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The Chronology and Background of Quranic Revelation


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By Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani

Translated by Dr. Swaleh Siddiqui. Revised and Edited by Rafiq Abdur Rehman and Bilal Ali

The Noble Quran is Allah’s Divine Word. Hence it is secure in a Preserved Tablet about which the Quran states:

Rather, [this] Quran is a glorious Heavenly Recitation, [that you receive, O Prophet, and] in a [Heavenly] Tablet, [it is] well-preserved. (al-Buruj, 85:21-22)

From the Preserved Tablet the descension of the Quran took place in two stages. First, it was sent as a whole to Bayt al-‘Izzah (The House of Honor), the exalted house of worship located in the heavens. This exalted house, also known as Bayt al-Ma‘mur, is a heavenly house situated directly above the Ka‘bah and serves as a place of worship for angels. This first descension took place on Laylat al-Qadr (or the Night of Power).

The second descension of the Quran was a gradual revelation to the Noble Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) that reached its completion after twenty-three years. These two modalities of the Quranic revelations become clear through indications within the Holy Quran itself. Additionally, Imams Nasa’i, Bayhaqi, al-Hakim, Ibn Abi Shaybah, Tabarani, and others have reported several narrations from Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) which affirm that the first descent of the Noble Quran was to the firmament of the world and took place all at one time while the Holy Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) was blessed with the second descension gradually. (al-Itqan 1:41)

Explaining the wisdom behind the first descension of the Noble Quran on the firmament facing the world, Imam Abu Shamah states that it aimed at demonstrating the exalted majesty of the Noble Quran and at the same time inform the angels that it was the last scripture meant to be sent down for the guidance of the people of this earth.

Imam Zarqani in his Manahil al-‘Irfan additionally points out that the purpose of the two separate descents was to affirm that the Book is free from any doubt about its Divinity and that apart from its preservation in the memory of the Holy Prophet (upon him blessings and peace), it is also preserved in two other places, namely the Preserved Tablet and Bayt al-‘Izzah. (Manahil al-‘Irfan 1:39)

It is generally agreed upon by the scholars that the second gradual descension upon the heart of the Holy Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) began when he was forty years of age. According to the widely-accepted view based on authentic reports, this descent commenced on the Night of Power. This was also the same date on which, eleven years later, the Battle of Badr would came to pass. However, nothing definite can be said about the exact date of Ramadan when this night fell. There are some reports which identify it to be the seventeenth Ramadan while others place it on the nineteenth, and still others indicate the night of the twenty- seventh. (Tafsir Ibn Jarir 10:7)

The First Verses to be Revealed

It is authentically reported that the first verses to be revealed to the Holy Prophet were the initial verses of Surat al-‘Alaq. According to Sahih al-Bukhari, Sayyidah ‘A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrates that the very first revelations came to the Holy Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) through true dreams. Thereafter began an inner urge to worship in seclusion and meditate.

During this period, he would spend night after night in the Cave of Hira and remain in seclusion devoted to worship until one day Allah sent an angel to the cave and the first thing he said was, “Iqra’ (Read, or recite)!”

The Holy Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) replied: “I am unable to read/recite”.  The subsequent events were described by the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, himself. He states, “The angel then embraced me so hard that I was in much difficulty. Then he let go of me and said again, ‘Read/Recite!’ I again replied, ‘I am unable to read/recite.’ The angel embraced me again even harder and then let go, saying, ‘Read/Recite!’ I again replied, ‘I am unable to read/recite.’ He embraced me a third time and then let go, reciting: “Read, [O Prophet,] in the name of your Lord who created! He has created man from a clinging clot. Read! For your Lord is the most Gracious [One], who has taught man what he has known not!” (Surat al-‘Alaq, 96:1-5)

These were the first verses to be revealed. Thereafter, a period of three years passed without any further revelation. This is known as the period of fatrat al-wahi (or pause from revelation). After three years, the same angel who had visited the Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) in the Cave of Hira’ appeared before him between the sky and the earth and read to him the verses of Surat al-Muddaththir. Thereafter, the process of wahi continued again.

The Makki and Madani Verses

You may have noticed that the titles of various chapters of the Quran denote them to be makki (or Meccan, Makkan, Makkiyyah) or madani (Medinan, Medinite, Madaniyyah). It is essential to understand the exact connotation of these terms. Most the Quranic commentators believe that a makki verse is that verse which was revealed before the Prophet’s arrival in Madinah after his migration from Makkah. Others purport that makki verses are those that were revealed in the city of Makkah and madani verses are those that were revealed in Madinah. Most of the commentators, however, maintain that this view is incorrect because there are several verses which were not revealed in Makkah but because they were revealed in before Hijrah are classified as makki. Hence the verses that were revealed at Mina, ‘Arafat, during the Mi‘raj (Ascension), and even during the migration from Makkah to Madinah are classified as makki verses. Similarly, there were many verses which were not revealed in Madinah yet are still labeled madani.

The Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) undertook several journeys after the migration in which he even travelled hundreds of miles away from Madinah, yet all the verses revealed on these journeys have been classified as madani, so much so that even the verses that were revealed in Makkah itself or in its surrounding areas during the Conquest of Makkah or the Treaty of Hudaybiyah are classified as madani. Hence the verse, “Surely, Allah commands you to fulfill trust obligations towards those entitled to them (4:58)”, is madani although it was revealed in Makkah. (al- Burhan 1:88, Manahil al-‘Irfan, 1:88)

Then there are some surahs which are either wholly makki or wholly madani. For instance, Surat al-Muddaththir is wholly makki and Surat Aal ‘Imran is entirely madani. It also so happens that some surahs as a whole are makkan but contain one or more madani verses. For example, Surat al-A‘raf is a makki surah but several verses within it are madani.  Conversely, Surat al-Hajj is madani but four of its verses are makki.

It should thus be clear that the classification of a surah as makki or madani is based on the nature of the majority of its verses, although occasionally a surah is classified as makki because its initial verses were revealed before the Migration, although the subsequent verses were revealed afterwards. (Manahil al-‘Irfan 1:192)

Characteristics of Makki and Madani Verses

After a thorough analysis of both makki and madani surahs, the scholars of exegesis (tafsir) discovered a set of characteristics that aid in identifying whether a surah is makki or madani. Some of these attributes are universal while others only hold true most of the time. The universal rules are as follows:

1. Every surah in which the word كلّا (never) appears is makki. This word has been used 33 times in 15 different surahs, and all such occur in the second half of the Quran.

2. Every surah containing a verse of prostration (ayat sajdat al-tilawah) is makki. This rule only applies if one takes the Hanafi stance in regards to the verses of prostration, since according to them there is no verse of prostration in the madani Surat al-Hajj. According to Imam Shafi‘i, however, there is a verse of prostration in Surat al-Hajj and so this chapter of the Quran would thus be the exception to the rule.
3. Every surah, with the exception of Surat al-Baqarah, in which the story of Adam and Iblis finds mention is makki.

4. Every surah in which permission for jihad or a description of its injunctions is given is madani.

5. Every ayah in which there is mention of the hypocrites is madani. Note that the verses on the hypocrites in Surat al-‘Ankabut are madani although the surah as a whole is makki.

The following characteristics are general and apply to most cases, but with exceptions as well:

1. In makki surahs, generally the form of address used is يا أيها الناس (O people!), while in madani surahs it is يا أيها الذين آمنوا (O you who believe!).

2. Makki surah and ayahs are generally short and concise while madani verses and chapters are long and detailed.

3. Makki surahs generally deal topics such as affirmation of the oneness of Allah, prophethood, affirmation of the Hereafter, the panorama of the Resurrection, words of comfort for the Holy Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) and events relating to previous nations. The number of injunctions and laws in these surahs is significantly smaller in comparison to the madani surahs where family and social laws, injunctions of war, and expositions of limits (hudud) and duties appear frequently.

4. Makki surahs speak of confrontation with idolaters while madani surahs speak of confrontation with the People of the Book and hypocrites.

5. The style of makki surahs contains more rhetoric devices, as they contain many metaphors, similes, and allegories, along with the use of extensive vocabulary. Conversely, the style of the madani surahs is comparatively simple.

This difference in the style of makki and madani surahs owes its origin to a difference in environment, circumstances, and addressees. During the Makkan stage of Islam, Muslims deal primarily with the idolaters of Arabia as no Islamic state yet existed. Hence, during this period more emphasis was laid on the correction of faith and beliefs, reformation of morals, logical refutation of the idolaters, and the miraculous nature of the Holy Quran.

On the other hand, an Islamic state had been established in Madinah. People were coming into the fold of Islam in large numbers. Idolaters stood refuted already at an intellectual level, and the ideological confrontation was now wholly directed towards the People of the Book. Therefore, greater attention was laid on education in injunctions, laws, limits and duties, and on the refutation of the People of the Book. The style and mode of speech was adopted accordingly. (Manahil al-‘Irfan 198-232)

The Gradual Revelation of the Quran

It was mentioned earlier that the Noble Quran was not revealed to the Holy Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) suddenly or instantly at one time. Rather, it was revealed in piecemeal over the span of nearly twenty-three years. At times, Jibra’il (upon him be peace) came with a single verse or even a small portion of a verse. Then there were times when several verses would be revealed at once. The smallest portion of the Quran to be revealed was غير أولى الضرر  (al-Nisa’, 4:94) which forms part of a longer verse. On the other hand, the whole of Surat al-An‘am was revealed at one time. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir 2:122)

Rather than being revealed all at once, why was the Quran revealed little by little? The polytheists of Arabia, accustomed to hearing long eulogies in one sitting, had themselves posed this question to the Holy Prophet (upon him blessings and peace). Allah Almighty took it upon Himself to answer the question in the following words:

Moreover, those who disbelieve have said: If only the Quran was sent down to him all at once, [then truly it would be from God]! Yet even so [is it revealed gradually], so that We may set firm your heart with it, [O Prophet]; thus have We recited it [to you] in a measured recital. And never do they bring forth for you any [false argument by way of example, but that We have brought forth for you the truth [of it] and [its] best exposition. (Surat al-Furqan, 25:32-33)

Imam Razi has presented several reasons for the gradual revelation of the Quran in his exegesis of the above verse. Below is a summary of his presentation of what he says:

1. The Holy Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) was unlettered (ummi). He could not read or write, hence if the entire Quran had been revealed at one time it would have been difficult to remember and document. On the other hand, Sayyiduna Musa (upon him be peace) was well-lettered and so the Torah was revealed to him as a complete scripture at one time.
2.  If the entire Quran had been revealed all at once, immediate compliance of all its injunctions would have become obligatory and this would have contradicted the wisdom of gradualness that is of the objectives of the Shari‘ah.
3. The Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) was subject to torture on a daily basis. That Jibra’il (upon him be peace) came, again and again, with the words of the Noble Quran, made his stand against these tortures bearable and gave strength to his heart.

4. A large portion of the Quran is devoted to answers given to questions posed by the people, and other portions deal with the details of particular events. Therefore, the revelation of those verses was appropriate at the time when those questions were asked or when those events came to pass. This increased the insight of Muslims, and when the Quran unfolded that which was unseen, its truth became all the more manifest. (al-Tafsir al-Kabir 6:336)

Causes of Revelation

Verses of the Quran are of two types. The first type of verses comprises those that Allah Almighty sent down on His own and that were not caused by some particular event nor prompted by a question. The second type comprises those verses that were revealed in reference to some incident or enquiry. These events or enquiries are often termed the “background” or “causes” of these verses. In the terminology of the commentators, this background or causes are called the asbab al-nuzul (lit. causes of revelation) or the sha’n al-nuzul (lit. background of revelation). For instance, the following verse in Surat al-Baqarah:

Moreover, you shall not marry idolatrous women until they believe [in God alone]. For a believing bondwoman is most surely better than an idolatrous woman – even if she should please you. (Surat al-Baqarah, 2:221)

The verse was revealed in the wake of a particular event. During the Days of Ignorance, Sayyiduna Marthad ibn Abi Marthad al-Ghanawi (may Allah be pleased with him) had a relationship with a woman named ‘Anaq. After embracing Islam, he migrated to Madinah while ‘Anaq stayed behind in Makkah. After some time, Sayyiduna Marthad (may Allah be pleased with him) visited Makkah for some business. ‘Anaq came to him with an invitation to sin. Sayyiduna Marthad (may Allah be pleased with him) flatly refused, stating: “Islam has come between you and I.” However, he was willing to marry her if the Prophet (upon him blessings and peace) approved. Upon returning to Madinah, Marthad (may Allah be pleased with him) sought permission to marry the woman. Thereupon, this verse was revealed, and marriage to polytheistic women was thus prohibited. (Asbab al-Nuzul of Wahidi 38)

This event is the sha’n or sabab of revelation behind the verse mentioned above. The background of revelation is, therefore, very important in the exegesis of the Quran. There are many verses the meaning of which cannot be correctly understood unless the circumstances underlying their revelation are known.

[Taken from the introduction to Mufti Muhammad Shafi‘ al-‘Uthmani’s Ma‘arif al-Qur’an and Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani’s An Approach to the Quranic Sciences with language and content editing by Bilal Ali. Translation of Quranic verses has been taken from Ahmad Zaki Hammad’s The Gracious Quran]

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    • By ummtaalib
      The Bani Isra’il and the Muslim Ummah
      [Lecture on the Occasion of Eid at Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama rendered by Hadhrat Maulana Muhammad Manzoor Nu’mani (rahimahullah)]
      Translated by Maulana Zaheer Ishaq
      My respected brothers and elders, on this occasion I want to make mention of something which I feel is of utmost importance. Therefore, listen attentively.
      Those of you who are briefly acquainted with the subject matter of Qur’an either by studying the translation or by participating in the gatherings of tafsir of the Qur’an will know that from time to time, mention is made of the Bani Israil. The Qur’an Majeed is not a book of history, neither is it a story book, but rather it is a book of guidance. Making mention of the incident of the Bani Israil so often is also for this very purpose.
      Who were the Bani Israil? Understand it in this manner that they were the Muslims of that era, who not only believed in the Ambiya (alayhimus salaam), but were of their progeny as well. Hadhrat Ibrahim (alayhis salaam) had a son, Hadhrat Ishaq (alayhis salaam), and Hadhrat Ishaq (alayhis salaam) had a son, Hadhrat Yaqub (alayhis salaam) whose title was Isra’il. Yaqub (alayhis salaam)’s progeny are therefore called the Bani Isra’il (Children of Isra’il).
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      This was their general condition – as is our general condition. It was not such that during the time of Nabi ﷺ, not even one person amongst them was not on the straight path. In many places in the Qur’an it has been mentioned clearly that amongst the People of the book – the Bani Israil also there were many pious and upright individuals also, as it appears in the Qur’an:
      That is because amongst them are priests and monks, and they are not proud. And when they listen to what has been revealed to the Messenger (Nabi ﷺ) you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of the truth they have recognised. They say, “Our Lord! We believe, so write us down among the witnesses”. [Surah Maidah: 82-83]
      In this ayah, mention has been made regarding the Christians of Ethiopia that amongst them there were such upright scholars and pious people in whom there was no pride. Furthermore, Allah Ta’ala mentions their condition that when they listen to the ayat of the Qur’an, they immediately recognize the truth and tears flow from their eyes and they supplicate to Allah Ta’ala saying: “O our Lord! We bring Iman, therefore count us amongst those who testify to the truth.”
      Nevertheless, from amongst the People of the book – Bani Israil there were also such individuals who were pious, sincere and brought true Iman but as far as the general masses are concerned, there condition was just as I have mentioned.
      In a Hadith, Nabi ﷺ mentioned:
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      At another juncture in the Qur’an, Allah Ta’ala says:
      And (remember) when we took a covenant from the Bani Israil, (saying): Worship none but Allah (alone) and be dutiful and good to parents, and to relatives, and ro orphans and the poor, and speak good to people, and perform Salah and give Zakah. Then you turned away, except a few of you, while you showing aversion. [Surah Baqarah: 83]
      In this ayah, Allah Ta’ala makes mention of those major commands which He commanded the Bani Israil with, such as Tawhid (the belief in the Oneness of Allah Ta’ala), to be kind to parents, relatives, orphans, to fulfil the rights of the needy. He also told them to talk kindly to all human kind without exception, to establish Salah (prayer) and to give Zakah.
      As you may have already realized, these are the fundamental principles and teachings on which emphasis was placed in the teachings of every Nabi and divine book of Allah Ta’ala. The fundamental teachimgs of the Qur’an and the Shari’ah which Nabi ﷺ brought are the very same. The Bani Israil also received these basic teachings, but what happened thereafter?? Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala says:
      Thereafter (after a few days) you turned away from these fundamental teachings except for a few individuals from amongst you. [Surah Baqarah: 83]
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      The Qur’an has also emphasised, along with these fundamental principles, that the Bani Israil should not kill one another unjustly, nor should they exile one another from their homes without a good reason. Thereafter the Qur’an clearly mentions that just as they turned away from the fundamental principles, they in exactly the same manner turned away from the other special commands from Allah Ta’ala. However, they practiced on a small portion of the special commands of Allah Ta’ala, in which they saw some personal or national benefit and overlooked the vast majority of Allah’s commands. The Qur’an has drawn a picture of this misconduct of theirs in the following words:
      Has your condition become such that you obey some of Allah’s commands and reject others. [Surah Baqarah: 85]
      In other words, you treat some commands of Allah Ta’ala as a Mu’min (believer) would treat them and with others you treat the commands as a Kafir (disbeliever) would treat them.
      You and I should ponder deeply. Allah Ta’ala regards those commands which are practiced upon as ‘Iman’ (belief) and those commands which are not practiced as Kufr (disbelief). In other words, not practicing upon Allah’s commands is tantamount to Kufr (disbelief) even though a person verbally says he believes. From this we understand what the real Iman is upon in which Allah Ta’ala’s promises are based and what is that actually Kufr upon which Allah Ta’ala severe punishment are based in this world and the hereafter.
      The Qur’an informs the Bani Israil of the severe punishment of this behaviour of theirs. Allah Azza Wa Jal says:
      Then what is the recompense of those who do among you, except disgrace in the life of this world and on the day of resurrection   they shall be condemned to the most grievous torment. And Allah Ta’ala is not unaware of what you do. [Surah Baqarah:85]
      That nation whose condition is such that majority of its followers practice on some commands of Allah Ta’ala and breaks most commands, what can its end result be except that in this world it will be afflicted with perpetual disgrace. Thereafter, their matter will not be completed but rather on the Day of Resurrection they will face an extremely severe punishment.
      Now I wish to tell you that after mentioning the condition of Bani Israil and being informed of their history, in reality a mirror has been placed in front of us and as if we have been told that keep on assessing your condition in this mirror and understand well that before you there was a nation who like you were the Muslims of their era and believed in the Ambiya (alayhimus salaam). For a few days they thread on the correct path and Allah’s mercies and blessings enshrouded them.
      However, gradually their condition became such that the majority practically turned away from most of the commands of Allah Ta’ala. As a result according to the law of Allah Ta’ala all mercies and blessings were snatched away and disgrace and humiliation took their place.
      Therefore understand this well that the day your general condition becomes like the Bani Israil, your end result will be exactly the same as theirs. What was the Bani Israil’s end result? At other junctures in the Qur’an much more details are mentioned. At one place Allah Ta’ala says:
      So, when the promise came of the first of the two, we sent against you slaves of Ours given to terrible warfare. They entered the very innermost part of your homes. And it was a promise fulfilled.
      In this Ayah, Allah Ta’ala clearly states that when the Bani Israil violated the commandments of Allah Ta’ala and chose the path of evil and corruption, we placed over them some of our powerful slaves. Who were these powerful slaves? They were not some pious, Allah fearing people  but rather the worst of the disbelievers and arrogant people. However sometimes when a person wants to punish and diagrace someone, then the bhangis (scavengers) are called to beat him up, in order to disgrace him.
      The Qur’an tells us that when the Bani Israil, who were the children of the Ambiya (alayhimus salaam) broke the commands of Allah Ta’ala and started living according to their desires and passions, Allah placed such disbelievers over them, who were oppressive, unjust, hard hearted and merciless. What did these unjust disbelievers do to the Bani Israil? The Qur’an tells us that city after city, village after village and town after town was completely and totally destroyed. They looted houses, set fire to them, killed, murdered and butchered people. Not only that but it is also recorded in the history of the Bani Israil that the oppressors took the copies of the book of Allah (Taurat) and burnt it in front of their eyes. So besides losing wealth and property, their Deen and spirituality was also destroyed.
      My respected elders and brothers! Just as was mentioned, you and I need to assess ourselves in front of this mirror of the Bani Israil and take stock of our lives. By means of the final book, the Qur’an and the final Prophet, Nabi ﷺ, those guidlines and commands which we have been given are the very same guidline and commands which the previous nations used to receive by means of every Nabi, among which the very first is Tauhid. What is Tauhid? Tauhid is not only reciting the kalimah with our tongues. Tauhid is actually a reality; a condition and conviction of the heart. Conviction that Allah Ta’ala, who is alone and has no partners, is the only deity and owner of everything and to worship him alone, to have hope only in Him and to fear only Him. To have firm belief that in this entire system of the universe, only Allah’s commands makes everything happen and nothing happens without His command. Death is only in his hands. Life is only in His hands. Sickness is only in His hands. Honour and disgrace is also only in His hands. Hence worship and submission is only for Him and Du’a is to be made only unto him. To submit only to Him and to love only Him. This is Tauhid. To deviate even a little from this cannot be rolerated by Allah Ta’ala. In fact, to turn our attention even for one moment away from Allah to some other being will never be tolerated by Allah. Let alone thinking that some pious living saint or some saint who has left this world can help in any way, whether it will be in that barakah (blessings) will be received through him in my business, or a court case would be won, or I will receive children. So I swear by Allah Azza Wa Jal, this is clear and open shirk (ascribing partners) with Allah Ta’ala.
      After Tauhid the most emphasised commands of Allah are Salah and Zakah. Those people who know and understand the tone and language of the Qur’an and know the status these actions hold which Rasulullah explained to the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) and which they understood, they will know that without Salah and Zakah a person cannot be a true believer. With whatever amount of sincerity and importance a Muslim will practice on these two commands, accordingly the light of Iman will enter his hearts and effect of Islam will enter his actions. Regarding Salah, understand this also that just to perform Salah and only read it is insufficient. Rather it is also necessary that the effort should be made to perform the best Salah. The inner and outer aspects of our Salah should gain some similarity with the Salah of Nabi. We should find out from the Ulama in our towns how Nabi ﷺ performed Salah, how his ruku, sajdah, qirat was etc. What was the condition of his heart, on what should we contemplate whilst recting Surah Fatihah or whilst reciting tasbeeh in ruku’ or sajdah?
      My dear brothers and elders! To make this effort concerning Salah is Fard (compulsory) upon us. If whilst endeavouring to perform Salah correctly and perfectly we pass away then whatever deficiency remains in our Salah, Allah Ta’ala will forgive us. If there is no effort at all to correct and perfect our Salah then we will have to suffer a great loss.
      Concerning Zakah, Nabi ﷺ took an oath and said that Zakah will never ever decrease a person’s wealth. Now, on the one hand is the word of Rasulullah ﷺ and on the other hand is Shaytan’s evil whispering to us that if you give Zakah you will be losing so much wealth. Now let us think for ourselves; do we have more conviction in the words of Rasulullah ﷺ or in our greatest enemy Shaytan’s lies and deception.
      Therefore respected friends, inform those ulama’ who are close to you regarding your financial condition and ask them whether Zakah is fard (obligatory) on you or not.
      Besides Tauhid, Salah and Zakah, there are many other actions which Allah Ta’ala has commanded us to fulfil such as fasting, pilgrimage etc and there are many qualities which Allah Ta’ala has made incumbent upon us to inculcate into our lives such as honesty, self-sacrifice, kindness, advising politely etc. Similarly, there are many evil actions and qualities which we have been commanded to refrain from. To have concern and to make effort to save oneself from these evil actions and qualities is also necessary. In fact at times these become priority. Due to these evil actions and evil qualities, such rust and dirt become comes on the heart of a person that due to it whatever a good actions a person does, it does not have an effect on his heart and soul.
      When one does plating of an old utensil, firstly one cleans off the dirt and rust, otherwise the plating will not remain intact. That is why I mentioned that to make an effort to abstain from those actions due to which rust comes on the heart is sometimes even more important.
      Before me there are thousands of youth sitting. I appeal to you, O Youth! O reciters of the kalimah of Muhammad ﷺ! The root of all evils in today’s times is the cinema, T.V and V.C.R. Every form of sin is promoted on it and every evil stems from it. For Allah’s sake, make a resolution to specially shun these evils. I say again, O my beloved youth! I appeal to you, take pity on yourselves, today is a blessed day (day of ‘Id). Today, in fact now, make a pact with yourself that you will not even go near these most terrible forms of evil and filth which not only destroys our wealth but also destroys our health and worse than that destroys our spirituality and our Deen.
      Believe me, I take an oath and say that when you go towards the T.V., V.C.R or cinema, Allah Ta’ala becomes angry with you, Angels curse you, Nabi’s ﷺ pure soul becomes restless when he receives news about it, that my ummati (my follower) who takes my name, where is he going to!?
      Listen to this also my beloved youth! Whatever sins you have committed, have total regret and ask Allah Ta’ala sincerily to forgive you but do not lose hope. Allah Ta’ala is most Merciful, Most Forgiving. Allah Ta’ala’s Mercy overpowers His anger. Never mind forgiving years of sin, a person may be an idolator and disbeliever all his life, yet Allah Ta’ala forgives him also if he sincerily repents. When a servant of Allah Ta’ala commits a sin and asks Allah Ta’ala to forgive him, Allah Ta’ala forgives him. If he repeatedly commits sins and repeatedly asks Allah Ta’ala sincerely to forgive him, Allah Ta’ala forgives him. Allah doesn’t say: “O my slave! You have disobeyed me for too long, now I will not forgive you”. Allah continues forgiving as long as we continue asking sincerely for forgiveness, and not only does Allah forgive but He loves the one who seeks repentance.
      Allamah Ibnul Qayyim has given a beautiful example to illustrate this. After explaining Allah Azza Wa Jal’s quality of Mercy and His Compassion and His Kindness with his slaves, he mentioned an incident of a person who was totally deviated, doing all sorts of evil. He once passed a street where a mother had opened the door and kicked her child out of the house. When the child was out of the house, the mother closed the door from inside. The child, crying and sobbing, carried on walking quite far. Then after reaching a certain point, stopped and thought to himself, where do I go from here, who will care for me, who will look after me lile my mother? With these thoughts in mind, with a broken heart, he returned to his own house. The door was closed. He placed his head on the doorstep and laid down till he fell asleep. The mother came, opened the door, and seeing her beloved child asleep in this condition, took pity on him. Her motherly love overpowered her and she started crying. She picked him up and hugged him, carressed him, kissed him and told him: “O son! You have seen now, who is there for you besides me? You hurt me when you chose to lead a life of evil and disobedience. You angered me against my nature. Now listen! You are mine and I am yours. Whatever I have in my possession is only for you.”
      My brothers! This eye opening incident which Allamah Ibnul Qayyim has mentioned is not only a lesson for that one person but it is a great lesson for me, you and all the sinners living in the world. The amount of love and compassion a mother has in her bosom for her children, I swear by Allah Ta’ala, Allah has more love and mercy for His bondsmen than that mother.
      Therefore I say, don’t become despondent of Allah’s Mercy. Repent to Allah for all the sins we have committed, show regret, but don’t lose hope of receiving Allah’s mercy. Return towards Allah, lower your head at His doorstep and cry over your sins like how a baby cries. Then see how Allah’s doors of mercy open upon us, then see how Allah enshrouds us in His compassion, how He gives us courage and expands our hearts, how He guides us, how He shows us the correct path, in fact He holds our hands and takes us, how Allah delivers us from a life of total disobedience and negligence to salvation.
      My respected elders and friends! We should learn a lesson from from the incidents of the Bani Israil which Allah Ta’ala has mentioned to us in the Qur’an Majeed. As long as the Bani Israil fulfilled the commandments of Allah, He kept them with prosperity, peace, tranquility, happiness and honour and he made them examples for others, but when the majority started breaking most of the divine commands, Allah put a merciless and oppressive enemy to rule over them who appallingly disgraced them.
      Now, we should reflect upon our condition in this mirror. Is our condition not exactly the same!? Isn’t there corruption? Isn’t our wealth being usurped and looted? Aren’t our homes, shops, Masajids being set alight? This is all a punishment from Allah Ta’ala, because our majority and in general the Ummah is violating most of the commands of Allah Ta’ala. Allah did not have any relationship with the Bani Israil who were the progeny of the Ambiya (alayhimus salaam) nor has Allah Ta’ala any relationship with us – the Ummah of the seal of all Prophets, Nabi ﷺ. What really matters to Allah Ta’ala is our actions and ways and that obedience and worship of ours which is in accordance to the way shown to us by Nabi ﷺ. Is it not true that most of our brothers have violated and disobeyed most of the commands of Allah Ta’ala. If it is true and definitely it is true, then ponder, what should we do to rectify our present condition?
      Whatever happens in the world, ponder, can it happen without the command of Allah? Can anything happen in this world because of somebody’s control, somebody’s power or someone’s intention besides Allah’s? Thereafter ponder over the fact that if Allah Ta’ala decides something, is there anyone who can change that decision? No! Never!
      Nobody can change the decision made by Allah Ta’ala, nor can anyone even challenge it. May Allah bestow us with true Iman upon this reality that whatever happens to individuals or nations only happens by the decision of Allah, Allah’s treatment neither with individuals nor with nations is without a system. Any nation who obeys the commands of Allah Ta’ala and follows the way of life which is beloved to Allah Ta’ala will be deserving of Allah’s excellent treatment in this world and in the hereafter.
      Therefore friends! Today, during this blessed day, make this decision, make this promise to Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala, that Insha Allah, I will inculcate every command of Allah in my life and I will make a concerted effort to revive and establish every command of Allah in the entire Ummah.
      I do not want to go into intricacies. The basic commands which were given to the Bani Israil are the foundation of that way of life which is pleasing to Allah. Tauhid, Salah, Zakah, kindness to parents, relatives, orphans and the needy and speaking kindly and being kind to all humankind, these are the basic commands which, if practised upon, the temperment of practicing on the whole of Deen will be inculcated. Therefore make a firm intention to fulfill these commands and make an effort and give sacrifice to establish the entire Deen in the entire ummah using this umumi (general) effort.
      Alhamdulillah, we are in a time when this umumi (general) effort is taking place in the entire world. If it is done in the correct way, according to the proper principles, keeping in mind the importance of Du’a, then Insha Allah, by means of this effort once again, the direction of the minds, hearts and temperament of this Ummah will be rectified and the inclination to discard Allah’s commands will be terminated. Then Allah Ta’ala will make the decisions of good conditions prevailing and then whatever effort will be made, its results will turn out positive and effective.
      My brothers! What I intended to say, Allah Ta’ala made me say. May Allah make me, you and all the Muslims to practice, so that on the day of Qiyamah, I am not taken to task due to the sin of not practicing on what I preach and so that you do not become from amongst those who who will be taken to task for listening to the talks of Deen, yet not changing our lives.
      Now, let us from our hearts, turn our attention to Allah Ta’ala, and make Du’a with this firm conviction that Allah is All-Seeing and Omnipresent. Allah Ta’ala countless angels are present. The Masjid’s atmosphere is filled with these angels. We would be able to see them if we possessed ‘real eyes’. Now in the presence of these angels, make them bear witness that we are making a pact we Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala.
      O Allah! We are Your slaves, present in front of You. We bear witness with our hearts and tongues that there is none worthy of worship besides You, everything is only in Your hands and we bear witness that Muhammad ﷺ is your true Nabi. We have accepted his Deen. We believe in You and in Your Nabi. O Allah! Enlighten our hearts with the Nur (light) of Iman. Do not deprieve anyone of us. O Allah! Grant all those present here the reality of Imaan, these elders, these youth, these beloved ones, these brothers. Bless each one of us with perfect Imaan. O Allah! We confess that our lives until now, most of it has passed in disobeying your commandments. From head to toe, outwardly and inwardly, our entire bodies were used in disobeying your commands. O Allah! We are seeking forgiveness, forgive us, we are repenting, accept our repentance.
      On this auspicious day, in this auspicious gathering we all make a firm intention to shun sin and not to disobey You anymore. O Allah! Accept our intentions, and make it firm and sincere. Shaytan and our carnal desires and the ones who drive us to sin. Help us against these two enemies. Without Your help we cannot overpower the. O Allah! Make Deen prevalent. Whoever is involved in the efforts of Deen in whichever way, they are concerned about Deen, O Allah!, accept their efforts and concern. O Allah! Help them and enable them to work in the correct way, protect them from all types of trails, and protect them from Shaytan and their carnal desires.
      O Allah! Take pity on us, make a decision of mercy to descend upon us, nobody can alter Your decision. Save us from the Firs of Jahannum and merely out of Your kindness grant us Jannah (Paradise). O Allah! Protect us from negligence. Make us not unmindful of our Aakhirah, Jannah, Jahannam (hell), the grave, the day of resurrection. Have mercy upon us during every stage of the Hereafter.
      O Allah! Do not deal with us according to what we deserve according to our evil actions. O Allah! Deal with us according to Your kindness and Mercy.
      Source
    • By ummtaalib
      Qur’anic Methodology
      Levels of understanding Qur’ān
      To recite Qur’ān without knowing its meaning. Since Qur’ān is kalāmUllah, they will get the nūr through recitation even if they don’t understand it. To know the translation. They understand the vocabulary and know what the Arabic words mean. To have a deep understanding. They know the context in which the surahs were revealed, their connection, relevance, and interpretations over time etc. To have the feelings of Qur’ān.  On top of their deep understanding, they also have an emotional connection with it.  There are some people who do not understand Qur’ān but they keep crying while reciting it. While there are also some people who know the meanings but they cannot feel it. For example, we all know the meaning of Surah al-Fātiḥah, but how many of us truly feel it during salah?
      Allah (swt) says that it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you [Q. 2,216]. We can use our mind to come up with different interpretation for this. But Imām Ghazālī (rah) writes that sometimes a person commits a sin and he dislikes the sin so much that he repents and becomes even closer to Allah (swt).
      How can the average man get guidance through Qur’ān?
      There are many people in ummah who are illiterate. Then some people can understand it only on the surface-level. The question here is that there are so many people who do not academically study Qur’ān so how then can guidance be provided to the average man? 
      Our scholars have divided Qur’ān in different topics such as taqwā, haya, sila reḥmī, etc. Different relevant verses are collected on a topic and they are explained in simple terms so people can get the gist of it.  
      In Christian communities they sometimes have a bible-reading group. People form a circle – then the average man is asked to read and give meanings to words of bible. So these people explain whatever they can understand from their own minds. None of these people are scholars, they do not even know the original language of the bible.
      When Muslims use this approach, the problem is that they have no knowledge or amal. And they have a very high chance of failing in doing the right tafsīr.  
      For Islamic scholarship a person should have mastered several different subjects before getting into tafsīr or translation of Qur’ān.  
      Ḥadrat Shāh WalīUllah Dehelvī (rah) was a big scholar of subcontinent. Ḥadīth sciences have reached us through him. He states that there are three levels for understanding Qur’ān . 
      Level of the general public – to know the core teachings for example the basics of beliefs  Level of the scholars – they have an academic approach towards Qur’ān and they will understand it on a scholarly level  Level of the Awliyā – their understanding is such that they feel the feeling of every word in Qur’ān   Difference between Makkī and Madnī Surahs 
      The ones before hijrah are Makkī and after hijrah are Madnī. There are certain differences in Makkī and Madnī: 
      The style of explaining words is different. Makkī Surahs are smaller and have more rhyme and they appear clipped – in parts.   The audience is different. Makkī is by and large mukhātib (addressing) to kuffār. In Madnī the audience are Muslims. Subject matter is different. Makkī has more ayahs about Day of Judgement, Jannah and Jahannum. They also talk about the historical incidents of previous nations at length. Madnī ayahs are more about aḥkām (laws) like ṭalāq, and ikhlāqiyat e.g. do not raise your voice in front of Rusūl Allah (sws) [Q. 49,2].  Sources of understanding Qur’ān  
      To understand Qur’ān through Qur’ān. For example Surah al-Fātiḥah says guide us on the path whom You have blessed [Q. 1,7], while another ayah explains that these blessed people are siddiqeen, shuhuda, saliheen… [Q. 4,69]  To understand Qur’ān through Sunnah. Rusūl Allah (sws) was asked to recite the ayahs and then to explain them as well. This is waḥī-ghayr matlū (from tilāwah; waḥī that is not recited, that did not become a part of Qur’ān). It means they were not the exact words of Allah (swt) but the meanings were from Allah (swt) and Rusūl Allah (sws) would state it in his own words. This is ḥadīth. In addition to ḥadīth (verbal) the actions, forbidding of actions or permissibility of actions by Rusūl Allah (sws) all fall in sunnah category. This is also used to understand Qur’ān.   To understand Qur’ān through Aqwāl (quotes) of Ṣahāba (ra). All Ṣahāba (ra) received the knowledge of Islam on a kāmil (perfect/complete) level through Rusūl Allah (sws). Some of them were more involved in administrative tasks (like Ḥadrat Umar (ra)) while some were more involved in learning and transmission of knowledge (like Ḥadrat Abū Huraira (ra)), but they all had the complete guidance. To understand Qur’ān through history. Scholars will verify the sources of history. Not every history will be considered valid. Scholars do not derive rulings from this method but they can use history to explain certain stories or incidents. Also, these historical facts are not necessary for guidance of people, but just to develop their understanding of a particular time period.   Q. If an ayah was revealed regarding some kafir or munafiq, will that apply to us today in this day and age? 
      Every ayah of the Qur’ān has a general meaning, even though it might be specifically related to a certain person or a historical event. It will not just be for that specific time – Qur’ān is not time-bound. It will have a generic meaning and it will be applicable even in this day and age.  
      Knowledge based approach: To have an in-depth knowledge of Qur’ān, ḥadīth and related sciences and coming to a conclusion on the basis of that deep knowledge.  
      Pull quote journalism: To have a pre-conceived notion and then to look for ayahs or ḥadīth to support that point of view.
      Muḥkamāt: Certain ayahs of Qur’ān are clear to understand. There is no room for any other meaning. Muḥkamāt means something that has a clear meaning. Qur’ān says that in it are muḥkamāt (verses with precise meanings) — they are the foundation of the book — and others mutashābihāt (unspecific) [Q. 3,7]
      Mutashābihāt: It does not mean doubt. It means that it can hold different meanings and each meaning will be closely associated to one another and you would not know which meaning is the intended one on the surface-level.
      For example: Allah (swt) is istawa (over) the Throne [Q. 32,4]. We do not know what this means because we cannot fully grasp the greatness of Allah (swt). Some say it means Allah’s qudrat is over the Throne, etc. But at the end they do say that only Allah (swt) knows best the real meaning behind this verse.
      But the person who has a khot (fault) in their hearts will go after such ayahs. They might say that Allah (swt) has a physicality like the creation. While what they should have said was: Amanna bih (we believe in this). 
      Why has Allah (swt) told us of these mutashābihāt? Qur’ān is Umm al-Kitāb. It has mostly muḥkamāt that holds guidance for us. Sifat (attribute) of īmān requires it to be bil ghayb (on blind faith). In Qur’ān at times Allah (swt) will point towards this sifat and what we have to say is that whatever it is, we believe in it. Deviant people will try to interpret it from their intellect. Because they think our intellect has the ability to understand everything.  
      One of the reasons people leave Islam is because such interpretations confuses them. This problem is becoming more common now. A woman once went to a cafe in Lahore and saw a group of children discussing how to tell their parents that they had become atheists.
      One philosophical assumption is that intellectually we are progressing and the human mind has reached the epitome of rationality in the evolutionary timeline and now there is nothing that we cannot understand intellectually. While Islamic understanding is that we have a rūh and our rūh also has a heart and that heart also has an intellect. Recent research also shows that our heart communicates with our brain that significantly effects how we perceive and react to the world.
      Tafsīr has different types:
      Some ayahs are very obvious to understand. People who know Arabic language can understand them just by reading. Some ayahs cannot be understood just by reading, but to know their meaning is necessary for everyone. Some ayahs hold meanings that are not necessary for everyone to know and only scholars would need to know them. Some ayahs hold meanings only known to Allah (swt). Such as ayat–i–mutashābihāt.   The beginning of tafsīr sciences
      When Qur’ān was revealed, Rusūl Allah (sws) would tell Ṣahāba (ra) its meaning, then Ṣahāba (ra) would memorize those ayahs and apply them in their lives. Some ayahs would be revealed in response to particular situations. Qur’ān was explained in detail to Ṣahāba (ra).  
      If a person has a good command on Arabic language, they can understand Qur’ān to a certain extent, but there is also a part that cannot be understood just with language. This is something said by Ḥadrat Ibn Abbās (ra) who was himself a great scholar.  
      For example, to set limit for fasting, Allah (swt) said that you should eat and drink at night until you can differentiate between the white and black threads [Q. 2:187]. A Ṣahābī (ra) literally took two threads, one black and the other white, and waited till he could tell the difference between the two. When he told Rusūl Allah (sws) about this, he (sws) replied that by black and white thread the night sky and the light on the sky was meant.  
      Reasons of Prophethood
      To recite Qur’ān To purify people (Ṣahāba (ra)) and the teachings of this purification would be taught generation after generation To explain the Qur’ān To teach wisdom through ḥadīth Rusūl Allah (sws) told us the meanings and explanations of Qur’ān.  
      Scope of Tafsīr
      Q. Why do we need contemporary tafsīr if the meanings and explanation was given by Rusūl Allah (sws)? 
      All the Ṣahāba (ra) had the knowledge of Qur’ān but some of them had more knowledge, because some spent more time with Rusūl Allah (sws) or dedicated their lives to ʾilm. Ḥadrat Ibn Masood (ra) said that there is no ayah of Qur’ān that anyone knows more than I do. If I would know of anyone who knew something that I did not, I would go and get that knowledge from them.
      Why did he say that, isn’t that ujub? Because when Rusūl Allah (sws) left, a lot of people entered Islam. Now people could have doubted that since Rusūl Allah (sws) has left, perhaps the knowledge has also left. Ṣahāba (ra) made this claim to let people know that we have preserved the knowledge so do not have doubt that the guidance has left us.  
      Scholars are the inheritors of Rusūl Allah (sws). It means that guidance and knowledge is still here. And scholars did not just get the knowledge, but also the feelings/kaifiyāt. 
      Personal Interpretation 
      Rusūl Allah (sws) made duʾā for Ḥadrat Ibn Abbās (ra) that O Allah give him understanding of deen and teach him interpretation of Qur’ān. This opens the door to interpretation. The meaning of this duʾā is that interpretation is there. But it also does not mean everyone can now interpret. 
      There are two extremes.  
      No Interpretation 
      Some say there should be no tafsīr, because even if you do it you are still wrong.  
      Mere Personal Opinion (IMO) 
      The other extreme is the Qur’ān reading-group where lay people interpret knowledge. Even people with surfacy knowledge should not be doing this, let alone people who do not even understand Arabic. Ye jo “apka khyal” hai na this is swimming in dangerous waters.  
      Some people do convert after just reading the translation. But to interpret Qur’ān one needs to have a lot of knowledge. In personal opinion then we have things like I’m always connected to Allah (swt) so I do not need salah, etc. Interpretation strictly on basis of opinion is forbidden. [ref?] They will end up ruining their own beliefs and that of others.  
      Well Founded Knowledge (WFK) 
      This is the in-depth knowledge of Qur’ānic sciences on the basis of which interpretation is done.
      History and Development of Tafsīr 
      Khulfā-i-Rāshidūn 
      At the time of Ṣahāba (ra) there were some writings, but most of the preservation was done through memorization (Arabs had a very sharp memory). The Qur’ān that had been written was compiled after the passing away of Rusūl Allah (sws).  
      Tabiʾīn 
      Tabiʾīn were teaching Taba-Tabiʾīn. They were also compiling tafsīr work. Some great scholars from the time of Ṣahāba (ra) had some great students. These Taba-Tabiʾīn started writing down the teachings of their teachers. There’s a sequence of sources that takes precedence in Qur’ānic sciences:
      For WFK, first and foremost Qur’ān Then its explanation through Rusūl Allah (sws) himself The explanation of Ṣahāba (ra) Sayings of Tabiʾīn Sayings of Taba-Tabiʾīn The tafsīr and aqwāl of pious predecessors Then on that scholars can build up their interpretation. They cannot say out of the blue that all these people have said this, but in my opinion this is what it means (as opposed to the accepted interpretation). This is what happens in scientific community as well. The greatest of scientists admit that they are standing on the shoulders of giants.
      Historical groups 
      Ṣahāba (ra) had traveled to spread out the knowledge and therefore different groups were formed in different regions. 
      Makkan Group: Ḥadrat Ibn Abbās (ra) and his students — ʾAtā Ibn Abi Razā and Ikramah (rah), etc.
      Madian Group: Ḥadrat Ubay Ibn ka’ab (ra) and his students Abū Āliya and Zaid Ibn Aslam (rah), etc.  
      Kufī Group: Ḥadrat Ḥasan Basrī (rah), etc. 
      We are never taught these things in our Islamic studies which is why students have a lot of doubts in their minds later on.  
      Naqlī ulūm: To quote the aqwāl of Ṣahāba (ra), Tabiʾīn (rah) etc.  
      Aqlī ulūm: To interpret on the basis of WFK. Not everyone can do it. According to one source you need to know 300 different ulūm before even qualifying for getting into this; in depth knowledge Arabic language, qirat, Qur’ān related knowledge — like knowledge of nasikh and mansūkh, in depth knowledge of fiqh, and those ayahs which ʿulamā have an ijmāʿ on, seerah, etc., etc. Tafsīr is an amānah and demands a high level of responsibility from the scholar.  
      Source
    • By Bint e Aisha
      Recitation by Mu'ayyid al-Mazen
      Surah 'Āli `Imrān 3:180
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