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Fasting on a Friday

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Fasting on a Friday alone
 
Q: I would like to know the reason for one not to fast on a Friday alone.
 
A. There is a difference of opinion among the jurists regarding fast on a Friday. Some say it is permissible. Others say it will be permissible if a day before (Thursday) or a day after (Saturday) is added. Those who say that it is Makrooh to fast on only a Friday base their argument on the following:
 
It is narrated from Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah (Radhiyallaahu Anhu): The day of Jumu’ah is (like) the day of Eid. Do not make your day of Eid your day of fasting unless you add a day before or a day after.
 
Sayyidina Ali (Radhiyallaahu Anhu) says: Whoever among you wishes to keep a Nafl fast should fast on a Thursday. Do not fast on a Friday because it (Friday) is a day of eating, drinking and Zikr.
 
According to Imam Abu Haneefah (Rahmatullaahi Alayh) it is not Makrooh to only fast on a Friday. (Umdatul Qaari V17 P101 – 108).
 
Allah Ta’aala knows best.

Moulana Yusuf Laher
Checked and approved by: Mufti Siraj Desai

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Regarding Optional or Qadha Fast on a Friday

 

 

Q: What is the maslah with regard to keeping a nafil fast on a Friday? Also is the ruling different if a qadha fast is kept on a Friday?

 

bism01.jpg

 

A: Our Ulama have two opinions with respect to a nafl fast on Friday. Most are of the opinion that fasting on a Friday independently is permissible. Some feel one should not fast independently on a Friday, rather keep a fast before or after as well. There is no harm in keeping qadha fast on a Friday.

والمندوب كأيام البيض من كل شهر ويوم الجمعة ولو منفردا

و قال في رد المحتار : قوله ( ويوم الجمعة ولو منفردا ) صرح به في النهر وكذا في البحر فقال إن صومه بانفراده مستحب عند العامة كالاثنين والخميس وكره الكل بعضهم اه ومثله في المحيط معللا بأن لهذه الأيام فضيلة ولم يكن في صومها تشبه بغير أهل القبلة كما في الأشباه وتبعه في نور الإيضاح من كراهة إفراده بالصوم قول البعض وفي الخانية ولا بأس بصوم يوم الجمعة عند أبي حنيفة ومحمد لما روي عن ابن عباس أنه كان يصومه ولا يفطر اه وظاهر الاستشهاد بالأثر أن المراد بلا بأس الاستحباب وفي التجنيس قال أبو يوسف جاء حديث في كراهته إلا أن يصوم قبله أو بعده فكان الاحتياط أن يضم إليه يوما آخر اه قال ط قلت ثبت بالسنة طلبه والنهي عنه والآخر منهما النهي كما أوضحه شراح الجامع الصغير لأن فيه وظائف فلعله إذا صام ضعف عن فعلها (رد المحتار 2/375)
 

Answered by:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

Al-Hadi

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Prohibition of Fasting on a Friday

 

Question

If you keep a nafil fast on Friday, do you have to keep another fast with it either on Thursday or Saturday? My brother told me that I cannot keep the single fast of Friday (nafil fast). He said if you fast on Friday you have to either fast on Thursday with it or on Saturday. Please clarify.

 

Answer

1. According to the Hanafi Madhab, it is permissible to fast on a Friday only. There is a Hadith which prohibits a person from fasting on Fridays only. According to the Hanafi Madhab, it refers to the early stages of Islam and is not effective anymore.

 

 

and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

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Fixing Friday for Good Deeds
 
Question
a.w.w
is it true that due to friday being a more auspicious day for a muslim than eid day, one should refrain from fasting any missed or nafl roza’s on this day.
w.w.w
 

Answer

Bismihi Ta’ala

 

Friday is indeed recognised as the ‘Eid’ of the week, and is regarded as an highly auspicious day in Islam. So that a person doesn’t fix friday for all good deeds, neglecting all other days, we are discouraged to fix it for a fasting day.

 

However, if a person needs to do Qadha for missed fasts then there is no harm in doing this for friday. We shouldn’t fix friday for all our optional acts, leaving out all other days. We are not Jumma Muslims, but Muslims all week around.

 

And Allah knows best

Mufti Yaseen Shaikh

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Fasting on Fridays in the Hanafi and Maaliki Madhabs

 

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

 

Question

Are we allowed to make up fasts on Friday? I heard that if we fasted consecutively the previous days then it is allowed? Is this correct?

 

Answer:
bism01.jpg

 

Walaikum assalam,

1. Yes, it is permitted to fast makeup’s on Friday.

 

2. As for voluntary fasts on Friday: they are not only permitted, but recommended in both the Hanafi and Maliki schools. [Radd al-Muhtar, al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, Bada’i` in Hanafi fiqh; Muwatta’, al-Muntaqa and Sharh al-Kabir in Maliki fiqh]

 

Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) said in his Durr al-Mukhtar, a top commentary in Hanafi fiqh,

“The recommended fasts are fasts such as those of the ‘white days’ [of the lunar month: 13, 14, 15] of each month, and Friday even on its own [f: without a day before or after it]…”

 

Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) commented on this, in his Radd al-Muhtar, which is the top reference for the relied upon position in Hanafi fiqh, saying,

 (His saying ‘And Friday even on its own’)

 

This was mentioned explicitly in al-Nahr [f: Umar Ibn Nujaym’s very precise commentary on Nasafi’s Kanz al-Daqa’iq], as well as in al-Bahr [f: Najm al-Din Ibn Nujaym’s extensive commentary on Nasafi’s text. Najm al-Din was the older brother and teacher of Umar]. It says in al-Bahr: ‘Fasting Fridays [even] on its own is recommended according to the generality [of Hanafi scholars], like Mondays and Thursdays, though a few disliked all this.’ Al-Muhit mentions something similar, explaining that the recommendation is because these days are special, and there is no aspect of imitating other than the people of the Qibla [i.e. non-Muslims].

 

Therefore, that which is mentioned in [Najm al-Din Ibn Nujaym’s] al-Ashbah, and was followed [by Imam Shurunbulali] in Nur al-Idah that it is disliked to fast only Friday is a minority opinion.

 

It is mentioned [by Qadi Khan, the great Hanafi imam of the 6th Century AH] in al-Khaniyya, ‘There is nothing wrong with fasting Fridays according to Abu Hanifa and Muhammad, because of that which is transmitted from Ibn Abbas that he would fast Fridays and not break his fast.’” [ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar `ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, 2.83, Bulaq ed.]

 

This ruling is what is mentioned in Imam Kasani’s Bada’i` al-Sana’i` (2.79), and al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya (2.201).

 

Imam Malik explained in his Muwatta’ that

“I have not heard anyone of the people of knowledge and understanding (fiqh) or those who are followed prohibit fasting Friday. Fasting it is good, and I have seen some of the people of knowledge fast it, and it appears to me that they used to seek it out.”

 

Imam al-Baji, the Maliki mujtahid said in his commentary on the Muwatta’, al-Muntaqa,

“This is that position (madhhab) of Malik (Allah have mercy on him), namely that fasting Fridays is not interdicted, and that it is permitted to fast it for one who wishes to do so, like any other day of the week, whether on its own or with other days. However, he disliked that it or other days be specifically sought out for fasts…” [baji, al-Muntaqa Sharh al-Muwatta’, 2.86, Dar al-Kitab al-Islami ed.]

 

Imam Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Dasuqi explained in his supercommentary (Hashiya) on Imam Dardir al-Maliki’s Sharh al-Kabir that,

“As for fasting Fridays specifically, despite the prohibition that has been transmitted – which is the Prophet’ saying (Allah bless him & give him peace), ‘Let none of you fast Friday, unless they fast a day before it or after it,’ – this is because the prohibition is understood to be out of the fear that it become obligatory. This possibility has ended after the passing away of the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace).” [Dasuqi, Hashiyat al-Dasuqi `ala al-Sharh al-Kabir, 1.534]

 

And Allah alone gives success.

Walaikum assalam,

Faraz Rabbani.

 

قال الإمام الحصكفي في الدر المختار:وَالْمَنْدُوبَ كَأَيَّامِ الْبِيضِ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ وَيَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ وَلَوْ مُنْفَرِدًا وَعَرَفَةَ وَلَوْ لِحَاجٍّ لَمْ يُضْعِفْهُ .علّق عليه الإمام ابن عابدين في درّ المحتار:( قَوْلُهُ : وَيَوْمُ الْجُمُعَةِ وَلَوْ مُنْفَرِدًا ) صَرَّحَ بِهِ فِي النَّهْرِ وَكَذَا فِي الْبَحْرِ فَقَالَ : إنَّ صَوْمَهُ بِانْفِرَادِهِ مُسْتَحَبٌّ عِنْدَ الْعَامَّةِ كَالِاثْنَيْنِ وَالْخَمِيسِ وَكَرِهَ الْكُلَّبَعْضُهُمْ ا هـ وَمِثْلُهُ فِي الْمُحِيطِ مُعَلَّلًا بِأَنَّ لِهَذِهِ الْأَيَّامِ فَضِيلَةً وَلَمْ يَكُنْ فِي صَوْمِهَاتَشَبُّهٌ بِغَيْرِ أَهْلِ الْقِبْلَةِ فمَا فِي الْأَشْبَاهِ وَتَبِعَهُ فِي نُورِ الْإِيضَاحِ مِنْ كَرَاهَةِ إفْرَادِهِبِالصَّوْمِ قَوْلُ الْبَعْضِ وَفِي الْخَانِيَّةِ وَلَا بَأْسَ بِصَوْمِ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ عِنْدَ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَوَمُحَمَّدٍ لِمَا رُوِيَ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَصُومُهُ وَلَا يُفْطِرُ . ا هـ .قال إمام دار الهجرة مالك بن أنس (رحمه الله تعالى) في الموطّأ:( ص ) : ( وَسَمِعْت مَالِكًا يَقُولُ لَمْ أَسْمَعْ أَحَدًا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ وَالْفِقْهِ وَمَنْ يُقْتَدَى بِهِ نَهَى عَنْ صِيَامِ يَوْمِالْجُمُعَةِ وَصِيَامُهُ حَسَنٌ , وَقَدْ رَأَيْت بَعْضَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ يَصُومُهُ وَأَرَاهُ كَانَ يَتَحَرَّاهُ ) .قال الإمام الباجي في شرحه المنتقى: 2/76 (ط دار الكتاب الإسلامي)( ش ) : هَذَا مَذْهَبُ مَالِكٍ رحمه الله أَنَّ صِيَامَ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ لَيْسَ بِمَمْنُوعٍ وَأَنَّهُ يَجُوزُ صَوْمُهُلِمَنْ أَرَادَ صِيَامَهُ , وَكَذَلِكَ سَائِرُ أَيَّامِ الْأُسْبُوعِ مُفْرَدًا وَمُتَّصِلًا بِغَيْرِهِ إلَّا أَنَّهُ يَكْرَهُ أَنْيَتَحَرَّى هَذَا وَغَيْرَهُ بِغَيْرِ صِيَامٍ وَالْأَصْلُ فِي ذَلِكَ مَا رُوِيَ عَنْ عَلْقَمَةَ قَالَ قُلْتلِعَائِشَةَ { هَلْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَخْتَصُّ مِنْ الْأَيَّامِ شَيْئًا قَالَتْ لَاكَانَ عَمَلُهُ دِيمَةً } . وَقَدْ رَوَى ابْنُ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ مَالِكٍ أَنَّهُ كَرِهَ لِلرَّجُلِ أَنْ يَجْعَلَ عَلَىنَفْسِهِ صِيَامَ يَوْمٍ يُؤَقِّتُهُ أَوْ شَهْرٍ وَيَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ يَكُونَ هَذَا رِوَايَةً عَنْ مَالِكٍ فِي الْمَنْعِ مِنْقَصْدِ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ بِالصَّوْمِ وَمَنَعَ الشَّافِعِيُّ صِيَامَ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَصِلْهُ بِصِيَامٍ قَبْلَهُوَلَا بَعْدَهُ وَجْهُ مَا قَالَهُ مَالِكٌ أَنَّ هَذَا يَوْمٌ مِنْ الْأُسْبُوعِ فَجَازَ إفْرَادُهُ بِالصَّوْمِ كَغَيْرِهِ مِنْالْأَيَّامِ , وَأَمَّا الشَّافِعِيُّ فَتَعَلَّقَ فِي ذَلِكَ بِمَا رَوَى أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلىالله عليه وسلم { لَا يَصُمْ أَحَدُكُمْ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ إلَّا أَنْ يَصُومَ قَبْلَهُ بِيَوْمٍ أَوْ بَعْدَهُ بِيَوْمٍ }وَالْحَدِيثُ صَحِيحٌ وَالتَّعَلُّقُ وَاجِبٌ وَلَعَلَّهُ مَعْنَى رِوَايَةِ ابْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ مَالِكٍ .قال الإمام الكاساني في بدائع الصنائع: 2/79 وَكَرِهَ بَعْضُهُمْ صَوْمَ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ بِانْفِرَادِهِ , وَكَذَا يَوْمُ الِاثْنَيْنِ, وَالْخَمِيسِ , وَقَالَ عَامَّتُهُمْ : إنَّهُ مُسْتَحَبٌّ لِأَنَّ هَذِهِ الْأَيَّامَ مِنْالْأَيَّامِ الْفَاضِلَةِ فَكَانَ تَعْظِيمُهَا بِالصَّوْمِ مُسْتَحَبًّا ,قال ابن نجَيم في البحر الرائق: 2/278 بِخِلَافِ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَإِنَّ صَوْمَهُ بِانْفِرَادِهِ مُسْتَحَبٌّ عِنْدَ الْعَامَّةِكَالِاثْنَيْنِ وَالْخَمِيسِ و نقل نصّ البحر في الفتاوى الهندية: 1/201قال الإمام الدردير في الشرح الكبير: ( وَ )صَوْمُ يَوْمِ ( جُمُعَةٍ فَقَطْ ) لَا قَبْلَهُ يَوْمٌ وَلَا بَعْدَهُ يَوْمٌأَيْ يُنْدَبُ فَإِنْ ضَمَّ إلَيْهِ آخَرَ فَلَا خِلَافَ فِي نَدْبِهِ وَإِنَّمَا كَانَ الْمُرَادُ بِالْجَوَازِ هُنَاالنَّدْبُ ; لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَنَا صَوْمٌ مُسْتَوِي الطَّرَفَيْنِقال الإمام محمد بن أحمد الدسوقي في حاشيته: 1/534 , وَأَمَّا صَوْمُ الْجُمُعَةِ بِخُصُوصِهَا مَعَ وُرُودِ النَّهْيِ عَنْ ذَلِكَ ,وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ عليه الصلاة والسلام { وَلَا يَصُومَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ إلَّا أَنْ يَصُومَيَوْمًا قَبْلَهُ أَوْ يَوْمًا بَعْدَهُ } فَمَحَلُّ النَّهْيِ عَلَى خَوْفِ فَرْضِهِ وَقَدْ انْتَفَتْ هَذِهِ الْعِلَّةُبِوَفَاتِهِ عليه الصلاة والسلام ( قَوْلُهُ وَجَازَ لَهُ ) أَيْ لِلصَّائِمِ 

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The fasts of Shawwal coinciding with fasting on Friday
 
Q. Dear mufti Saab, I was told that to fast on Fridays is makrooh, please advise regarding the Shawwal fast will it still be makrooh?.JazakAllaaah
 
(Question published as received)
 
A. It is permissible to fast on a Friday only. It is not Makrooh (disliked to do so). However, one should not regard fasting on a Friday to be compulsory. (Badaai’-u-Sanaai’ 2/79)
 
One may observe the fasts of Shawwal consecutively or individually. In doing so, a person will be observing the fasts of Shawwal on a Friday as well. This is permissible and will not have a negative effect on the fasts in any way.
 
And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best
 
Mufti Ismaeel Bassa
 
Confirmation: 
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
 
(Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh) 
 

Fatwa Department

Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) 

Council of Muslim Theologians

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