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Additional Spending on Ashura Day

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Additional Spending on Ashura Day

 

Fruit-150x150.jpg

 

There are several legitimate practices in Islam that have been wrongfully deemed as incorrect. In an era of religious melt-down, we cannot afford such incorrect assertions One such practice is: Spending on one’s family on the day of ‘Ashura (The 10th of Muharram)

 

Rasulullah sallallahu’alaihi wasallam is reported to have said:

 

“Whoever expands his expenditure on his family on the day of ‘Aashura, Allah Ta’ala will inflate his sustenance for the rest of that year”

 

Source & Authenticity of this narration

This Hadith has been reported by several Sahabah radiyallahu’anhum, among them are the following:

1) Sayyiduna Jabir radiyallahu’anhuma

(Al-Istidhkar of Ibn ‘Abdil Bar,vol.10, pg. 140)

Hafidh Al-‘Iraqi (rahimahullah) has declared this chain as the most authentic one that exists for this narration. He has also confirmed it to be par in authenticity with the standards of Imam Muslim (rahimahullah) (Al-Maqasidul Hasanah, #1193)

 

2) Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah radiyallahu’anhu

(Shu’abul Iman, # 3515, Al-Targheeb, vol.2 pg. 115-116))

Classified as Saheeh (Authentic) by: Hafidh Ibn Nasir (rahimahullah) (Al-Maqasidul Hasanah, #1193)

 

3) Sayyiduna Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudry radiyallahu’anhu

(Shu’abul Iaan,#3514)

 

4) Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood radiyallahu’anhu

(Shu’abul Iman,#3513)

 

After recording the above ahadith, Imam Al-Baihaqi (rahimahullah) comments as follows:

“When all the chains of these narrations are gathered, they assume (sufficient) strength”

 

This statement of Imam Baihaqi (rahimahullah) has been quoted with acceptance by several expert Muhaddithun, like: Imam Mundhiri (rahimahullah), Hafidh Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah), ‘Allamah Sakhawi (rahimahullah) and ‘Allamah Suyuti (rahimahullah). (see: Targheeb, vol.2 pg. 116, Al-Amalil Mutlaqah, pg.30, Al-Maqasidul Hasanah, #1193 & Al-La-alil Masnu’ah, vol.2 pg. 95)

 

5) Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiyallahu’anhuma

(Al-Afrad of Daraqutni,Tanzihu Shari’ah, vol.2, pg. 158)

 

This has also been reported with a good chain as the statement of Sayyiduna ‘Umar radiyallahu’anhu

(Al-Afrad of Daraqutni, see Al-Maqasidul Hasanah, #1193 & Tanzihu Shari’ah, vol.2, pg.158)

Furthermore, several narrators of this Hadith have been reported to have echoed the following testimony:

“We have tried this, and have found it to be accurate”

(Al-Istidhkar, vol.10 pg. 140)

 

This further strengthens the credibility of the narration.

 

In fact, one narrator of this hadith, a great Muhaddith and faqih, Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah (rahimahullah) said:

“I have been doing this for fifty to sixty years and have always seen its benefit”

(Lataiful Ma’arif, pg. 113)

 

Imam Al- Bajuri (rahimahullah) has written: When the chains of this narration are all gathered, they acquire credibility. (Al-Mawahibul Ladunniyyah, pg.492)

 

‘Allamah Al-‘Iraqi (rahimahullah) has authored a detailed treatise on this Hadith in which he has proven its acceptability beyond a shadow of doubt. He has also vehemently rebutted the assumption of Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) that this Hadith has no basis. Al-‘Iraqi (rahimahullah) – like many others- has expressed his amazement at such an irrational assertion! (see: Tanzihu Shari’ah, vol.2, pg.158)

 

I have quoted the authenticity of this narration above from ten Muhaddithun. This is sufficient for anyone to be convinced.

 

Lastly, this Hadith provides an ideal solution during these times of global financial constraint. This is not restricted to food only. One can spend in the form that is deemed most appropriate. (Al-Hadiyyatul ‘Alaiyyah, pg.311)

The extent of expansion in expenditure will naturally depend on one’s means. However, one should be careful not to exaggerate in this regard, or emulate the non believers in their manner of “gifting”.

 

Note: The hadith in question only encourages spending on one’s family. The Arabic word used is: عياله which translates as: “one’s dependants”.

 

And Allah Ta’ala knows best.

 

N.B. Imam Al-Baihaqi (rahimahullah) and others have written that the practice of applying surma on ‘Ashura has been reported in an extremely weak narration. (Shu’abul Iman, vol.5 pg.334 & Maqasidul Hasanah, #1085)

Ibn Rajab (rahimahullah) and ‘Allamah Sakhawi (rahimahullah) have in fact classified this as a fabrication. (Lataiful Ma’arif, pg. 112 & Al-Maqasidul Hasanah, #1085)

 

The ‘Ulama have therefore ruled it as a bid’ah (innovation) (ibid)

Al-Miftah

 

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Is it necessary to purchase items on Ashura to attain reward in hadith?

 

Question:

In relation to the hadeeth relating to spending on ones family on the day of Ashoora, does one purchase on the day of Ashoora itself or can one buy few days before due to work commitments, so he may give on the day?

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

Rasulullah sallallahu’alaihi wasallam is reported to have said:

 

“Whoever expands his expenditure on his family on the day of ‘Aashura, Allah Ta’ala will inflate his sustenance for the rest of that year” (al-Bayhaqī)

 

The Fuqahā’ have stated expenditure is not restricted to only food, rather, one may purchase clothes or any other item and it to one’s family and dependents.[ii]

 

To attain the reward mentioned in the ḥadīth, it is not necessary to actually purchase a brand new item on `Ᾱshūrā’ and gift it to one’s family.  Rather, one may purchase items prior to `Ᾱshūrā’ and spend it on one’s family on `Ᾱshūrā’.

 

Expenditure on one’s family may be done in one of two ways[iii]:

 

1) Tamlīk (Transfer of ownership)

2) Tamkīn (enablement)

 

Tamlīk refers to granting one’s family ownership of items.  This can be achieved by giving items in their physical possession or by constructive possession[iv].  Physical refers to where the person takes actual receipt of the item.  Constructive possession refers to where the owner has not taken physical receipt of the item, but it has come into his control, all rights and liabilities of the commodity are passed onto him including risk.

 

Tamkīn refers to enabling others to use and consume items freely.  This is more applicable to consumables like food.  By presenting food to one’s family and enabling them to consume, expenditure on one’s family will be achieved.

 

Thus, as long as there was transferral of ownership of the items on Ᾱshūrā’ or there was enablement, insha’Allah (Allah willing), you will be entitled to the reward mentioned in the ḥadīth.

 

And Allah Ta’ālā Alone Knows Best

Mufti Faraz Adam al-Mahmudi,
www.darulfiqh.com

 

  For a detailed analysis of the authenticity of this hadith, see:

http://www.al-miftah.com/2012/12/15/ashura-spending/

[ii]  التوسعة على العيال يومَ عاشوراء مندوبةٌ في المأكل، والملابس، وغير ذلك (الهدية العلائية ص 223 دار ابن حزم)
[iii]  فَنَقُولُ طَرِيقُ إيصَالِ النَّفَقَةِ إلَيْهَا شَيْئَانِ التَّمْكِينُ أَوْ التَّمْلِيكُ (المبسوط للسرخسي ج 5 ص 181 دار المعرفة) وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ الْمُصَنِّفُ طَرِيقَ إيصَالِ النَّفَقَةِ إلَيْهَا وَهُوَ نَوْعَانِ: تَمْكِينٌ، وَتَمْلِيكٌ فَالتَّمْكِينُ مُتَعَيَّنٌ فِيمَا إذَا كَانَ لَهُ طَعَامٌ كَثِيرٌ وَهُوَ صَاحِبُ مَائِدَةٍ فَتَمْكِينُ الْمَرْأَةِ مِنْ تَنَاوُلِ مِقْدَارِ كِفَايَتِهَا، فَلَيْسَ لَهَا أَنْ تُطَالِبَهُ بِفَرْضِ النَّفَقَةِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِهَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ فَإِنْ رَضِيَتْ أَنْ تَأْكُلَ مَعَهُ فَبِهَا وَنِعْمَتْ وَإِنْ خَاصَمَتْهُ فِي فَرْضِ النَّفَقَةِ يُفْرَضُ لَهَا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَهُوَ التَّمْلِيكُ كَذَا فِي غَايَةِ الْبَيَانِ وَظَاهِرُ مَا فِي الذَّخِيرَةِ أَنَّ الْمُرَادَ بِصَاحِبِ الطَّعَامِ الْكَثِيرِ أَنْ يُنْفِقَ عَلَى مَنْ لَا تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ نَفَقَتُهُ فَحِينَئِذٍ هِيَ مُتَعَنِّتَةٌ فِي طَلَبِ الْفَرْضِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ إذَا كَانَ يُنْفِقُ عَلَى مَنْ لَا تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ نَفَقَتُهُ فَلَا يَمْتَنِعُ مِنْ الْإِنْفَاقِ عَلَى مَنْ عَلَيْهِ نَفَقَتُهُ إلَّا إذَا ظَهَرَ لِلْقَاضِي أَنَّهُ يَضْرِبُهَا وَلَا يُنْفِقُ عَلَيْهَا فَحِينَئِذٍ يَفْرِضُ لَهَا النَّفَقَةَ اهـ. وَظَاهِرُ مَا فِي غَايَةِ الْبَيَانِ أَنَّ النَّفَقَةَ الْمَفْرُوضَةَ تَصِيرُ مِلْكًا لِلْمَرْأَةِ إذَا دَفَعَهَا إلَيْهَا فَلَهَا التَّصَرُّفُ فِيهَا مِنْ بَيْعٍ وَهِبَةٍ وَصَدَقَةٍ وَادِّخَارٍ وَيَدُلُّ عَلَى ذَلِكَ مَا فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ لَوْ سُرِقَتْ الْكِسْوَةُ أَوْ هَلَكَتْ النَّفَقَةُ لَا يُفْرَضُ لَهَا أُخْرَى بِخِلَافِ الْمَحَارِمِ، وَلَوْ فَرَضَ لَهَا دَرَاهِمَ وَبَقِيَ مِنْهَا شَيْءٌ يُفْرَضُ بِخِلَافِ الْمَحَارِمِ اهـ. (البحر الرائق ج 4 ص 188-189)
[iv]  لِأَنَّ النَّفَقَةَ تُسْتَحَقُّ اسْتِحْقَاقَ الصِّلَاتِ لَا اسْتِحْقَاقَ الْمُعَاوَضَاتِ عَلَى مَا قَرَّرْنَاهُ، وَالصِّلَاتُ لَا تَتِمُّ إلَّا بِالْقَبْضِ وَتَسْقُطُ بِالْمَوْتِ قَبْلَ الْقَبْضِ. (المبسوط للسرخسي ج 5 ص 195 دار المعرفة) لِأَنَّ النَّفَقَةَ صِلَةٌ فَلَا تُمْلَكُ إلَّا بِالْقَبْضِ (تبيين الحقائق ج 3 ص 55 إمدامية) وَالصِّلَاتُ لَا تُمْلَكُ بِأَنْفُسِهَا بَلْ بِقَرِينَةٍ تَنْضَمُّ إلَيْهَا وَهِيَ الْقَبْضُ كَمَا فِي الْهِبَةِ (بدائع الصنائع ج 4 ص 26 دار الكتب)
 

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Charity and Spending on One’s Family on Ashura

 

QUESTION

I would like to know whether spending on one’s family on the 10th of Muharram is an authenticated practice. If this is so, is it recommended to spend specifically on food and drink or will general gifts suffice. Also could these gifts be bought in advance with the intention of spending on one’s family on the 10th of Muharram?

 

ANSWER

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

 

There are two types of narrations related in this regard. The first concerning the virtue of giving general charity on the 10th of Muharram (Ashura), and the second concerning the virtue of spending specifically on one’s family on this day.

 

As far as general charity is concerned, it has been reported from the Companion Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-As (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said, “Whoever fasts on the 10th of Muharram (Ashura), it is as though he has fasted the entire year. And whoever gives charity on this day, it is like the charity of an entire year.” (Recorded by Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali in his Lata’if al-Ma’arif from Abu Musa al-Madini)

 

As for spending and being generous on one’s family, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) is reported to have said, “One who generously spends on his family on the 10th of Muharram (Ashura), Allah will be generous on him for the entire year.” (Recorded by Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali in his Lata’if al-Ma’arif from Tabarani in his al-Awsat and Al-Bayhaqi in his Shu’ab al-Iman)

 

These and other narrations indicate that one should be generous on one’s family and dependants and spend more on them by providing more food and other items on this day as compared to other days. One may give cash, food and drink, or any other item of gift.

 

Although some scholars consider these narrations to be weak (dha’if), many others like Imam al-Bayhaqi, Hafidh al-Iraqi and Ibn Hibban have accepted them as reliable. Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali relates from Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah have mercy on him) that he did consider some basis for them. He also quotes Sufyan ibn Uyayna (Allah have mercy on him) as saying, “I have practiced this [spending on the family] for fifty or sixty years, and have found nothing but good in it.” (Lata’if al-Ma’arif P 64)

Moreover, even if considered weak, scholars generally agree on the permissibility of acting upon weak narrations for virtuous actions, as long as they are not fabricated (mawdu’).

 

As such, in conclusion, it would be virtuous and rewarding to spend more on one’s family on the 10th of Muharram. One may provide more food and drink or any other item. However, this practice should not be considered as firmly established, and thus, one should avoid attaching extra significance to it.

 

And Allah knows best

 

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK

 

Source

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