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  1. Part Forty Appointment as the Khalifah (continued) After the three days and nights had elapsed, Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) came to the home of his nephew, Hazrat Miswar bin Makhramah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). On arriving, he found him asleep, and thus awoke him saying, “You are sleeping, O Miswar? By Allah, I indeed had very little sleep for the last three days!” Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then said to him, “Go and call Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).” Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) asked, “Who should I call first?” Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) replied, “Whoever you wish.” Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then went to Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and informed him that Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had called for him. Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) asked, “Did he instruct you to call anyone else with me?” Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) replied, “He instructed me to call Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) as well.” When Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) asked him who he was instructed to call first, he replied that he was not instructed to call anyone first, but was told that he could call whoever he wanted first. Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) thus left his home with Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). As they proceeded, they passed by the house of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) remained seated outside the house while Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) entered the house to call Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). On entering, he informed Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) that Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had sent for him. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then asked him the same question that Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had asked, regarding who he had been instructed to call first, and received the same answer that Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had received. The three of them then set off towards Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). (To be continued insha Allah) (Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 297)
  2. When something is lost When something is lost supplicate with the following words: 1. اللَّهُمَّ رَادَّ الضَّالَّةِ وَهَادِي الضَّالَّةِ أَنْتَ تَهْدِي مِنَ الضَّلَالَةِ ارْدُدْ عَلَيَّ ضَالَّتِي بِقُدْرَتِكَ وَسُلْطَانِكَ فَإِنَّهَا مِنْ عَطَائِكَ وَفَضْلِكَ “O Allah, the Returner of the lost, and the Guide of the lost, You guide the lost. Return to me what I have lost by Your power and Your domain, for surely It was Your gift and grace in the first place”. (Al Hisnul Haseen) 2. يا جامع الناس ليوم لا ريب فيه اجمع بيني وبين مالي إنك على كل شيء قدير. Allahuma ya jami’ an-naas li yawmin laa rayba feeh ijma’ bayni wa bayna dhaallati. “O Allah, Gatherer of mankind on the day in which there is no doubt. Connect me with my lost item.” (Fathul qadeer) Source
  3. What type of rings are women permitted to wear? Q. Respected Mufti Saheb, Kindly advise if women are allowed to wear 9 carat gold, silver or platinum rings? Moreover, are they allowed to wear imitation jewellery rings? Shukran Was Salaam (Question published as received) A. A woman may wear rings of gold and silver only. Rings made from other metals apart from gold and silver are not permissible. Platinums rings are therefore not permissible. (Shaami 6/359-360) It is permissible for a woman to wear a 9-carat gold ring (under 50% gold content) if the ring looks like a gold ring as is generally the case. If the ring does not look like a gold ring, then it will not be permissible to wear. Rings that are not made from gold and silver but are gold and silver plated will be permissible for women to wear on condition that the base metal is completely covered by the plating. (Hindiyyah 5/335) As for other types of imitation jewellery for women (excluding rings) such as necklaces, bracelets, ear-rings etc, a woman will be permitted to wear them as they can be of any metal. (Jaami-ul-Fataawa 3/217) And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Ismaeel Bassa Confirmation: Mufti Ebrahim Desai Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  4. Desperate plea from a regretting son Salam. Please do not do curse me after reading this. I had been a very disobedient child for my parents. I was the only son and they had hopes that I will treat them well in their old age. But I turned out to be exactly the opposite. When both of them were alive, I avoided talking to them and if I did, I was very rude. I hurt them a lot. I told them all kinds of unwanted things that hurt them a lot. I even physically pushed my mother around. When they asked for help, I would tell them to do it themselves. My father’s joints hurt a lot but I never showed any mercy on him. I would tell him he was faking. I was the worst son anyone could have. Now, when I remember all that I did with them, I feel very bad. I am pained thinking of my parents. Is there any way that will forgive me and also get me the forgiveness of my parent? I am very ashamed of all that I did. I wonder how I would face my parents after my death. And, how will I face Allah? Please advice, please help, please pray for me. In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh. Brother in Islaam, We take note of the contents of your query. We make du’aa that Allaah Ta’aala rewards your parents for undergoing the hardships of life and tolerating you. May Allaah grant your parents Jannatul Firdaws. Aameen. Shari’ah has greatly emphasized on being dutiful to one’s parents[1]. In regards to the father, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, رِضَى الرَّبِّ فِي رِضَى الوَالِدِ، وَسَخَطُ الرَّبِّ فِي سَخَطِ الْوَالِدِ. Translation: “The pleasure of the Lord is in the pleasure of the parents, and the displeasure of the Lord is in the displeasure of the father.” (Tirmidhi 1899)[2] In regards to the mother, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, الوالدة أوسط أبواب الجنة فأضع ذلك أو احفظه[3] Translation: “The mother is the middle door of Jannah. So (the choice is yours) either discard it (by disrespecting your mother) or protect it (by honoring and obeying her).” (Haakim 7251) Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said in regards to disobedience of the parents, لعن الله العاق لوالديه[4] Translation: “May Allaah curse the one who is disobedient to his parents.” (Haakim 7254) Your behavior with your parents during their lifetime was unfortunate. However, it is apparent that you are remorseful for what you did. Your sense of realization of your bad behavior towards your parents is perhaps due to the du’aas of your parents for you and the barakah of their sabr. Generally, parents still love and care for their children despite the pain caused to them by their children. Turn to Allaah Ta’aala and beseech Him for His forgiveness for the wrong you have done. Ask Allaah Ta’aala to spare you from the punishment of ill-treating your parents in this life and the next. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, كل الذنوب يؤخر الله ما شاء منها إلى يوم القيامة إلا عقوق الوالدين فإن الله تعالى يعجله لصاحبه في الحياة قبل الممات[5] Translation: “Allaah may delay the punishment of all sins as He wishes until the Day of Judgment except showing disrespect to one's parents; for indeed Allaah will hasten the punishment of that sin to its perpetrator prior to his death.” Do righteous deeds and send the thawaab to your parents. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) was once asked if there was any good a person can do to his parents after their demise. He (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) replied, نعم، الصلاة عليهما والاستغفار لهما، وإيفاء بعهودهما من بعد موتهما، وإكرام صديقهما، وصلة الرحم التي لا توصل إلا بهما[6] Translation: “Yes, making du’aa for them, seeking forgiveness on their behalf, fulfilling their promises after their passing away, honoring their friends and joining ties which are only joined by their relationship.” (Ibn Maajah 3664) Do something on behalf of your parents that has a perpetual reward (sadaqah jaariah) such as giving sadaqah or assisting in building a masjid or Islaamic institute. Send the rewards of your daily worship to them. Always keep them in your du’aas. You may recite the following du’aa: رب ارحمهما كما ربياني صغيرا Translation: “My Lord! Have mercy upon them both as they have raised me up as a little one.” (Al-Israa v.24) The greatest reward to your parents will be to change your lifestyle. Fear Allaah Ta’aala and be Allaah-conscious in all your matters. Perform the five daily salaahs on time. Recite a portion of the Qur’aan daily. Be from amongst the saaliheen, the righteous. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, إذا مات الإنسان انقطع عنه عمله إلا من ثلاثة: إلا من صدقة جارية، أو علم ينتفع به، أو ولد صالح يدعو له[7] Translation: “When a person passes away, all his actions come to an end save three: a charity that has perpetual reward (sadaqah jaariah), beneficial knowledge and a righteous child that prays for him.” Link yourself to a spiritual guide and inculcate in you the qualities of the righteous. You may listen to the discourses of my honorable teacher, Mufti Ebrahim Desai (Hafizahullaah) on the Qaseedah Burdah for spiritual enhancement. The discourses are available on the following link: https://daruliftaa.net/qaseeda-burdah/[8]. And Allaah Ta’aala Knows Best. Muajul I. Chowdhury Student, Darul Iftaa Astoria, New York, USA Checked and Approved by, Mufti Ebrahim Desai. [1] http://askimam.org/public/question_detail/32474 [2] سنن الترمذي (3/ 374) 1899 - حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو حَفْصٍ عَمْرُو بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ الحَارِثِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ يَعْلَى بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: رِضَى الرَّبِّ فِي رِضَى الوَالِدِ، وَسَخَطُ الرَّبِّ فِي سَخَطِ الْوَالِدِ. الترغيب والترهيب (3768) وعن عبد الله بن عمرو رضي الله عنهما قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رضا الله في رضا الوالد وسخط الله في سخط الوالد رواه الترمذي ورجح وقفه وابن حبان في صحيحه والحاكم وقال صحيح على شرط مسلم ورواه الطبراني من حديث أبي هريرة إلا أنه قال طاعة الله طاعة الوالد ومعصية الله معصية الوالد ورواه البزار من حديث عبد الله بن عمر أو ابن عمرو ولا يحضرني أيهما ولفظه قال رضا الرب تبارك وتعالى في رضا الوالدين وسخط الله تبارك وتعالى في سخط الوالدين [3] المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم (4/ 168) 7251 - أخبرنا الشيخ أبو بكر بن إسحاق، أنبأ بشر بن موسى، ثنا الحميدي، ثنا سفيان، عن عطاء بن السائب، عن أبي عبد الرحمن، قال: تزوج رجل فكرهت أمه ذلك فجاء يسأل أبا الدرداء، فقال: طلق المرأة وأطع أمك فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: «الوالدة أوسط أبواب الجنة فأضع ذلك أو احفظه» رواه شعبة، عن عطاء بن السائب، مفسرا بالشرح [التعليق - من تلخيص الذهبي] 7251 – صحيح [4] المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم (4/ 169) 7254 - حدثنا أبو سعيد أحمد بن يعقوب الثقفي، ثنا أحمد بن يحيى بن إسحاق الحلواني، ثنا إبراهيم بن حمزة، ثنا عبد العزيز بن أبي حازم، عن العلاء، عن أبيه، عن هانئ، مولى علي بن أبي طالب، أن عليا، رضي الله عنه، قال: يا هانئ ماذا يقول الناس؟ قال: يزعمون أن عندك علما من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تظهره، قال: دون الناس؟ قال: نعم. قال: أرني السيف فأعطيته السيف فاستخرج منه صحيفة فيها كتاب، قال: هذا ما سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «لعن الله من ذبح لغير الله ومن تولى غير مواليه ولعن الله العاق لوالديه ولعن الله منتقص منار الأرض» [التعليق - من تلخيص الذهبي] 7254 - سكت عنه الذهبي في التلخيص [5] المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم (4/ 172) 7263 - حدثنا علي بن حمشاذ، العدل - رحمه الله تعالى - وعبد الله بن الحسن القاضي، قالا: ثنا الحارث بن أبي أسامة، ثنا محمد بن عيسى بن الطباع، ثنا بكار بن عبد العزيز بن أبي بكرة، قال: سمعت أبي، يحدث عن أبي بكرة، رضي الله عنه قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: «كل الذنوب يؤخر الله ما شاء منها إلى يوم القيامة إلا عقوق الوالدين فإن الله تعالى يعجله لصاحبه في الحياة قبل الممات» هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه " [التعليق - من تلخيص الذهبي] 7263 - بكار بن عبد العزيز ضعيف [6] سنن ابن ماجه (4/ 632) 3664 - حدثنا علي بن محمد، حدثنا عبد الله بن إدريس، عن عبد الرحمن ابن سليمان، عن أسيد بن علي بن عبيد مولى بني ساعدة، عن أبيه عن أبي أسيد مالك بن ربيعة، قال: بينما نحن عند النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وجاءه رجل من بني سلمة (3) فقال: يا رسول الله، أبقي من بر أبوي شيء أبرهما به من بعد موتهما؟ قال: "نعم، الصلاة عليهما والاستغفار لهما، وإيفاء بعهودهما من بعد موتهما، وإكرام صديقهما، وصلة الرحم التي لا توصل إلا بهما" [7] صحيح مسلم (3/ 1255) 14 - (1631) حدثنا يحيى بن أيوب، وقتيبة يعني ابن سعيد، وابن حجر، قالوا: حدثنا إسماعيل هو ابن جعفر، عن العلاء، عن أبيه، عن أبي هريرة، أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال: " إذا مات الإنسان انقطع عنه عمله إلا من ثلاثة: إلا من صدقة جارية، أو علم ينتفع به، أو ولد صالح يدعو له " [8] Alternative link: http://tasawwuf.daralmahmood.org/i-tikaaf-2015.html
  5. Effective remedies for increase in sustenance, and more importantly, for success in the hereafter: 1. Seeking Istighfar and repentance from Allah “Saying ‘Ask forgiveness from your Lord; for He is Oft- Forgiving; He will send rain to you in abundance; And give you increase in wealth and sons; and bestow on you gardens and bestow on you rivers (of flowing water).” (Surah Nuh V.10-12) 2. Maintaining family relations Sayyiduna Anas Radhiyallahu Anhu narrates that Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam said, “Whoever would like to see his provision expanded and his life extended, let him maintain his ties of kinship.” (Bukhari) 3. Reciting Surah Waqiah (Chapter 56) Ibn Kathir narrates from Ibn Asakir that Sayyiduna Ibn Masud Radhiyallahu Anhu heard Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam say, “Whoever recites Surah Waqiah every night will never suffer from poverty.” (Shuabul Imaan) Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  6. Part Thirty Nine Appointment as the Khalifah (continued) After Hazrat Zubair (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Sa’d (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) also forewent his right, leaving the Khilaafah between Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then asked Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) if they would allow him to pass the decision as to which one of them would be the Khalifah. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) agreed to his proposal and also pledged that they would wholeheartedly abide by his decision. The members of the Shura then dispersed. Thereafter, for the next three days and nights, Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) approached the people of Madinah Munawwarah, asking them who they felt should be appointed as the Khalifah. He also approached the eminent and prominent personalities of Madinah Munawwarah, at times, individually, and at times, collectively. He discussed the matter with some openly and others secretly, in accordance to what he felt most appropriate. He also enquired regarding the opinion of the womenfolk and the children of Madinah Munawwarah, as well as the travellers and Bedouins who came to Madinah Munawwarah during these three days. Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) barely slept during these three days and nights. Instead, he remained engaged in salaah, du‘aa, istikhaarah and consulting the people. After the three days elapsed, the outcome of his enquiry was that the people felt that though both were worthy of the Khilaafah, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was more worthy as the people did not see anybody equal to him. (To be continued insha Allah) (Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 296-297)
  7. 5 Benefits of Adopting Taqwa from the Qur’an Almighty Allah says: “O you who believe! Fear Allah as he should be feared.” (Quran 3:102) In the opening verses of Surah Al-Baqarah, Almighty Allah describes distinct qualities of the believers who have Taqwa. “This is a book in which there is no doubt, a guidance for the Muttaqin (the God-fearing ones).” (Quran 2:2) The term Muttaqin (the people of taqwa) is derived from Taqwa which literally means “to fear” or “to refrain from”. What is Taqwa? The Arabic word Taqwa cannot be adequately explained by any one word in the English language. Taqwa is defined as fearing Allah, keeping that continuous awe and reverence in the heart for Him which prevents a person from doing deeds which are prohibited by divine law. Taqwa is that shield that comes between a person and what may harm his spirituality. Qualities of the Muttaqin They have firm faith in everything that the Prophet ﷺ taught us They are steadfast in Salah They spend in the way of Allah They believe in what is revealed in the Quran and the previous scriptures They have firm conviction in the hereafter Almighty Allah praises these people who strive to uphold the quality of Taqwa by saying: “It is these who are upon guidance from their Lord and it is these who are successful.” (Quran 2:5) In every sphere of life a true believer is expected to beautify himself with Taqwa as true honour is in adopting Taqwa only. As the stars beautify the heavens, the obedient beautify the earth. Almighty Allah says: “Verily, the most honourable of you in the sight of Allah is he who is the most righteous.” (Quran 49:13) Often we label individuals ‘super-religious’ and ‘over-pious’ when they try and uphold even simple injunctions of faith. A person who has Taqwa strives to do the things that Allah has commanded and avoids things that Allah has prohibited. The under strengthening factor of Taqwa is love and recognition of Almighty Allah which is a favourable state that a believer has to constantly nurture in his heart. When asked about Taqwa, Allah’s Messenger ﷺ pointed to his heart and said: “Taqwa is here!” (Muslim) The Quran and Hadith are replete with commands and exhortations pointing towards the necessity of inculcating Taqwa in the heart. The numerous times that the command of Taqwa repeats should serve as a message to us indicating its importance. Here are 5 benefits of adopting Taqwa from the Qur’an 1. Ease in matters “And whoever fears Allah, He will make for him ease in his matter.” (Quran 65:4) Almighty Allah mentions the above verse in Surah At-Talaq where the guidelines of the worst of permissible deeds i.e. divorce are discussed. The Quran in its majestic style and wisdom alternates these injunctions with the virtues of Taqwa. Whoever has Taqwa, Allah makes matters easy for him in this world as well as the next. This does not necessarily mean that the person will not face difficulty, but through the blessings of his Taqwa, he is guaranteed ease and the strength to bear these difficulties without losing faith or hope. 2. A way out of problems and difficulties “And whoever fears Allah, He will make for him a way out.” (Quran 65:2) Taqwa serves as a divine guard against trials of this world as well as the difficulties of the hereafter. We see an example of this in the Quran where, in the story of Khidr (alayhissalam), it was the righteous nature of the father that saved his sons from loss even after his death. The Quran says: “As for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the town; and there was under it a treasure belonging to them; and their father was a righteous man, and their Lord intended that they should attain their age of full strength and take out their treasure as a mercy from your Lord (Quran 18:82). Muhammad ibn al Munkadir (rahimahullah) says: “It is because of the piety and righteousness of a servant that Allah protects his children and the children of his children and his family and even the homes built around his home.” (Tafsir Mazhari) 3. Unexpected sustenance “And He will provide for him from sources he could never imagine.” (Quran 65:3) Almighty Allah is the creator, sustainer and nourisher of the universe. Whatever a person requires and desires of sustenance can be found in His vast treasures. The divine promise is that the God-fearing will be sustained from sources they would never perceive to receive sustenance from. The Noble Quran reiterates this in another verse: “And if the people of the towns believed and had Taqwa, certainly We should have opened for them blessings from the heavens and the earth.” (Quran 7:96) 4. Ability to distinguish truth from falsehood “O you who believe! If you fear Allah, He will grant you a criterion (furqan).” (Quran 8:29) When a believer sees to it that his obedience to Allah and love for him stay above everything else, he is gifted by Allah with furqan (such insight that leaves no doubt between truth and falsehood). Every matter becomes clear in his mind and when he is faced with confusing situations of the heart, he will be guided to the light. In the Noble Quran, the day of the Battle of Badr has been termed “Yawm-al-Furqan” (the day of distinction). This was a decisive day in the history of Islam that proved that no enemy can destroy a people who have the support of Allah and such individuals will be successful in all missions they undertake. 5. Tranquility “It is He (Allah) who sent down tranquility into the hearts of the believers.” (Quran 48:4) Calmness and tranquility are sought after states in the daily rat-race of life. These are bounties from Allah which are specifically focused towards the hearts of the true believers. People seek solace in material items, sports, relationships and some even seek it in sin and vice, whereas the true solace that the heart craves can only be acquired from the creator of the heart himself. When a servant attaches his heart, actions, longings and aspirations to Allah, Almighty Allah sees to his affairs and keeps him in a state of peace which even those with abundant worldly wealth envy. The Quran says: “Those who believed and whose hearts are assured by the remembrance of Allah. Unquestionably, by the remembrance of Allah hearts are assured.” (Quran 13:28) Besides the above benefits of adopting Taqwa, the Lord of great bounty has many more long term benefits in store for the righteous believers. The high status of the people of Taqwa is mentioned in various verses of the Noble Quran, one of which will suffice for all. “For those who have Taqwa there is Triumph (Paradise).” (Quran 78:31) A frequent supplication of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was: “O Allah! Instill righteousness in my soul, and purify it as You are the best to purify it, You are its Guardian and Protecting Friend.” (Muslim) Rayyan Institute
  8. No Haya, No Life By Khalid Baig Imam Shu'bah ibn Hajjaj was riding his horse when Abdullah intercepted him. Abdullah was a known street urchin. Not only he was given to a life of sin, he was also unabashed about it. Imam Shu'bah knew that trouble was ahead when Abdullah stopped him. Shu'bah (d. 100 A.H) is known as the "Amirul Momineen fil hadith." He is one of the foremost scholars of the science of Hadith Criticism. Abdullah knew his stature as a great hadith scholar, but he was bent on having some fun. "Shu'bah! Tell me a hadith," he said with mischief in his eyes. "This is not the way to learn hadith," Imam Shu'bah replied. "You are going to tell me a hadith or else…" Abdullah threatened. When Shu'bah realized that he could not talk his way out of this he said: "OK, I'll tell you a hadith." He then narrated the isnad (a chain of narrators) and then the hadith: "Prophet Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam said: "If you have lost haya then do whatever you feel like." Abdullah's demeanor changed suddenly. It was as if the Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, had himself caught him in his mischief and was speaking to him: "Abdullah, if you have lost haya then do whatever you feel like." He was totally shaken. "I just wanted to cause trouble for you," he admitted, "but please extend your hand. I want to repent." This hadith turned a life around. Abdullah, the street urchin, became a student and then a great scholar of hadith. Today he is known as Abdullah ibn Maslamah Qan'awi. His name can be found repeatedly in Sihah Sitta or the six most authentic collections of hadith, especially in the collection of Imam Abu Dawud who was his disciple. What is haya? It is normally translated as modesty or inhibition but neither word conveys the same idea as haya. Modesty suggests shunning indecent behavior but it also implies bashfulness based on timidity. That is why the adjective based on its opposite, immodest, is sometimes also used as a compliment suggesting courage. Inhibition is defined as: "Conscious or unconscious mechanism whereby unacceptable impulses are suppressed." This is a very neutral definition with no reference to right or wrong. So one finds psychiatrist "helping" their patients overcome inhibitions. In contrast to the moral ambiguity of these words, haya refers to an extremely desirable quality that protects us from all evil. It is a natural feeling that brings us pain at the very idea of committing a wrong. Along with its unique connotation comes the unique value of haya in Islam. Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, said: "Every religion has a distinct call. For Islam it is haya." [Ibn Majah]. Another famous hadith says: "There are more than 70 branches of Iman (Faith). The foremost is the declaration that there is no god except Allah and the least of it is removing harmful things from the path. And haya is a branch of Iman." [Bukhari, Muslim]. As some Muhaditheen point out, the number 70 is a figure of speech. What the hadith tells us is that the declaration of faith is the most important part of Iman but that is not all. Iman also has to reflect itself in all kinds of actions in real life. Moreover, haya is a centerpiece of most of the actions that Iman calls for. It is the basic building block of Islamic morality. When it is lost everything is lost. Based on such teachings, Islam brought about a moral revolution of unprecedented dimensions with haya as its cornerstone. The pre-Islamic Jahilya society of Arabia knew the word but did not understand its meaning. Nudity, the antithesis of haya, was not only common in every day life, it was even part of the most important religious ritual of tawaf (circumbulation of Ka'bah). So were all the other evils that flow from it. Islam exterminated all of those evils and changed the society in such a way that haya became one of its most cherished values. To this day in Friday Khutbahs around the world, the third Khalifah Hazrat Usman Radi Allahu unhu is mentioned as the person with perfect haya and perfect Iman (Kamil lil-haya wal Iman). Is there any other religion that celebrates haya like that? Islam's laws about hijab, its ban against free mixing of men and women, its teachings about gender-relations --- all of these reflect a deep concern for haya. For men and women who have not lost their haya, these come naturally. There is a moving story from the earlier Islamic period about a woman who learnt that her young son had been lost in a battle. She ran in a panic to confirm the news, but before that she took time to make sure that she covered herself fully in accordance with the newly revealed laws of hijab. She was asked how did she manage to do that in a time of great personal tragedy. She replied: "I have lost my son, but I did not lose my haya." And for centuries afterwards Muslim societies did not lose their haya.When Muslim lands came under the western colonial rule about three centuries ago, they were faced with a civilization that was no different than the pre-Islamic Jahilya on the issue of haya. While it did not have better morality, it did have better guns. At the gunpoint of military and political domination, Muslim societies were made to loose their grip on haya on the collective scale. The powerful and attractive media became an important instrument in this war. First it was books, magazines and newspapers. Then radio. Now it is television. Together they projected ideas and images detrimental to haya. They made indecency attractive. The pace was increased tremendously by television, which has shown more firepower than all the previous media combined. When historians write about the moral decline in Muslim societies in the twentieth century, they will probably underscore television in subverting the moral fabric of society. We can get a sense of the rapidity of our fall by realizing that what was unthinkable just a decade ago has become routinely accepted today. In some cases, we seem to have lost all control. Isn't it shocking that while contraceptive ads cannot be shown on TV in the U.S. or U.K for moral reasons, they are freely shown in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan? We can get out of the morass by making haya as our number one concern in both individual as well as public lives. There is no Islamic life without Islamic morality. There is no Islamic morality without haya.
  9. What is Hayaa? Haya itself is derived from the word hayat which means life. But that is something that we will get into later on in this essay. This term covers a large number of concepts. In English, it may be translated as modesty, shyness, self-respect, bashfulness, shame, honour, etc. The original meaning of Haya according to a believer's nature refers to a bad and painful feeling accompanied by embarrassment, caused by one's fear of being exposed or censured for some unworthy or indecent conduct. Islamically Haya is an attribute which pushes the believer to avoid anything distasteful or abominable. It keeps him/her from being neglectful in giving everyone what is due upon them, and if for any reason he/she is not able to keep up with his/her commitment then they will feel extremely bad and ashamed about this. The reason being that he/she will have displeased Allah by breaking a commitment. Haya plays a huge role in the lives of Muslims because it is a very important part of our eeman (faith/belief). If we do not have any form of haya then it is most likely that our eeman is very weak. Narrated by Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet SAW said, "Faith (Belief) consists of more than sixty branches (i.e. parts). And Haya (This term "Haya" covers a large number of concepts which are to be taken together; amongst them are self respect, modesty, bashfulness, and scruple, etc.) is a part of faith." (Bukhari) We also learn from the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) the importance of having Haya and how it is not something to be ashamed of, but instead one should be ashamed if they do not have it. Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar (RA): The Prophet SAW passed by a man who was admonishing his brother regarding Haya and was saying, "You are very shy, and I am afraid that might harm you." On that, Allah's Apostle said, "Leave him, for Haya is (a part) of Faith." (Bukhari) Now the above hadith is also a form of proof that "shyness" is not just something regarding women but also an attribute that believing men should have, for it is an indication if their fear of Allah and an indication of the value of their deen. Now to discuss the different types of haya. How many types of haya are there? Haya' is of two kinds: good and bad: The good Hayâ' is to be ashamed to commit a crime or a thing which Allah and His Messenger (saw) has forbidden, and bad Hayâ' is to be ashamed to do a thing, which Allah and His Messenger (saw) ordered to do. Firstly, to talk about the types of Good haya. For example, one should build one's personality and character with the good dimensions of haya. The most important is that one must be shy of doing ANYTHING displeasing to Allah (azw), with the belief that one would have to answer all one's deeds. If one develops a sense such as this, it would help one to obey all of Allah's commands and to stay away from sins. Once one realizes that Allah (azw) is watching all the time and one would have to answer to every move one makes, then one would not neglect any order from Allah or His Messenger (saw). The stronger this sense of haya becomes, the more it motivates one to make sure that Allah (swt) doesn't see one doing anything forbidden. The way to develop this haya is to keep learning and absorbing more and more knowledge of Deen. Another type of haya is more of a social aspect concerning others besides Allah (swt). Normally these things often come in regard with ones relationship with family. For instance a child not wanting to do something displeasing to his mother, or a wife not wanting to do something displeasing to her husband or even a student who is careful about saying something incorrect in front of his teacher (dai'i). And finally, the type of haya in which one becomes shy of oneself. This is when one reaches the peek of eeman. What this means is that if one does, says, or sees, anything wrong or even commits the tiniest of sin, one starts to feel extremely bad and embarrassed and feels extremely guilty in the heart. This builds a high degree of self-consciousness and that is what strengthens one's commitment to Allah (azw). After discussing the various types of "beneficial" haya, it is time to discuss the type of haya which is not only against the teachings of our Prophet (saw) but it is also solid proof of the weakness of someone's eeman. This negative aspect revolves around a person's shamefulness or shyness of doing something that Allah (swt) has ordered us to do through the Quran or our Prophet's (saw) sunnah. This constitutes the shamefulness or embarrassment of doing a lawful act or something that is ordered upon us from Allah (azw). Meaning for someone not to follow an obligation of Islam, due to the fact of being shy infront of others about it. This is totally forbidden because then one is giving the people of this dunya more respect than the One who created this whole universe. It also means if someone is shy or afraid to seek knowledge of Islam for worldly reasons, because they do not want others to see them or to know of their ignorance. This once again goes contrary to what Allah (swt) has told us in the Quran, which is to seek knowledge and preach it to others. In this society there are many examples. People will go out and get degrees in law schools, or science, or engineering and they will put four to six years of their lives studying for this stuff that will only benefit them in this world. Why? You ask? Well most likely, in society people including Muslims, choose their careers according to how much money they will make and what status they will have in society as to being a lawyer or a doctor etc. They do not realize that in Islam the BEST stature of a Muslim is that of a "dai'i" or a teacher of Islam. These Islamic teachers and scholars are even higher in the eyes of Allah (azw) then one who only sits at home and preaches or does ibaadah. If they want to study law, why not Islamic Shariah? If they want to study science, why not Islamic Science? So this explains how people consider the worldly careers to be of higher value and are embarrassed to even express an interest in Islamic Studies. Only because they will not be considered as high as the other "educated" people. This is having the bad haya or "shame" of something that is encouraged to us by Allah (azw) and His Messenger (saw).Today vulgarity and all its ingredients have become a common place even among well-known Muslims in the zeal of imitating the non-believers. It is these people who have been struggling to bring Muslim women out of Hijab into immodesty "be'hayai" and indecency. They have adopted the lifestyles of the Christians more than the traditions of the Prophet (saw). Such people are in a dilemma. On the one hand, they desire to freely look at the half-clad bodies of the wives and daughters of other Muslims on the streets; and on the other hand, they do not have the courage to deny the teachings of the Holy Quran and the Prophet (saw). Neither can they say they have given up Islam, nor can they bear to see Muslim women wear Hijab and showing some Haya. Actually the fact is, indulging in indecency for so long has killed the sense of modesty (haya) which Islam had commanded them to preserve. It is this natural desire of maintaining one's honor which compels men to protect the respect and honour of their women. What these men and women do not understand is that if the women do not observe Hijab and do not develop Haya inside of them, they will be entertaining those who have taken the path of Shaitaan.
  10. Part Thirty Eight Appointment as the Khalifah (continued) After the janaazah salaah of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was performed, the members of the Shura went into the grave with Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) in order to lower the body of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) into the grave. However, from the members of the Shura, Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) did not descend into the grave as he was not present on that occasion. After Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was laid in his grave and the burial was complete, Hazrat Miqdaad bin Aswad (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) gathered the Shura members in the home of Hazrat Miswar bin Makhramah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). They then sat in the house to make the decision while Hazrat Abu Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) stood guard to prevent people from entering and disturbing the Shura. After Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) arrived, the members of the Shura agreed that three of them would forego their right and make it over to another member of the Shura. In this way, Hazrat Zubair (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Sa’d (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). (To be continued insha Allah) (Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 296)
  11. Part Thirty Seven Appointment as the Khalifah (continued) After appointing the Shura of six personalities, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) further remarked, “I do not think that the people will regard any person to be as great as Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). These two Sahaabah would record the wahi with the instruction of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) at the time when Hazrat Jibreel (‘alaihis salaam) would bring the wahi to him.” Before passing away, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) appointed Hazrat Suhaib bin Sinaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to lead the salaah until the Khalifah was elected. When Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) breathed his last and it was time to perform his janaazah salaah, Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) both rushed forward as each wished to receive the honour of leading the janaazah salaah of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). However, Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said, “The two of you do not have the right to lead the salaah. The right to lead the salaah belongs to Hazrat Suhaib (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), as Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) appointed him to lead the people in salaah.” In this manner, Hazrat Suhaib (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) went forward and led the people in the janaazah salaah of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). (To be continued insha Allah) (Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 296)
  12. Part Thirty Six Appointment as the Khalifah (continued) Before passing away, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) formed a Shura (council) consisting of the following six Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum): Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Zubair (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Sa’d (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). In regard to these six Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) mentioned, “I do not find any people to be more worthy of the Khilaafah than this group of Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) on account of the fact that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) left this world in the condition that he was extremely pleased with them.” In this manner, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) decided that this Shura of six Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) would decide among themselves and reach a conclusion as to who which of them would be appointed as the Khalifah. Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) also instructed that they should make the decision within three days. Although Hazrat Sa’eed bin Zaid (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was also worthy of the Khilaafah, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) did not appoint him to this Shura. The reason is that he was the cousin of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) did not want to appoint any of his family members to succeed him as the Khalifah. Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) also advised the Shura to include his son, Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma), in their mashura in order to assist them to nominate the Khalifah, and Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made it clear that he should not be made the Khalifah. (To be continued insha Allah) (Saheeh Bukhaari #3700, Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 295-296, Tabaqaat ibnu Sa’d vol. 3 pg. 261, Fat-hul Baari vol. 7 pg. 84 and Al-Ishaa’ah pg. 34)
  13. الْمُصَوِّرُ Translation الْمُصَوِّرُ is translated as The Shaper of Beauty, The Fashioner and The Bestower of Forms. It comes from Tasweer (picture) Definition That Being Who made His Makhlooq into different forms (suras) so that they may recognize one another. Allah ta’ala made Makhlooq and designed it systematically. Look at human beings, we all have one heart, two lungs etc. but He made us look different in colour, appearance, size etc. and everything has a specific Surah to be distinguished from others. He made us into men and women and different races. Millions of people from Adam AS till now but, yet no two faces are alike and no two finger prints are alike. The animals too are divided into different species and each one i.e. birds, are of different shapes, sizes, colours and characteristics. This shows the complete and perfect power of Allah ta’ala. Tasweer This name cannot be shared by human as only Allah ta’ala is Musawwir and so it is not permissible for humans to make pictures of animate things though this is not accepted by many people and many arguments are presented on the subject. According to classical Scholars it is impermissible and there are many Hadith which prohibit the making of Tasweer. There are exceptions where it is allowed i.e. educational purposes for children, legal requirements, identification etc. فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ - “So blessed be Allah, the Best to create” [23:14] In the Qur’an It is used once in the Qur’an in verse 23 in Surah Hashr and mentioned in other forms in the Qur’an. Allah ta’ala Created in the Best of Forms لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الإنْسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ We have indeed created man in the best stature; ثُمَّ رَدَدْنَاهُ أَسْفَلَ سَافِلِينَ then We abase him to the lowest of the low [Surah Teen:4-5] Unlike Christianity which believes that human beings are born out of sin, in Islam there is the concept that every human being is born pure. We are made in the best manner and with the best Rooh (Soul) which is essentially unblemished when we are born. Then when a person degrades himself when Nafs rules over him then, “We abase him to the lowest of the low” When human is good he can go higher than the angels and when he is bad he can be lower than the animals. Beauty in Dhaahir & Baatin Allah ta’ala is the Fashioner in the things we can see (Dhaahir) and also in things we cannot see (Baatin) which is the beauty inside which Allah ta’ala has formed i.e. the personality. Some people may look beautiful but their personalities, nature, Akhlaaq is bad, rude, mean etc. Others may not be so good looking, they may be over-weight with a not so good complexion however they have beautiful Akhlaaq and that is true beauty. Signs in the Creation of Allah ta’ala Allah ta’ala says in the Qur’an, وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِلْعَالِمِينَ And yet others of His signs are the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colors; surely there are signs in this for the knowledgeable (Surah Room: 22] Usually “Ikhtilaaf” is regarded as a bad thing however these differences is the variety and diversity of Allah ta’ala and it is good. There is richness in diversity. Allah ta’ala says He made people however He wanted and we see even in one family with four children how they are different in looks, skin colour and personalities. We hear parents saying they do not know where the child’s personality came from as he/she was not like the mother or the father but Allah ta’ala is Musawwir and He fashioned them. Looking at the Three attributes Together The three names, الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ all mean Creator in some sense but with subtle differences between them. Imam Ghazali (رحمه الله) said that الْخَالِقُ is like the architect or constructor of a building i.e. designing the basic layout. الْبَارِئُ is the architect who is more detail orientated planning how big the rooms will be, where the bathroom will be etc. الْمُصَوِّرُ is more like the interior decorator and most detail orientated. Therefore there are different levels of detail in creation.
  14. Madeenah ziyarah guide Facts and information on places of historical importance in Madinah Munawwarah For download see HERE
  15. Makkah ziyarah guide Facts and information on places of historical importance in Makkah Mukarramah Makkah-ziyarah-guide-2018-1.pdf Source
  16. Part Thirty-Five Appointment as the Khalifah: Before passing away, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) did not appoint any specific person to succeed him as the Khalifah. Instead, when someone suggested to Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) that he appoint the next Khalifah, he said, “If I do not appoint a Khalifah, then Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) did not appoint a Khalifah, and if I appoint a Khalifah, then Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had appointed a Khalifah.” Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) says, “By Allah! When I heard my father mention the example of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), then I knew that he would choose the example of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and would not equate any one to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). Hence, I understood that he would not appoint a Khalifah.” In one report, it is mentioned that Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) replied in the following words: “If I appoint a Khalifah, then the person who was before me and superior to me appointed a Khalifah (referring to Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddeeq (radhiyallahu ‘anhu)), and if I do not appoint a Khalifah, then there was someone before me who did not appoint a Khalifah (referring to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)).” (Saheeh Muslim #567 and #1823)
  17. During a Naseehah session on Zaynabacademyonline, Shaykh Mufti Kamaluddin Ahmed replied to a sister's question, "What is a Sunnah we can implement daily?" Shaykh's response was the hadith from Tirmidhi 2678: Narrated Anas bin Malik: "The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W) said to me: 'O my son! If you are capable of (waking up in) the morning and (ending) the evening, while there is nothing of deception in your heart for anything, then do so.' Then he said to me: 'O my son! That is from my Sunnah. Whoever revives my Sunnah then he has loved me. And whoever loved me, he shall be with me in Paradise.'" Reply
  18. How do you live in the UK without participating in interest? Q: My question pertains to interest which I know is forbidden in Islam and is seen as a great sin. But in the UK, through mortgages, insurances, etc., it seems virtually impossible to avoid riba/interest. I have looked into Islamic banking in the UK but I see it to be an awful alternative as it still essentially charges riba but with some clever play on words and has been dismissed by the consensus of scholars. So, my question is: how do you live in the UK without participating in interest as I am struggling to see alternatives? A: The prohibition of interest is clearly and explicitly mentioned in the Noble Qur’aan. Allah Ta`ala states: “And Allah has permitted sale and prohibited riba – interest.”[1] On the Day of Qiyaamah, the one who consumed interest will wake up in such a state of bewilderment and shock that it will seem as if he has been affected by the evil touch of Shaitaan. Allah Ta`ala speaks of this in another aayah: “Those who consumed interest will rise [on the Day of Qiyaamah] like the one who has been afflicted by the evil touch of Shaitaan.”[2] In yet another aayah, Allah Ta`ala sounds an extremely severe warning to those who deal in interest despite understanding its evil and prohibition. Allah Ta`ala says: “If you do not do so [desist from dealing in interest] then be prepared to wage war against Allah and His Rasul (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam).”[3] In Surah Aal-e-Imraan, Allah Ta`ala has sounded another warning. Allah Ta`ala says: “O you who believe, do not consume interest multiplied manifold and fear Allah so that you be successful. And fear the fire (of Jahannum) which has been prepared for the disbelievers.”[4] Commenting on this aayah, Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) said: “This is the most fearsome aayah in the entire Qur’aan Shareef, for Allah has warned the believers of the fire of Jahannum, which has been prepared for the disbelievers, if they do not refrain from the haraam of interest.”[5] Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) has also sounded stern warnings against those who consume riba. Hazrat Abdullah bin Hanzalah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) reported that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: “Consuming one dirham of riba knowingly is worse than committing zina thirty-six times.”[6] In another Hadith, Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) is reported to have mentioned: “The fire of Jahannum is more deserving for the one who nourished his body with haraam (riba).”[7] Hazrat Jaabir (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) reported that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) cursed the one who consumes interest, pays interest, the scribe of the interest-bearing deal and the witness to such a deal.”[8] Interest outwardly seems to be a means of increase in wealth, yet in reality is a means of decrease. Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: “No matter how much the interest may be, it will result in decrease (of wealth).”[9] The prohibition and severity of interest understood from the above-mentioned Aayaat and Ahaadith will undoubtedly appeal and strike sense into any understanding and intelligent individual. When the prohibition of riba (interest) was revealed, the general Muslim public were undergoing constraints far worse than those which the present-day Muslims face. For months on end, not even a fire could be lit in the houses of many. Stones had to be tied on their bellies to fight the pangs of starvation and hunger. They did not have sufficient clothing to cover their entire bodies. Nights would be spent in darkness, for a lamp could not be lit to provide light. Their infant children would constantly cry out of hunger. Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) himself had to give his armour which he used in jihaad as collateral for the grains that he purchased from a Jew in order to provide for the needs of his blessed wives, and in this very condition did he leave this world. The greatest solution to the present economic crisis is to inculcate contentment in our lives. Despite the severe constraints that the Muslims were facing during the era of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), Allah Ta`ala commanded Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) not to cast his gaze at the worldly riches of the kuffaar. Involving oneself in interest will bring no benefit to an individual. In fact, it will be a means of loss and detriment, as is understood from the aforementioned Hadith wherein Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: “No matter how much the interest may be, it will eventually decrease (and result in loss).” In another Aayah of the Qur’aan, Allah Ta`ala speaks of the evil worldly consequence of interest, saying: “Allah Ta`ala obliterates riba.”[10] Hence, a Muslim should totally refrain from dealing in interest. Muslims can never progress by means of something which Allah Ta`ala has explicitly prohibited, nor can it ever be a solution to their problems and constraints. Adopting the ways of the kuffaar will in no way bring a person anywhere close to success. Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) never worried about his ummah having to face poverty and financial constraints, for their purpose of life is something much greater and nobler than merely amassing worldly riches and enjoying a luxurious life. Their purpose is pleasing Allah Ta`ala and earning maximum rewards for the hereafter. In one Hadith, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) mentioned: “I do not fear faqr (poverty) befalling you, but I fear that the world will be spread out before you, as it was spread out before those who preceded you. Then you will compete with one another in amassing its riches, as they had competed, eventually leading to your destruction and ruin, as it had destroyed them.” [11] Hazrat Ibnu Abbaas (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) reported that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said: “Whoever suffers from hunger or want and he conceals his need, Allah Ta`ala takes the responsibility of sustaining him with halaal sustenance for a whole year.”[12] In such times of constraints and hardship, a mu’min should turn his focus and attention to Allah Ta`ala, for it is only Allah Ta`ala’s assistance that can rope a person out of the predicament that he is facing. Further, one should live within his means and budget his spending. If one is really in debts, then he should request his creditors to grant him some leniency and respite. (Extracted from Fatawaa Mahmoodiyyah, 24/349-365) We make dua that Allah Ta`ala guides the ummah towards earning halaal, emulating the Sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and refraining from any involvement in riba (interest). [1] وَأَحَلَّ اللّٰهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَوٰا (سورة البقرة: ٢٧٥) [2] اَلَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبٰوا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِى يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطٰنُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ (سورة البقرة: ٢٧٥) [3] فَاِنْ لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَاْذَنُوْا بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللّٰهِ وَرَسُولِهِ (سورة البقرة: 279) [4] یٰۤاَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ اٰمَنُوْا لَا تَأْكُلُوا الرِّبٰوا اَضْعَافًا مُّضٰعَفَةً ، وَاتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (سورة آل عمران: ١٣٠) [5] فتاوى محموديه 24/350 ، مدارك التنزيل 1/282 [6] عن عبد الله بن حنظلة غسيل الملائكة رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم درهم ربا يأكله الرجل وهو يعلم أشد من ستة وثلاثين زنية ( مسند أحمد # 21957) [7] عن جابر بن عبد الله رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لكعب بن عجرة ... يا كعب بن عجرة إنه لا يدخل الجنة لحم نبت من سحت النار أولى به ( مسند أحمد # 14441) [8] عن جابر رضي الله عنه قال لعن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم آكل الربا وموكله وكاتبه وشاهديه وقال هم سواء ( صحيح مسلم # 1598) [9] عن ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال الربا وإن كثر فإن عاقبته تصير إلى قل (مسند أحمد # 3754) [10] يَمْحَقُ اللّٰهُ الرِّبٰوا (سورة البقرة: ٢٧٦) [11] عن المسور بن مخرمة رضي الله عنه أنه أخبره أن عمرو بن عوف الأنصاري وهو حليف لبني عامر بن لؤي وكان شهد بدرا أخبره أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ... قال فأبشروا وأملوا ما يسركم فوالله لا الفقر أخشى عليكم ولكن أخشى عليكم أن تبسط عليكم الدنيا كما بسطت على من كان قبلكم فتنافسوها كما تنافسوها وتهلككم كما أهلكتهم (صحيح البخاري # 3158) [12] عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : من جاع أو احتاج فكتمه الناس كان حقا على الله عز و جل أن يرزقه رزق سنة من حلال ( شعب الإيمان # 10054) Answered by: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  19. Part Thirty Four The aunt of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Su‘daa, recited the following poetry when he married the respected daughter of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), Hazrat Ruqayyah (radhiyallahu ‘anha): هدى الله عثمان الصيفي بقوله فأرشده والله يهدي إلى الحق فتابع بالرأي السديد محمدا وكان ابن أروى لا يصد عن الحق وأنكحه المبعوث إحدى بناته فكان كبدر مازج الشمس في الأفق فداؤك يا ابن الهاشميين مهجتي فأنت أمين الله أرسلت في الخلق Allah has guided His fortunate servant ‘Uthmaan towards the path of guidance. Allah has blessed him with divine guidance and Allah alone guides those whom He wishes towards the truth. After all, he is the son of Arwaa, and the son of Arwaa treaded on the path of truth and did not move away from it. And the one sent as the Nabi of Allah (Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)) handed one of his daughters to him in marriage. This union is such that it resembles the sun and the full moon combining on the horizon. May my life be sacrificed for you, O son of the Banu Haashim (Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam))! You are the trustee of Allah over deen and you have been sent for the guidance of the entire creation. (Isaabah 8/178)
  20. The Essence of the Path of Self-Reformation Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (rahmatullahi ‘alaih) once mentioned: The purpose of self-reformation is to acquire the pleasure of Allah Ta‘ala. In order for one to gain self-reformation, one requires two things; knowledge of the path and correct application of this knowledge. Self-reformation will be obtained through one adhering to the laws of Shariah in accordance to the Sunnah, regardless of whether the laws pertain to our external actions or internal. In acquiring self-reformation, there are two things that will assist one greatly; remaining in zikr at all times, and remaining in the company of the pious servants of Allah Ta‘ala as much as one is able to. If it is difficult for one to remain in the company of the pious all the time, then the substitute is for one to study the lives of our pious predecessors and their advices. One should refrain from two things as they are the cause of impeding one’s progress; falling into sins and becoming involved in futile activities. Together with the above, one will only be able to derive full benefit if one regularly reports his condition to his spiritual guide and sheikh (person under whose supervision he is carrying out his self-reformation). After adopting the necessary procedures in self-reformation, each person will progress and receive blessings from Allah Ta‘ala in accordance to his capacity and the level of commitment and dedication he shows. This is the essence of the path of self-reformation. (Malfoozaat Hakeemul Ummat 23/56) Ihyauddeen.co.za
  21. Part Thirty Three During the khilaafat of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Huzaifah bin Yamaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was sent with the people of Iraq and Shaam to wage jihaad in Armenia and Azerbaijan. While in those lands, Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) noticed that the people were disputing with one another in regard to the different dialects of the Qur’aan Majeed. Each group, not being familiar with the dialect of the next, began to regard their dialect to be better, and in certain cases, even denied the other dialect. This condition of the people greatly worried and concerned Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), as it was resulting in the people denying the Qur’aan Majeed. This concern prompted him to immediately mount his conveyance and set out for Madinah Munawwarah. When he reached Madinah Munawwarah, even before going to see his family, he came to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to alert him regarding the fitnah and urge him to address it. Hence, Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), “Save this ummah before they differ and dispute in the Qur’aan Majeed as the Jews and Christians disputed regarding their scriptures, and this led to their misguidance.” Prior to Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) coming to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) with this concern, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had noticed the very same condition in Madinah Munawwarah and addressed the people saying, “You people are here with me in Madinah Munawwarah, yet you are disputing regarding the different dialects of the Qur’aan Majeed. If this is your condition here in Madinah Munawwarah, then I can well imagine what the condition of the people who are far away from Madinah Munawwarah will be.” Thus, when Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) brought the news of the disputes to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), it was not a surprise to him but rather confirmed what he had anticipated. The Qur’aan Majeed which had been compiled by Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was in the care of Hazrat Hafsah (radhiyallahu ‘anha) at that time. Hence, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) sent a message to Hazrat Hafsah (radhiyallahu ‘anha), requesting her to send the Qur’aan Majeed to them so that they could keep it before them and prepare numerous copies of the Qur’aan Majeed that would all have a standard dialect of the Qur’aan conforming to the original dialect of the Quraish which was revealed to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then entrusted the task of compiling these copies of the Qur’aan Majeed to Hazrat Zaid bin Thaabit (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), as he was the scribe of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and was tasked with the responsibility of compiling the Qur’aan in one book form during the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had commanded that Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin Zubair (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Sa‘eed bin ‘Aas (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin Haarith bin Hishaam (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) also assist him in this task. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) addressed these Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) saying, “When any of you differ with Hazrat Zaid bin Thaabit (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) regarding the manner in which any word should be written, then write it according to the dialect of the Quraish, as the Qur’aan Majeed was revealed in their dialect.” After the numerous copies were prepared, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) sent them to the various corners of the Islamic empire and had all other copies of the Qur’aan Majeed burnt, as it would lead to the Qur’aan getting lost. Note: Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), with the consensus of all the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), had all the other dialects burnt, as the permission to recite the Qur’aan in the other dialects was regarded as a concession in deen for those tribes that were experiencing difficulty in reciting certain words according to the dialect of the Quraish. Hence, at that time, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) granted certain tribes permission to replace certain words with words of their own tribe when they found these words difficult to pronounce in the dialect of the Quraish. Hence, there was no change in the Qur’aan according to the different dialects, and it was a mere concession granted to certain tribes. However, when this concession was leading to the Qur’aan being lost or destroyed, then the concession no longer remained and it was agreed upon by the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) that the Qur’aan would have to be recited according to the original dialect of the Quraish. Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said, “Do not speak anything regarding Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and the decision that he made concerning the Qur’aan but good. By Allah, he only took this decision concerning the Qur’aan Majeed with the consensus of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum).” (Saheeh Bukhaari #4987, Fat-hul Baari vol. 9 pg. 16, also refer to Al-Kawkabud Durri of Hazrat Moulana Gangohi (rahimahullah))
  22. Practicing black magic Q: I want to know about black magic. Is it permissible to practise it for a good purpose? A: Practising black magic is prohibited and haraam in Islam. There are severe warnings sounded in the Mubaarak Ahaadith for the person who gets involved in this grave sin. In many cases, the intention for doing the black magic is haraam and the action is also haraam as it involves oppression and transgression e.g. one wishes to marry a certain woman against her wishes or one wishes to extort wealth from a person. In these cases, the intention is to oppress the person and make him do things against his wishes. Practising black magic, at times, can cause one to lose one's imaan, as in certain cases, one is required to carry out actions of shirk and kufr. Even if the black magic does not entail actions of shirk and kufr, then most of the time, the wordings or practices adopted to make the black magic effective are haraam. Hence, in this case, though one will not be committing shirk and kufr, one will certainly be involving himself in haraam. Therefore, the Hadith has prohibited black magic and regarded it as one of the major sins in Islam. Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: اجتنبوا السبع الموبقات، قالوا: يا رسول الله وما هن، قال: الشرك بالله، والسحر، وقتل النفس التي حرم الله إلا بالحق، وأكل الربا، وأكل مال اليتيم، والتولي يوم الزحف، وقذف المحصنات المؤمنات الغافلات.(صحيح البخاري الرقم 2766) “Refrain from seven destructive sins” The Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) asked, “O Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), what are the seven destructive sins?” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) replied, “Ascribing partners with Allah Ta‘ala, practicing black magic, murdering an (innocent) soul which Allah Ta‘ala has forbidden (you to kill) except with a right, consuming usury, usurping the wealth of an orphan, fleeing from the battle field and making false accusations of Zina against innocent, chaste, believing women.” (Saheeh al-Bukhaari #2766) And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best. Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  23. The Best Garment By Shaykh-ul-Hadīth, Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh Blessing of Clothing The great Muhaddith, ‘Allāmah An-Nawawī rahimahullāh, in his masterpiece Riyād-us-Sālihīn, begins the discussion on clothing with the following verses of the Glorious Qur’ān: O children of Ādam! We have sent down to you the dress that covers your shame and provides adornment. As for the dress of taqwā [piety] that is the best. (7:26) … And made for you garments that protect you from heat, and garments that protect you in your battles. (16:81) We learn two very important lessons about clothing from these verses of the Qur’ān. The first lesson is that clothes are a blessing from Allāh ta‘ālā. Commenting on the phrase, “We have sent down to you”, the commentators of the Qur’ān have stated that clothes are a blessing from Allāh ta‘ālā as the sources from which clothing is produced, e.g. cotton, are created by Allāh ta‘ālā and man has no role to play in the creation of the source. Likewise, clothes are a blessing from Allāh ta‘ālā because it is Allāh ta‘ālā alone who inspires us with the ability and imagination to utilise these resources to manufacture and produce clothing. Purpose of Clothing The second lesson is that clothing serves three main purposes. The first purpose is to cover and conceal the ‘awrah. The ‘awrah is that portion of the body which should not be revealed without a Shar‘ī necessity. Thus, we can imagine what a great bounty clothes are; for without clothes how would we be able to cover our ‘awrah and thus maintain our dignity and honour? The second purpose is to protect the body from heat, cold and other physical harms. Hence, we have different types of clothes to match different climates and also for different activities. For example, we have specially designed wear such as armour and camouflage clothing that is used in unique circumstances such as wars, to protect the wearer. To reflect our nature, Allāh ta‘ālā mentions a third purpose of clothing, that is to adorn and beautify. We can further understand these three purposes through an everyday example. A man can wear a sheet that will cover his ‘awrah which is sufficient to fulfil the minimum Shar‘ī requirement. However, rather than limit himself to this, he will also wear a jubbah (thobe) and a shawl, to not only safeguard his body but also make himself look more presentable. The masnūn du‘ā as related by Sayyidunā ‘Umar radhiyallāhu ‘anhu upon wearing new clothes highlights some of the above purposes: All praise is for Allāh who has dressed me in such clothing that covers my ‘awrah and which also aids me in my beautification. (At-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah) Beautification is a Worthy Trait Jamāl (beautification) is an action approved and indeed recommended by our Sharī‘ah. The Sīrah of Prophet sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam also teaches us to keep in mind beauty when clothing ourselves. In a hadīth we find the following narration: Indeed, Allāh is beautiful and loves beauty. (Muslim) Therefore, when dressing and adorning ourselves we should make the following intentions: 1) to acquire the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. 2) to follow the sunnah of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam. 3) to please my near and dear ones, e.g. my spouse, my parents, my children. This is also a deed in itself liked by Allāh ta‘ālā, thereby increasing His Pleasure. Due to his exalted taqwā and spiritual status, Hakīm-ul-Ummah Hadrat Mawlānā Ashraf ‘Alī Thānwī rahimahullāh was not inclined towards adornment. However, the renowned Shaykh would, keeping the third intention in mind, adorn himself in moderation and refrain from total abstinence. Two Major Pitfalls Whilst beautification is recommended by the Sharī‘ah, there are two major pitfalls that must be avoided. The first is an incorrect intention. To adorn oneself for show, pride, or to display exclusivity, are all intentions that must be avoided. Dressing with this in mind that ‘no one has the clothes I have’, or ‘no one looks or should look like me’, or ‘my clothes show that I am better than everyone else’, are all thoughts which reflect an incorrect intention and are not permitted. Hence, it is essential to constantly review and rectify our intentions in this regard. The second pitfall is of extravagance. Extravagance is usually the consequence of a person’s incorrect intention to show off, to feel better than others and to display their greatness. There is a fine line between beautification and extravagance. Designer wear is a good example when trying to make this distinction. If we buy an item of clothing worth £25 for £100, only because it has a specific label, we should question ourselves ‘What is driving me to do this? If I can purchase the same product, of the same quality, for a much cheaper price, what am I paying the extra for?’ When we question ourselves in this way, it will expose the incorrect intention that we are spending to help satisfy our inner pride and desire to maintain our ‘status’ and ‘exclusivity’, leading to extravagance in spending. Therefore, as Muslims we must ensure whilst adopting adornment and beautification that one remains within the limits of the Sharī‘ah, by reviewing the intention and abstaining from extravagance. The Best Clothing O children of Ādam! We have sent down to you the dress that covers your shame and provides adornment. As for the dress of taqwā [piety] that is the best. (7:26) The verses of the Glorious Qur’ān also direct our attention to another form of dress, a type of garment which conceals, protects and beautifies the inner self. This garment, is the garment of taqwā and is essential for every person, for it is this garment that covers and subdues the radhā’il, i.e. those negative traits of the heart, such as pride and jealousy, which a person would be ashamed of and would not want others to see. Also, it is the garment of taqwā that helps a person adorn his inner self with the fadā’il, i.e. the praiseworthy traits of the heart, such a humility and generosity, which beautify a person’s character. It is the garment of taqwā which also provides a person protection from all the trials of this world and the Hereafter. Therefore, it is the ‘Libās-ut-Taqwā’ (the dress of taqwā) which is the greatest garment a person can adorn. The Glorious Qur’ān reminds us of this by using the phrase ‘that is the best.’ The outer appearance may temporarily deceive the onlooker, however ultimately the great beauty or ugly nature that lies within will be revealed. We experience this in our day to day lives. A person may be wearing the most striking of clothes but if the inner self is not adorned then, despite the initial positive impression, upon interaction we find the person unappealing. True concealment, true protection, and true beauty in this world and more importantly in the Hereafter is only achieved when the inner self is ‘dressed’ with the clothing of taqwā. Therefore, whilst continuing to use the blessing of clothes to beautify our appearance, we should give more attention to the beautification of the inner self. May Allāh ta‘ālā grant us the tawfīq to use the blessing of clothes in a manner which acquires His Pleasure and to adorn ourselves with the best of clothes, taqwā. Āmīn. © Riyādul Jannah (Vol. 29 No. 10, Oct 2017)
  24. Part Thirty Two Hazrat Haani (rahimahullah), the freed slave of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), mentions that when Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) would stand at a grave, he would weep so profusely that his beard would become wet with his tears. Someone asked Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), “We notice that when you remember Jannah and Jahannum and discuss them, then you are not affected to the point that you begin to cry, yet when you stand at a grave, then we see you so overcome by fear that you begin to cry profusely. What is the reason for this?” Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) replied, “Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, ‘The grave is the first stage from the stages of the Hereafter. If one passes this stage and gains salvation, then there is hope that the stages to come will be easier, and if one does not pass this stage and gain salvation, then the stages to come will be even more difficult and severe for him.” (Sunan Tirmizi #2308)
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