties that have been severed. Hence, together with carrying out the obligation of Qurbaani, we should ensure we maintain family ties.

عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في يوم أضحى ما عمل آدمي في هذا اليوم أفضل من دم يهراق إلا أن يكون رحما توصل رواه الطبراني في الكبير  (الترغيب رقم 1661)

 

Hadhrat ibn Abbaas (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said on the day of Eid ul Adha: “There is no action more virtuous than the spilling of blood (Qurbaani) on this day, except the joining of family ties (that have been severed).

 
Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

 

[1] قوله (فاضجعه)اي على اليسار و هو الظاهر لانه ايسر في الذبح (بذل المجهود 4/70)

[2]  ( و ) كره كل تعذيب بلا فائدة مثل ( قطع الرأس والسلخ قبل أن تبرد ) أي تسكن عن الاضطراب وهو تفسير باللازم كما لا يخفى ( و ) كره ( ترك التوجه إلى القبلة ) لمخالفته السنة (الدر المختار 6/296)

[3] و يستحب أن يأكل من أضحيته و يطعم منها غيره و الأفضل أن يتصدق بالثلث و يتخذ الثلث ضيافة لأقاربه و أصدقائه و يدخر الثلث و يطعم الغني و الفقير جميعا (الهندية 5/300)

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THE SPIRIT OF QURBANI
 
Qurbani is a sacred Ibaadah that holds great spiritual significance. It is an act of humbling oneself before Allah and offering a sacrifice while praying to Allah for its acceptance. Allah Ta’ala says, “It is neither its flesh nor its blood that reaches Allah, but rather it is your Taqwa that reaches Him.” (Surah 22, Verse 37)
 
Allah is not impressed at the size and weight of the animal if it is slaughtered with a corrupt intention (for show). Rather it is your connection with Allah and the spirit with which you slaughter that determines whether the slaughtered animal is indeed a Qurbani.
 
There were many of the pious who would rear a baby animal for the entire year for the purpose of Qurbani. Thus when the time of sacrifice came, the entire family would weep at the pain of slaughtering this pet of the home to which the entire household had become attached.
 
Qurbani is not a circus, nor a funfair. As we understand that there is no element of fun and entertainment in Salaah, we should understand the same for Qurbani.
 
May Allah Ta’ala grant us the true spirit of Qurbani, Ameen.

 

Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)

Council of Muslim Theologians

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