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By Mufti Faraz ibn Adam

The great Hanafi faqih (jurist) Imam Ibn al-Humam mentions: “Sadaqat al-Fitr is compulsory upon every free Muslim.” (Sharh Fath al-Qadir, 2:285)

 

The Evidence

All the scholars base their opinion on the following ahadith:

 

‘Abd Allah Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates, “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) enjoined the payment of onesa’ of dates or one sa’ of barley as Zakat al-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the ‘Id prayer.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:409)

 

‘Abd Allah Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) narrates, “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) declared the payment of Sadaqat al-Fitr as obligatory; it purifies the fasting person from any indecent act or speech, and is a source of feeding the poor. If one pays Sadaqat al-Fitr before the salah (i.e. the ‘Id prayer), it is considered an accepted charity, if he pays it after the salah, it is considered an ordinary charity.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, p. 263)

There are many similar narrations establishing the same ruling.

 

The Pre-Requisites of Sadaqat al-Fitr Being Compulsory

  1. Islam: According to the four schools of thought (madhahib), being a Muslim is a pre-requisite. (Sharh Fath al-Qadir, 2:286)
  2. Free (not being enslaved): All the scholars agree that a slave will not be obliged to dispense of Sadaqat al-Fitr. (Ibid.)
  3. Possessing the quantum (nisab) for Sadaqat al-Fitr: This condition is deduced from the hadith: “Sadaqat isn’t compulsory except for he who is well-off.” (Musnad Ahmad, 10:7)

What is meant by quantum (nisab) is: that threshold of wealth one must have for Sadaqat al-Fitr to be compulsory. If somebody possesses less than that amount, he will not be obliged to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr.

 

The Hanafi madhhab is solitary in specifying a set quantum. According to the Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali madhahib, one who possesses surplus provisions for the night and day of ‘Id for himself and his dependants, will be obliged to discharge Sadaqat al-Fitr. (Mawahib al-Jalil, 3:257;Mughni al-Muhtaj, 1:594; al-Mughni, 4:301)

 

The specifying of a quantum is based upon the fact that in many places, Sadaqat al-Fitr has been termed as Zakat al-Fitr. For example, the narration of ‘Abd Allah Ibn ‘Umar in Sahih al-Bukhari has the wording Zakat al-Fitr. Also, the report of Abu Sa’id al-Khudri in Sahih Muslimbears the same terminology. Hence, by way of analogy and the alluded meaning (isharah an-nass), we can conclude that Sadaqat al-Fitr enjoys the same threshold and quantum as that of Zakat.

 

In principle, there are three types of quanta (nisab) in the Hanafi madhhab, each quantum results in different rulings.

  1. That which obligates Zakat: to possess assets of a productive nature equivalent to the value of 612.36 g of silver.
  2. In this quantum, it is a requirement that the wealth one possesses has the capacity to grow and develop (numuw). Zakat is only compulsory in that asset which is of a productive nature; the asset has the capacity to increase. For example, in the animals which are regarded as zakatable, namely camels, cows and sheep, they grow and increase in reality by reproduction. These assets in reality are of a productive nature, it is witnessed by the eye. Hence, Zakat is obligatory on them. Another form of assets being of a productive nature is innately (hukman); in such assets, the actual asset doesn’t multiply or increase, but it inherently possesses the characteristic of being productive; they have the potential to result in a profitable return. Thus, gold and silver fall under this category, likewise cash.
  3. The second type of quantum is to possess any asset beyond ones necessities equivalent to the value of 612.36 g of silver. One who has this will be liable for the following rulings:
    1. Sadaqat al-Fitr becomes compulsory
    2. The receiving of Zakat is impermissible
    3. Animal sacrifice (udhiyyah) becomes compulsory
    4. The financial maintenance of one’s family becomes obligatory

    For this quantum, it isn’t necessary to possess wealth which is of a productive nature, nor is it necessary to be trading in a commodity. Likewise it isn’t a condition to possess these commodities for a full lunar year, unlike the first quantum. Whoever possesses this quantum will not be obliged to discharge Zakat, however, he will have to dispense of Sadaqat al-Fitr.

  4. The final quantum is to be in possession of one day’s provision. According to some, it is to possess 50 dirhams (153.09 g of silver). This quantum results in:
    1. The impermissiblity of begging
    2. The permissibility of receiving Zakat

    In addition, the possessor of this quantum will not be obliged to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr, nor will he have to perform animal sacrifice in the days of Hajj. (Ashraf al-Hidayah, 3:161)

In short, according to the Hanafi madhhab, for Sadaqat al-Fitr to be obligatory, one must possess any asset surplus of one’s basic needs which are equivalent to the value of 612.36 g of silver.

 

Who Has to Pay

According to the four schools of fiqh, one will have to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr on behalf of himself and his minor dependants when the above conditions are met.

 

Imam al-Haskafi mentions that a Muslim who meets all the above criteria is required to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr for himself and on behalf of his minor children who do not possess the required quantum. The same ruling applies for those suffering from dementia. (al-Durr al-Mukhtar, p.140)

 

If one’s children who haven’t reached the age of puberty possess the quantum, it will be permissible for their guardian to dispense of Sadaqat al-Fitr from their wealth. (Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, 1:211)

 

A husband will not be responsible to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr on behalf of his wife, nor his mature children. The reason being is that Sadaqat al-Fitr is compulsory on behalf of those whom you have complete guardianship (wilayah) and complete financial maintenance. So as the man has complete guardianship over his minor children and he is totally responsible for all their maintenance, he will be obliged to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr on their behalf. However, a man doesn’t have complete guardianship over his wife nor is he responsible for every form of maintenance. As for guardianship and custody, a husband only has custody over his wife in terms of marriage related rights. Likewise, a husband is duty bound to financially maintain his wife in relation to the usual expenditure, clothing, food and shelter. A husband will not be required to pay for anything beyond that.

 

Similarly, a man doesn’t hold complete guardianship over his mature children; they are regarded as adults. Plus, the father isn’t obliged to maintain these children financially. Thus, the two elements inducing the obligation of Sadaqat al-Fitr are deficient, so Sadaqat al-Fitr will not be compulsory on the husband on behalf of his wife, nor the father on behalf of his children.

 

Having said this, it will be permissible for a husband to discharge of Sadaqat al-Fitr on behalf of his wife. Equally a father can pay on behalf of his mature children. (Sharh Fath al-Qadir, 2:289-290)

A woman who has the quantum will be obliged to pay the Sadaqat al-Fitr herself, irrespective whether she is married or not. (Imdad al-Fatawa, 2:110)

 

Mature children who are in possession of the quantum will also be responsible to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr for themselves.

 

A point worthy of mentioning here is that a male isn’t responsible to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr on behalf of his parents, minor siblings or his relatives. However, if he did dispense of Sadaqat al-Fitr on their behalf, it will be permissible. (al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu, 2:903)

In conclusion, every male and female is responsible to give Sadaqat al-Fitr when they are eligible to do so.

 

What to Give

Islam is way of life which can be practised in all eras and all locations. Many injunctions are based on simple and common articles. For example, the calendar is based on the sighting of the moon, salah is centred on the positioning of the sun, fasting is founded on dawn and dusk, the sentence of an adulterer is executed by stoning. Likewise, the valuation of many monetary advancements within the Islamic code of law, revolve around simple grain and cereal widely available in the markets.

 

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (Allah be pleased with him) said, “We would give Zakat al-Fitr on behalf of every minor and adult, the free and enslaved in the era of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) one sa’ of foodstuff or one sa’ of cheese or one sa’ of barley or one sa’of dates or one sa’ of raisins. (Sahih Muslim, 2:106)

 

‘Abd Allah Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) instructed us to give Sadaqat al-Fitr of one sa’ of dates or one sa’of barley. ‘Abd Allah Ibn ‘Umar mentions that the Sahabah later gave two mud (½ sa’) of wheat in place of dates and barley. (Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:411)

 

Shaykh Bashar Bakri Arrabi in his annotation of the great Hanafi work al-Lubab states one sa’equates to 3.2 kg. This is supported by various other texts and commentaries. Thus, ½ sa’ is equivalent to 1.632 kg. (al-Lubab fi ‘l-Sharh al-Kitab, p.169)

 

Based on the aforementioned ahadith, Imam al-Kasani mentions one should give:

  1. sa’ of barley or
  2. sa’ of dates or
  3. ½ sa’ of wheat or
  4. 1 sa’ raisins

(Bada’i al-Sana’i, 2:540)

Imam Ibn al-Humam has mentioned that for everything besides wheat one should give 1 sa’and for wheat he should give ½ sa’. He endorsed that this view is shared by Mu’awiyah, Ta’us, Sa’id Ibn Musayyab, Ibn Zubayr, Sa’id Ibn Jubayr and many other prominent individuals. (Sharh Fath al-Qadir, 2:228)

It is permissible to give the value of the above in cash, instead of the actual grain. However, according to Imam Muhammad al-Shaybani, only the value of wheat should be considered (not the value of barley or dates). (Radd al-Muhtar, 3:322)

 

By virtue of the inferred meaning (dalalah an-nass), the scholars have pointed out that the goal of Sadaqat al-Fitr is to enrich the poor and suffice their need. This enriching and sufficing is easily done with cash and other commodities. Thus, it will be permissible to give anything which has a value to it.

 

Again, one will give whatever values to 1.6 kg of wheat. (al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu, 2:909-910; Bada’i al-Sana’i, 2:543)

So, it is permissible to give the authentically narrated items in their respected quantities or to give the value of 1.6 kg of wheat.

 

When calculating the price of wheat, one will consider the price and value of the area they dwell in.

 

Ibn Nujaym al-Misri states “Commodities will be evaluated in the city or areas there are in.” (al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, 2:400)

 

The Time of Dispensing Sadaqat al-Fitr

The dispensing of Sadaqat al-Fitr becomes compulsory upon an individual with the break of dawn on the day of ‘Id [al-Fitr, the 1st of Shawwal]. (Bada’i al-Sana’i, 2:544)

 

It is recommended to pay the Sadaqat al-Fitr before attending the place where ‘Id salah will be performed. (Sharh Fath al-Qadir, 2:305)

It is permissible to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr prior to the day of ‘Id. ‘Abd Allah Ibn ‘Umar said, “People used to give Sadaqat al-Fitr a day or two before the ‘Id. (Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:411)

 

In today’s climate, it is better and preferable to pay the Sadaqat al-Fitr many days in advance. The whole idea of Sadaqat al-Fitr is to benefit and suffice the poor on the day of ‘Id. Discharging of it prior to the ‘Id salah in the masjid or musallah, as it is common practice in the west, defeats the purpose and objective of Sadaqat al-Fitr.  Hence, once should ideally pay the Sadaqah in adequate time so it can reach those who are worthy of it in due time. (Kitab al-Fatawa, 3:362)

 

If somebody failed to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr prior to the ‘Id salah, it will be permissible to discharge of it afterwards. Although to delay it is discouraged and disliked. (Nur al-Idah, p.162)

 

The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “If one pays Sadaqat al-Fitr before thesalah, it is considered an accepted charity, if he pays it after the salah, it is considered an ordinary charity.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, p. 263)

 

There is dispute amongst the classical scholars with regards to exactly how many days in advance can Sadaqat al-Fitr be paid. The preferred view is that it will be permissible to pay even before the onset of Ramadan. However, to discharge of it in the month of Ramadan is the most preferred course of action, as all the scholars agree to this. (Kitab al-Fatawa, 3:363)

 

The Recipients of Sadaqat al-Fitr

The scholars are unanimous that the recipients of Sadaqat al-Fitr are identical to that of Zakat. This is based on the following verse:

 

“Zakat expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [Zakat] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveller – an obligation [imposed] by Allah. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.” (Surat al-Tawbah v. 60)

 

The verse contains eight types of people:

  1. Poor (fuqara’): They are those people who do not own in excess of their personal needs any type of wealth that is equal to the value of nisab (612.36 g of silver).
  2. Needy (masakin): According to some scholars, they are those whose economic status is worse than the poor (fuqara’). The difference is a technical difference, but the principle is that neither of them possess in excess of their personal needs any type of wealth that is equal to the value of nisab.
  3. Zakat collectors (‘amilin alayha): This refers to those individuals commissioned by the head of the Islamic government to collect Zakat. This isn’t applicable today.
  4. Those whose hearts are being reconciled (mu’allafah al-qulub): This was an avenue to dispense your Zakat in during the early days of Islam. The Zakat money would be given to three types of people:
    1. Those disbelievers from whom it was perceived that by giving this donation, they would embrace Islam.
    2. To the leaders of the disbelievers in order to save the believers from their evil.
    3. To those who have just accepted Islam. This payment would be made to elevate their spirits.

    According to the Hanafi scholars, this avenue is now abrogated. (Sharh Fath al-Qadir, 2:265)

  5. Emancipating slaves (fi ‘l-riqab): Zakat money can be used to purchase a slave from his master in order to set him free. Again, this is inapplicable.
  6. Debtors (al-gharimin): This is regarding a person who despite having assets at his disposal, he is overwhelmed with debt and the debt exceeds the value of his assets.
  7. Those in the cause of Allah (fi sabil Allah): According to the majority of scholars, this refers to and is restricted to only those people who are engaged in Jihad (military struggle).
  8. Travellers (ibn al-sabil): This refers to those travellers who are in a desperate situation and have no access to their personal money. Money nowadays can be wired across the globe in a matter of minutes, hence, one who has the ability to receive his money, will not be allowed to take Zakat or Sadaqat al-Fitr.

Currently, only the poor, needy, debtor, the Mujahidin and the travellers are eligible to receiving Zakat and Sadaqat al-Fitr.

 

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The great Hanafi faqih (jurist) Imam Ibn al-Humam mentions: “Sadaqat al-Fitr is compulsory upon every free Muslim.

 

 

what does 'compulsory' mean here? Fardh? Or Wajib?

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what does 'compulsory' mean here? Fardh? Or Wajib?

 

Q.

1. What is Sadaqat-ul-FItr?

A. It is a charity, the annual distribution of which is essential (Wajib) for every Muslim who possesses on the last day of the month of Ramadan or the day of 'ld-ul-Fitr goods of the value which makes them liable for Zakat. A Muslim has to pay the Sadaqat-ul-Fitr for himself or herself and for his or her minor children.

 

 

Q: What is the ruling of Sadaqatul Fitr?

A: It is wajib upon a free Muslim if he owns Nisab of any form of wealth, in excess of his residence, clothing, furniture, transport and weapons.*

*It applies to a well-off person who is forbidden to take Zakah.

~ al-Quduri ~

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Q.

1. What is Sadaqat-ul-FItr?

A. It is a charity, the annual distribution of which is essential (Wajib) for every Muslim who possesses on the last day of the month of Ramadan or the day of 'ld-ul-Fitr goods of the value which makes them liable for Zakat. A Muslim has to pay the Sadaqat-ul-Fitr for himself or herself and for his or her minor children.

 

 

Q: What is the ruling of Sadaqatul Fitr?

A: It is wajib upon a free Muslim if he owns Nisab of any form of wealth, in excess of his residence, clothing, furniture, transport and weapons.*

*It applies to a well-off person who is forbidden to take Zakah.

~ al-Quduri ~

:jazak:  :)

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Giving the value of the wheat or barley as sadaqatul fitr

 

Q: Is it necessary for one to give the actual wheat or barley as sadaqatul fitr or can one give the value of the wheat or barley as sadaqatul fitr?

 

A: One can give the value of the wheat or barley as sadaqatul fitr.

ويجوز دفع القيمة وهي أفضل عند وجدان ما يحتاجه لأنها أسرع لقضاء حاجة الفقير وإن كان زمن شدة فالحنطة والشعير وما يؤكل أفضل من الدراهم (مراقي الفلاح مع حاشية الطحطاوى ص724)

 ( ودفع القيمة ) أي الدراهم ( أفضل من دفع العين على المذهب ) المفتى به جوهرة و بحر عن الظهيرية وهذا في السعة أما في الشدة فدفع العين أفضل كما لا يخفى وقال فى الشامية: قوله ( أي الدراهم ) ربما يشعر أنها المرادة بالقيمة مع أن القيمة تكون أيضا من الفلوس والعروض كما في البدائع و الجوهرة ولعله اقتصر على الدراهم تبعا للزيلعي لبيان أنها الأفضل عند إرادة دفع القيمة لأن العلة في أفضلية القيمة كونها أعون على دفع حاجة الفقير لاحتمال أنه يحتاج غيرالحنطة مثلا من ثياب ونحوها بخلاف دفع العروض وعلى هذا فالمراد بالدراهم ما يشمل الدنانيرتأمل قوله ( على المذهب المفتى به ) مقابله ما في المضمرات من أن دفع الحنطة أفضل في الأحوال كلها سواء كانت أيام شدة أم لا لأن في هذا موافقة السنة وعليه الفتوى منح فقد اختلف الإفتاء ط (شامى 2/366)

وذكر في الفتاوى أن أداء القيمة أفضل من عين المنصوص عليه وعليه الفتوى (الفتاوى الهندية 1/192)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach

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Is it permissible for several people to give their sadaqatul fitr to one poor person?

 

A: It is permissible.

كما جاز دفع صدقة جماعة إلى مسكين واحد بلا خلاف (تنوير الأبصار مع رد المحتار 2/367, مراقي الفلاح مع حاشية الطحطاوى ص725)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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A wealthy person Discharging sadaqatul fitr on behalf of his minor children

 

 

Q: Is it necessary for a wealthy person to discharge the sadaqatul fitr on behalf of his minor children?

 

A: It is necessary for a wealthy person to discharge the sadaqatul fitr on behalf of his minor children. 

فيخرجها عن نفسه وأولاده الصغار الفقراء (مراقي الفلاح مع حاشية الطحطاوى ص723, الدر المختار مع رد المحتار 2/361)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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SADAQATUL FITR - Frequently Asked Questions
 
Q.What is the amount of Sadaqatul Fitr for this year, Ramadhaan/Shawwaal 1435 (2014)?
 
A. The recommended amount for KZN, South Africa is R17.00 or more per person.
 
 
Q. To whom can Sadaqatul Fitr be given?
 
A. Sadaqatul Fitr should preferably be given Muslims who are eligible for Zakaat. (al-Fataawa Hindiyyah)
 
 
Q. On whom is Sadaqatul Fitr Waajib (compulsory)?
 
A. Sadaqatul Fitr is Waajib on every Muslim who has the value of Nisaab in access of necessities on the day of Eid after subtracting debts. (al-Fataawa Hindiyyah)
 
 
Q. What is the status of Sadaqatul Fitr, Waajib, Sunnah etc.?
 
A. Sadaqatul Fitr is Waajib. (al-Fataawa Hindiyyah)
 
 
Q. I have minor children. Is Sadaqatul Fitr waajib upon them?
 
A. Yes, Sadaqatul Fitr will have to be discharged on their behalf by the father. If they have their own savings then it could be discharged from their money. (al-Fataawa Hindiyyah)
 
 
Q. When can Sadaqatul Fitr be discharged?
 
A. Sadaqatul Fitr can be discharged on any day during Ramadaan before the day of Eid. (Raddul Muhtar)
 
 
Q. What is the deadline for discharging Sadaqatul Fitr?
 
A. Sadaqatul Fitr should be discharged before the Eid Salaah. If one fails
to do so it should be discharged as soon as possible. (al-Fataawa Hindiyyah)
 
 
Q. What is the significance of Sadaqatul Fitr?
 
A. Sadaqatul Fitr is a Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and an opportunity to ease the plight of those in need.
 
 
Q. What is the consequence for those who do not discharge Sadaqatul Fitr?
 
A. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘The fast remains suspended between the heavens and the earth until Sadaqatul Fitr is discharged.’ (Targhib)
 
 
Q. What is the best method of discharging Sadaqatul Fitr i.e. should I give
it to an organisation or individual?
 
A. It is preferable to pursue the needy and hand it to them personally. However it also permissible to hand it to an organisation provided the organisation discharges it timeously.
 
 
Q. What is the position of my Sadaqatul Fitr if I handed it to an organisation that discharged it long after the prescribed time?
 
A. By giving your Sadaqatul Fitr to an organisation you have appointed them as wakeel (representative) on your behalf to discharge your Fitrah. Your fitrah will only be discharged when the organisation distributes the money. Default from their side will be considered a default on your path. It is thus advisable that you query from the organisation as to when and how they discharge their funds.
 
 
Q. I did not discharge Sadaqatul Fitr timeously. What should I do?
 
A. Discharge it as soon as possible. You should also repent for having delayed.
 
 

And Allah Knows Best

Fatwa Department

Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
 
Council of Muslim Theologians

 
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THE IMPORTANCE OF SADAQATUL-FITR


 


Sadaqatul fitr is a compulsory charity which becomes payable on the occasion of Eid-ul-Fitr.


 


The Noble Messenger of Allah ( Sallallâhu 'alayhi wasallam) said:


 


"The fast remains suspended between Heaven and Earth until the fitrah is paid."


Rasulullâh Sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam made charity of Fitr compulsory as a purification of fasts from useless talks and vile discourses and also as food to the poor (Hadith-Abû Dawûd).


 


Fitr means to break fast or to refrain from fasting. Hence the Eid after the fasts of Ramadhân is called Eid-ul-Fitr, as it is the day of rejoicing after the completion of fasting. On this occasion of happiness, as a sign of gratitude one has to give a specific amount in aims, which is called Sad'qatui-Fitr. To purify and obtain complete blessings for the fasts of Ramadhân Mubârak one has to give Sadaqatul-Fitr. Thus it is wâjib to give Sadaqatul-Fitr to purify one's fast.


 


The true object in giving Sadqatul-fitr on this happy, occasion is also to assist the poor and needy, so that, they may rejoice with the more fortunate.


 


Sadaqatul Fitr (or fitrah) is wâjib upon all Muslims -male, female and children fitrah should preferably be paid before the Eid Salâh.


 


It is not permissible to delay the payment of fitrah later than the Day of Eid.


 


 


What amount Should be paid


The amount of Sadqatul Fitr is 1.633kg of wheat or 3.266kg of barley or the equivalent in cash. Please consult your local Ulama (Islamic Scholars) for the exact amount


It is highly recommended that this amount is paid in advance so that the contributions could be used for the benefit of the poor on Eid day


 


For a detailed article and rules on Sadaqatul Fitr please visit:


EISLAM


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Q: Upon whom is sadaqatul fitr waajib?

 

A: Sadaqatul fitr is waajib upon the one (who after deducting his debts and liabilities and after excluding his needs and necessities of life e.g. car, house, furniture etc.) possesses wealth which equals the nisaab amount on the morning of Eid (at the time of subah saadiq).

تجب على حر مسلم مكلف مالك لنصاب أو قيمته وإن لم يحل عليه الحول عند طلوع فجر يوم الفطر ولم يكن للتجارة فارغ عن الدين وحاجته الأصلية وحوائج عياله والمعتبر فيها الكفاية لا التقدير وهي مسكنه وأثاثه وثيابه وفرسه وسلاحه وعبيده للخدمة (مراقي الفلاح مع حاشية الطحطاوى ص723, الدر المختار مع رد المحتار 2/358)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Discharging sadaqatul fitr for the passed years

 

Q: If I didn't know I had to pay fitra for the past 10 years, how do I make up for it and will it count if I didn't know about fitra but my father used to pay it for me without telling me?

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A:

1. You should pay the equivalent of the current years fitra for the previous years missed fitra.

2. If your father discharged fitra on your behalf for the previous years without your knowledge, the fitra will not be discharged in the case where you were not being supported by your father. However in the case where you were being supported by your father, then the fitra will be discharged.

And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

( تجب ) … ( موسعا في العمر ) عند أصحابناوهو الصحيح بحر عن البدائع معللا بأن الأمر بأدائها مطلق الزكاة على قول كما مر

قال الشامي : قوله ( وهو الصحيح ) هو ما عليه المتون بقولهم وصح لو قدم أو أخر قوله ( مطلق ) أي عن الوقت فتجب في مطلق الوقت وإنما يتعين بتعيينه فعلا أو آخر العمر ففي أي وقت أدى كان مؤديا لا قاضيا كما في سائر الواجبات الموسعة غير أن المستحب قبل الخروج إلى المصلى لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام أغنوهم عنه المسألة في هذا اليوم بدائع (رد المحتار 2/ 358-359)

ولا يجوز أن يعطي عن غير عياله إلا بأمره كذا في المحيط (الفتاوى الهندية 1/ 193)

( تجب ) … ( لا عن زوجته ) وولده الكبير العاقل ولو أدى عنهما بلا إذن أجزأ استحسانا للإذن عادة أي لو في عياله وإلا فلا (الدر المختار 2/ 363)

ولا يؤدي عن زوجته ولا عن أولاده الكبار وإن كانوا في عياله ولو أدى عنهم أو عن زوجته بغير أمرهم أجزأهم استحسانا كذا في الهداية وعليه الفتوى كذا في فتاوى قاضي خان (الفتاوى الهندية 1/ 193 ، فتاوى رحيمية 7 /197)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Several people giving Sadaqatul fitr to one Person  

 

Q: Is it permissible for several people to give their sadaqatul fitr to one poor person?

 

A: It is permissible.

كما جاز دفع صدقة جماعة إلى مسكين واحد بلا خلاف (تنوير الأبصار مع رد المحتار 2/367, مراقي الفلاح مع حاشية الطحطاوى ص725)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Q: Who is eligible for sadaqatul fitr?

 

A: Those people who are eligible for zakaat are eligible for sadaqatul fitr.

( وصدقة الفطر كالزكاة في المصارف ) وفي كل حال ( إلا في ) جواز ( الدفع إلى الذمي ) وعدم سقوطها بهلاك المال وقد مر

وقال فى الشامية: قوله ( في المصارف ) أي المذكورة في آية الصدقات إلا العامل الغني فيما يظهر ولا تصح إلى من بينهما أولاد أو زوجية ولا إلى غني أو هاشمي ونحوهم ممن مر في باب المصرف وقدمنا بيان الأفضل في المتصدق عليه (شامى 2/369)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Q: When is it preferable for one to discharge the sadaqatul fitr?

 

A: It is preferable to discharge the sadaqatul fitr before the Eid Salaah.

( ويستحب إخراجها قبل الخروج إلى المصلى بعد طلوع فجر الفطر ) عملا بأمره وفعله عليه الصلاة والسلام (الدر المختار مع رد المحتار 2/367, مراقي الفلاح مع حاشية الطحطاوى ص725)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Discharging Sadaqatul Fitr before Ramadhaan

 

Q: Is it permissible to discharge the sadaqatul fitr before the month of Ramadhaan?

 

A: It is permissible; however discharging it in the month of Ramadhaan is more rewarding.

 

(وصح أداؤها إذا قدمه على يوم الفطر أو أخره) اعتبارا بالزكاة والسبب موجود إذ هو الرأس ( بشرط دخول رمضان في الأول ) أي مسألة التقديم ( هو الصحيح ) وبه يفتى جوهرة و بحر عن الظهيرية  لكن عامة المتون والشروح على صحة التقديم مطلقا وصححه غير واحد ورجحه في النهر ونقل عن الولوالجية أنه ظاهر الرواية قلت فكان هو المذهب (الدر المختار مع رد المحتار 2/367,فتاوى محمودية 14/392)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Father discharging Sadaqatul Fitr from the wealth of Children

 

Q: If the minor children possess the nisaab amount, can the father discharge their sadaqatul fitr from their wealth?

 

A: The father can discharge the Sadaqatul fitr from their wealth.

فيخرجها عن نفسه وأولاده الصغار الفقراء وإن كانوا أغنياء يخرجها من مالهم (مراقي الفلاح مع حاشية الطحطاوى ص723, الدر المختار مع رد المحتار 2/359)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Wealthy person Discharging Sadaqatul Fitr on behalf of his minor children

 

Q: Is it necessary for a wealthy person to discharge the sadaqatul fitr on behalf of his minor children?

 

A: It is necessary for a wealthy person to discharge the sadaqatul fitr on behalf of his minor children. 

 

فيخرجها عن نفسه وأولاده الصغار الفقراء (مراقي الفلاح مع حاشية الطحطاوى ص723, الدر المختار مع رد المحتار 2/361)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Giving Sadaqatul Fitr to a Non-Muslim

 

Q: If someone gives his sadaqatul fitr to a non-muslim in a Non-Islamic state, will the sadaqatul fitr be discharged?

 

A: The sadaqatul fitr will not be discharged.

( ولا ) تدفع ( إلى ذمي ) لحديث معاذ ( وجاز ) دفع ( غيرها وغير العشر ) والخراج ( إليه ) أي الذمي ولو واجبا كنذر وكفارة وفطرة خلافا للثاني وبقوله يفتى حاوي القدسي وأما الحربي ولو مستأمنا فجميع الصدقات لا تجوز له اتفاقا بحر عن الغاية وغيرها لكن جزم الزيلعي بجواز التطوع له  قال الشامي: قوله ( غير العشر ) فإنه ملحق بالزكاة ولذا سموه زكاة الزرع وأما الخراج فليس من الصدقات التي الكلامفيها ومصرفه مصالح المسلمين كما مر ولذا لم يستثن في الكنز و الهداية إلا الزكاة قوله ( خلافا للثاني ) حيث قال إن دفع سائر الصدقات الواجبة إليه لا يجوز اعتبارا بالزكاة وصرح في الهداية وغيرها بأن هذا رواية عن الثاني وظاهره أن قوله المشهور كقولهما قوله ( وبقوله يفتى ) الذي في حاشية الخير الرملي عن الحاوي وبقوله نأخذ قلت لكن كلام الهداية وغيرها يفيد ترجيح قولهما وعليه المتون قوله ( وأما الحربي ) محترز الذمي قوله ( عن الغاية ) أي غاية البيان وقوله وغيرها أي النهاية فافهم قوله ( لكن جزم الزيلعي بجواز التطوع له ) أي للمستأمن كما تفيده عبارة النهر ثم إن هذا لم أره في الزيلعي وكذا قال أبو السعود وغيره مع أنه مخالف لدعوى الاتفاق لكن رأيت في المحيط من كتاب الكسب ذكر محمد في السير الكبير لا بأس للمسلم أن يعطي كافرا حربيا أو ذميا وأن يقبل الهدية منه لما روي أن النبي بعث خمسمائة دينار إلى مكة حين قحطوا وأمر بدفعها إلى أبي سفيان بن حرب وصفوان بن أمية ليفرقا على فقراء أهل مكة ولأن صلة الرحم محمودة في كل دين والإهداء إلى الغير من مكارم الأخلاق الخ وسنذكر تمام الكلام على ذلك في أول كتاب الوصايا (رد المحتار 2/351-352)

وأما أهل الذمة فلا يجوز صرف الزكاة إليهم بالاتفاق ويجوز صرف صدقة التطوع إليهم بالاتفاق واختلفوا في صدقة الفطر والنذور والكفارات قال أبو حنيفة ومحمد رحمهما الله تعالى يجوز إلا أن فقراء المسلمين أحب إلينا كذا في شرح الطحاوي وأما الحربي المستأمن فلا يجوز دفع الزكاة والصدقة الواجبة إليه بالإجماع ويجوز صرف التطوع إليه (الفتاوى الهندية 1/188)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Sadaqatul Fitr if one's Wealth got Destroyed

 

Q: If one did not discharge his sadaqatul fitr and all his wealth got destroyed. Will the obligation of sadaqatul fitr fall away?

 

A: The obligation will not fall away. One will have to discharge the sadaqatul fitr when he receives wealth.

( فلا تسقط ) الفطرة وكذا الحج ( بهلاك المال بعد الوجوب ) كما لا يبطل النكاح بموت الشهود ( بخلاف الزكاة ) والعشر والخراج لاشتراط بقاء الميسرة ( عن نفسه ) متعلق بيجب وإن لم يصم لعذر (الدر المختار مع رد المحتار 2/361)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Not Discharging Sadaqatul Fitr for many years

 

Q: If a person did not discharge his sadaqatul fitr for many years, what should he do?

 

A: He should discharge the value of the current year’s sadaqatul fitr for each year he missed.

( تجب ) … ( موسعا في العمر ) عند أصحابناوهو الصحيح بحر عن البدائع معللا بأن الأمر بأدائها مطلق الزكاة على قول كما مر

و قال فى الشامية : قوله ( وهو الصحيح ) هو ما عليه المتون بقولهم وصح لو قدم أو أخر قوله ( مطلق ) أي عن الوقت فتجب في مطلق الوقت وإنما يتعين بتعيينه فعلا أو آخر العمر ففي أي وقت أدى كان مؤديا لا قاضيا كما في سائر الواجبات الموسعة غير أن المستحب قبل الخروج إلى المصلى لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام أغنوهم عنه المسألة في هذا اليوم بدائع (شامي 2/358-359)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Discharging Sadaqatul Fitr of others without Permission
 
Q: If a person discharges sadaqatul fitr on behalf of someone other than his dependents (i.e. his wife and children) without their permission, will the sadaqatul fitr be discharged?

 

A: The sadaqatul fitr will not be discharged.

 

ولا يجوز أن يعطي عن غير عياله إلا بأمره كذا في المحيط (الفتاوى الهندية 1/193)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Discharging Sadaqatul Fitr of one's Family

 

Q: If a father discharges sadaqatul fitr on behalf of his wife and baaligh children without their permission, will the sadaqatul fitr be discharged?

 

A: He should take their permission before discharging the sadaqatul fitr. However if he did not take their permission, the sadaqatul fitr will only be discharged in the case where he was supporting them.

( تجب ) … ( لا عن زوجته ) وولده الكبير العاقل ولو أدى عنهما بلا إذن أجزأ استحسانا للإذن عادة أي لو في عياله وإلا فلا (الدر المختار 2/363)

 ولا يؤدي عن زوجته ولا عن أولاده الكبار وإن كانوا في عياله ولو أدى عنهم أو عن زوجته بغير أمرهم أجزأهم استحسانا كذا في الهداية وعليه الفتوى كذا في فتاوى قاضي خان (الفتاوى الهندية 1/193, فتاوى رحيمية 7/197)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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When to discharge the Sadaqatul Fitr

There are several Hadiths that encourage discharging the sadaqatul fitr before the Eid salah. Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah) has included a chapter in his famous book entitled:

 

‘The chapter of [discharging] the sadaqah before Eid.’

Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah) quoted the following Hadith under this chapter:

 

Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) instructed that the sadaqatul fitr (fitrah) be given [to the poor] before the people go out to the Eid salah.’

(Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 1509)

Based on the above, the ‘Ulama have ruled that it is better (mustahab) to pass the fitrah to the poor and needy before the Eid salah.

 

A Misconception

However, there is a misconception among the people that by them putting their fitrah into the collection boxes which are in the masajid etc before Eid, they have discharged their fitrah on time!

 

This is an incorrect notion.

 

Practice of the Sahabah (radiyallahu ‘anhum)

In the time of the Sahabah (radiyallahu ‘anhum) the collection of the fitrah would take place a few days before Eid.

 

Imam Malik (rahimahullah) has recorded in Muwatta, that Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) would send his fitrah to the one who was in charged of collection two or three days before Eid.

(Fathul Bari, Hadith: 1511)

 

Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah) has recorded that these Fitrah collectors would be given the fitrah a day or two before Eid.

(Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 1511)

 

This was obviously done so that the collectors had time to pass on the fitrah to the needy in time, before the Eid salah.

 

We too can implement this system insha Allah by ensuring that we either give our fitrah directly to the poor before Eid salah, or by placing it into the tins/boxes a few days early.

 

The collecting organisations can then arrange for these tins to be collected on 28 Ramadan for example.

 

The imams of the masajid can also educate their congregations in this regard.

 

Then the different organisations will have ample time to distribute the fitrah in time insha Allah.

 

That is the ideal we should be striving for.

Insha Allah with a little bit of attention, this can easily be achieved.

 

Note 1: The above will apply if the collecting organisations are considered the wakils (deputies/representatives) of those discharging their fitrah. If the organisation is the wakil of the recipients, then obviously my concerns above become irrelevant.

 

Note 2: If one fails to discharge the sadaqatul fitr before the Eid salah, it should still be discharged thereafter. To discharge it before the Eid salah is meritorious, as stated above and not binding (wajib).

Al-Miftah

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Giving the Value of the Wheat and Barley as Sadaqatul Fitr

 

Q: Is it necessary for one to give the actual wheat or barley as sadaqatul fitr or can one give the value of the wheat or barley as sadaqatul fitr?

 

bismillah.jpg

A: One can give the value of the wheat or barley as sadaqatul fitr.

ويجوز دفع القيمة وهي أفضل عند وجدان ما يحتاجه لأنها أسرع لقضاء حاجة الفقير وإن كان زمن شدة فالحنطة والشعير وما يؤكل أفضل من الدراهم (مراقي الفلاح مع حاشية الطحطاوى ص724)

( ودفع القيمة ) أي الدراهم ( أفضل من دفع العين على المذهب ) المفتى به جوهرة و بحر عن الظهيرية وهذا في السعة أما في الشدة فدفع العين أفضل كما لا يخفى وقال فى الشامية: قوله ( أي الدراهم ) ربما يشعر أنها المرادة بالقيمة مع أن القيمة تكون أيضا من الفلوس والعروض كما في البدائع و الجوهرة ولعله اقتصر على الدراهم تبعا للزيلعي لبيان أنها الأفضل عند إرادة دفع القيمة لأن العلة في أفضلية القيمة كونها أعون على دفع حاجة الفقير لاحتمال أنه يحتاج غيرالحنطة مثلا من ثياب ونحوها بخلاف دفع العروض وعلى هذا فالمراد بالدراهم ما يشمل الدنانيرتأمل قوله ( على المذهب المفتى به ) مقابله ما في المضمرات من أن دفع الحنطة أفضل في الأحوال كلها سواء كانت أيام شدة أم لا لأن في هذا موافقة السنة وعليه الفتوى منح فقد اختلف الإفتاء ط (شامى 2/366)

وذكر في الفتاوى أن أداء القيمة أفضل من عين المنصوص عليه وعليه الفتوى (الفتاوى الهندية 1/192)

 

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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