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Muharram & Aashura

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Muharram & Aashura

 

MUHARRAM is the first month of the Islamic, Hijrah calendar. It is one of the four sanctified months about which Allah Ta'ala says, 'The number of months in the sight of Allah are twelve (in a year) - So ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; Of them four are sacred: That is the right religion. So wrong not yourselves therein.' (Surah Taubah).

 

The four months, according to authentic Ahaadith, are the months of Zhul-Qa`dah, Zhul Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab. The sanctity of these four months was observed in the Shari'ah of all the Ambiyaa (Prophets) (AS).

 

'Allah Ta'ala made them (i.e. the four months) sacred and increased their sanctity. Hence declared a sin therein more severe and increased the virtue of good deeds and (also) the reward thereof.' (Ibn Katheer).

 

THE MONTH OF MUHARRAM

 

The best of fasts besides the month of Ramadan is the fast during Allah's month of Muharram and the best of Salaats besides the Fardh (obligatory Salaat) is the Tahajjud Salaah (performed after midnight). (Sahih Muslim).

 

THE DAY OF AASHURA (10th OF MUHARRAM)

 

The tenth of Muharram, known as the day of Aashura, is a very significant day in the Islamic calendar. The holy prophet Mohammed (SAW) has exhorted the Ummah to fast on this day. Hadhrat Aaisha (RA) reports that Nabi (SAW) ordered the observance of the fast of Aashura. However, when the fast of Ramadan became compulsory, Nabi (SAW) left the fast of Aashura (i.e. the compulsion). Thereafter, whosoever desired kept this fast and whosoever desired, (not to keep it) did not observe this fast'. ( Bukhari, Vol 1).

 

Ibn Abbaas (RA) says, 'I did not see Rasulullah (SAW) anxiously await the fast of any day, which he gave preference to over other days, but this day (of Aashura) and the month of Ramadan ( Bukhari, Vol. 1).

 

VIRTUE OF THE FAST OF AASHURA

 

With regard to the blessing of this fast, Nabi (SAW) was asked regarding it's virtue. He answered, 'It is a compensation for the sins of the past year.' i.e. the sins of one year that has just gone by will be forgiven. Muslim, Vol. 1).

Note: Only minor sins are forgiven. For the forgiveness of major sins, Towbah (repentance) is a prerequisite.

 

THE FAST OF AASHURA

 

Ibn Abbaas (RA) narrates that when Nabi (SAW) came to Madinah and found the Jews fasting on the day of Aashura, he inquired, 'What is the significance of this day on which you fast?' They replied, 'This is the day Allah saved the prophet Moosa (AS) and his followers and drowned Fir'oun and his army, thus Moosa (AS) fasted on this day as a token of thanksgiving. Therefore we too fast on this day.' ( Muslim, Vol 1).

Rasulullah (SAW) said, 'We are more worthy of Moosa (AS) and nearer to him than you.' Thereafter, he fasted on this day and ordered the Sahaabah (companions) to fast on this day. ( Muslim, Vol. 1)

 

Rasulullah (SAW) is reported to have said, 'Observe the fast of Aashura and oppose (the way of) the Jews. Fast a day before it (also) or a day after it.' (Baihaqi, Vol 4)

 

Hence, one should fast for two days: Either the 9th and 10th or the 10th and 11th. To fast only on the 10th of Muharram is MAKROOH (reprehensible) and bears semblance to the Jews.

 

GENEROSITY TO ONE'S FAMILY

 

Besides fasting on the day of Aashura, being generous to one's family and spending more than what is normally spent on food, etc. is an act of great merit. It is mentioned in a Hadith, 'He who will be generous to his family on the day of Aashura, Allah will be generous to him for the entire year.'

 

FALLACIOUS BELIEF

 

The day of Aashura is regarded by many people as the day of mourning the martyrdom of Sayyiduna Hussain (RA). To attribute the significance of Aashura to Sayyiduna Hussain (RA)'s martyrdom is totally baseless because the sanctity of Aashura is proven, beyond doubt, from the time of Rasulullah (SAW), whilst Sayyiduna Hussain (RA) was martyred fifty years after the holy prophet Mohammed (SAW) left this earthly abode. The fact that the martyrdom of Sayyiduna Hussain (RA) occurred on the Day of Aashura has absolutely no bearing on the significance of this day nor is the sanctity of this day derived from this event. On the contrary, it is one of the merits of Sayyiduna Hussain (RA) that he was martyred on the Day of Aashura.

 

RESPECT WHAT ALLAH HAS HONORED, FOR VERILY TO HONOR THINGS DUE TO VIRTUE WHICH ALLAH HAS ACCORDED THEM IS AMONG THE TRAITS OF THE INTELLIGENT.

 

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIJRAH (Islamic Year)

 

A religion contains within itself entirely all that it needs for its later growth and development. The 'Hijrah' migration of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) and those of his Sahaaba (companions) (Radhiyallaahuanhum) who were 'the first to lead the way' from Makkah Mukarramah to Madinah Munawwarah in order to settle down there was not only an important event but a turning point in the history of Islam which evidently contributed to the progress and generation of Islamic heritage.

 

Undoubtedly the Hijrah took place according to Allah Almighty's Will; since the Prophet of Allah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) would take no such step except under Allah's instructions in Whose Knowledge migration must have been the required course. In the eyes of the Muslims, the birth of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) and forty years later, the beginning of the revelation of the Noble Qur'an were two events of singular importance but the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) signified neither of the events as the commencing epochs of a calendar reckoning. Before the Hijrah to Madinah Munawwarah, a number of companions of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) had migrated to Abyssinia and were there when the Hijrah took place. But the migration to Abyssinia too was not made the starting point of the Islamic calendar. Thus, after the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) having signified the beginning of the calendrical reckoning from Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Madinah). The second Khalifah, Hazrath Umar (Radhiyallaahuanhu) made it compulsory for the dates to be inscribed on all official correspondence.

 

Basically the Hijrah institutioned three important aspects of life: social, economics and political.

 

In the social aspect when the first revelation was made to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) a period of twelve (12) years was devoted by him to inculcate religion in the minds of individuals while no pattern of a collective life based on true religious concepts could be presented to the world. The situation in Makkah Mukarramah during the earlier part of the Prophet's (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) career was that in a house-hold while the father was a believer, the son was an infidel, or the wife a believer and the husband an infidel. There were only a few houses where the entire family were Muslims. The status of the Muslim individuals in Makkah Mukarramah gave rise to the misconception that Islam, or believing in, the Noble and in the prophet was one's personal affair; it pertained only to the hereafter and had nothing to do with collective life.

 

It was only after Hijrah that people began to see clearly that Islam is a way of life which pays attention to and reforms every facet of human existence, giving directions regarding almost every moment of one's conscious time. The Hijrah also made the Arabs in particular, to see as to what was a Muslim house-hold and a Muslim society. Hence, only after this event the world could see the aspect of social decency and decorum under Islam.

 

A second reason for the importance of Hijrah is in view of its economic aspect. The economic effects were due to the permanent migration to Madinah Munawwarah by the Muslims. The matchless hospitality of the people of Madinah Munawwarah to the migrating Muslims, not only provided a shelter and a new peaceful home for the newcomers, but the Ansars (of Madinah) with a note-worthy passion of self-sacrifice accepted the incoming Muslims with great zeal and love. When after Hijrah, the companions and the followers of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) shifted from Makkah Mukarramah to Madinah Munawwarah, trade came into contact with agriculture and artisanship resulting in an economic revolution for the place. The migrants from Makkah having been taught and reformed by Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) himself for nearly 13 years, were not carefree and irresponsible men; they were God-fearing and righteous. The Ansars helped the migrants to the extent of being ready to divide all their belonging between themselves and the Muhaajirs. But the latter were not prepared to accept a status of mere idle dependants; so every one of them adopted ways and means to earn righteously for their own selves and did not like to be permanent burden on others.

 

Initially, the Muhaajirs worked as laborers in the fields and gardens and construction works. Later they, being traders, started small trading activities which brought them into an economic competition with the Jews of Madinah Munawwarah. One aspect of the economy revolution was that the Muhaajir traders paid the right price to the growers for their produce since Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) had forbidden the practice of acquiring products on reduced prices in return of loans given to the artisans or to the cultivators.

 

Thus, it was only after Hijrah that agriculture, industry and trade freely helped one another to bring about an integrated, balanced and unfettered economy for the Muslims.

 

The third reason which made the Hijrah a very important event is the political freedom for the Muslims. Before Hijrah the Muslims had no say in any matter, internal or external. They were a minority against whom the hearts of the majority were full of enmity - the Muslims were an insignificant part of a set of dominating unbelievers in Makkah Mukarramah.

 

The Hijrah made the Muslims masters of their internal affairs, external relations and matters relating to war and peace. There was great understanding among the Muslims, for instance, in case a difference occurred between the Muslims and non-Muslims, the final decision was to be made by the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). This showed that an autonomous Muslim set up was coming into existence. This was a beginning of a city-state which, within the life-time of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) or within a period of ten (10) years, expanded so as to encompass the entire Arabian peninsula. It is thus evident that the event of Hijrah turned a few hundred persons into a highly successful society. The expansion of Muslim dominations during the following centuries is a historical record. All this was possible due to the shaping of events as the result of Hijrah.

 

Source: Jamiatul Ulama (JHB) & Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)

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Muharram & Aashura (Part 2)

 

THE SACRED MONTHS

 

From among the months of the Islaamic year, the "Ashurul Hurum" (Sacred Months) enjoy a greater significance. Hafiz Ibn Katheer (Radhiallahu-anhu) has quoted the saying of Hadhrat Qatadah (Radhiallahu-anhu) in his famous tafseer. He writes:

Allah Ta'aala has indeed distinguished some of His Creation from among man and Jinn, He has chosen Messengers. He has granted special virtue to His remembrance (Zikr) over all speech and talk. From the land He has chosen the Masaajid. He distinguished the Day of Jumu'ah (Friday) from amongst the days and Laitatul Qadr (the Night of Power) from amongst the nights. Therefore respect what Allah Ta'aala has honoured for verily to honour things due to the virtue which Allah Ta'aala bestowed upon them is among the traits of the intelligent".

 

[Tafseer Ibn Khateer, vol 2 pg 369].

 

The sanctity of these four months was observed in the Shari'ah of all the Ambiyaa. Hence all preached to their followers that any act of obedience and virtue in these months earn an increased reward. Likewise any transgression or disobedience perpetrated in these months is more severe and the sin is multiplied. In the Shari'ah of various Ambiyaa, wars and fighting (even for just causes) too was forbidden.

 

[Extracted from Ma Ariful Qur'aan, vol 4, pg 370].

 

THE MONTH OF MUHARRAM

 

The Rasul of Allah Ta'aala has described the fasts of this month as the best fasts after the month of Ramadaan. In a Hadith Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is reported to have said:

"The best of fasts besides the month of Ramadaan is the fasting of Allah's month of Muharram and the best of Salaats besides the Fardh (obligatory Salaat) is the Tahajjud Salaah (performed after midnight)".

 

[suhih Muslim, vol 1, pg 368].

 

 

"He who fasts on the Day of Arafat, his fast will be a compensation for the sins of two years and the one that keeps a fast in the month of Muharram will receive a reward of thirty fasts for each fast (in the sacred month)".

 

[At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb, vol 2, pg 114].

FASTING ON THE DAY OF ASHURA (10TH OF MAHARRAM)

 

Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallahu-anhu) says:

"I did not see the messenger of Allah Ta'aala anxiously await the fast of any day, which he gave preference to over other days, but this day (i.e. the Day of Ashura) and this month (i.e. the month of Ramadaan)"

 

[suhih Bukhari, vol 2, pg 268].

 

In various Ahaadith an explanation is given as to why Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) kept this fast and exhorted his companions to do the same. A narration of Sahih Muslim concisely explains the reason Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallahu-anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) came to Madinah and found the Jews fasting on the Day of Ashura. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) inquired of them "What is the significance of this day on which you fast?" They replied: "This is a great day. On this day Allah Ta'aala saved Moosa and his people and drowned Firown and his nation". Thus Moosa (Alaihis-Salaam) fasted on this day as a token of thanksgiving, therefore, we too fast on this day. The Rasul of Allah Ta'aala said:

 

"We are more worthy of Moosa (Alaihis-Salaam) and nearer to him than you". Thereafter he fasted on this day and ordered his companions that a fast be kept on this day.

[suhih Muslim, vol 1, pg 359].

 

From the above Hadith it is clear that the fast of Ashura is linked to the salvation of Moosa (Alaihis-Salaam). Besides this no other Hadith of this category (Sahih) explains the reason for Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) having kept a fast on this day.

 

FORGIVENESS OF A YEARS SINS

 

With regards to the blessings of this fast, it is recorded in a narration of Sahih Muslim that Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was asked regarding (the virtue of) the fast of Ashura. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) answered:

"It is compensation for the sins of the past year, i.e. the sins of the year that has just gone by will be forgiven".

 

[suhih Muslim, vol 1, pg 368].

 

OPPOSING THE JEWS.

 

Any act which bears a resemblance with the Jews and the Christians is frowned upon in the Shari'ah. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

"Should I live the following year, I will definitely fast on the ninth also".

 

[suhih Muslim, vol 1, pg 359].

 

Hence it is important that either the ninth or eleventh of Muharram should be joined in keeping fast with the Day of Ashura. To fast only on the day of Ashura is Makrooh (reprehensible). However, the "Karahat" (reprehendsibility) is not severe. It is stated in Durrul Makhtar:

It is `Makrooh Tahrimi" to fast on the days of Eid and `Makrooh Tizihi' to fast on the Day of Muharram only".

 

[Durrul Makhtar, vol 2, pg 114].

 

SPENDING FREELY ON ONE'S FAMILY

 

Besides fasting on the day of Ashura, being generous to one's family and spending on what is normally spent on food, etc. is a very meritorious act. Certain scholars are of the opinion that the Ahaadith in this regard are not authentic. Hence, there is no special virtue for increased generosity on the Day of Ashura. However, this is not correct. To substantiate this, Allama Sakhawi (Radhiallahu-anhu) writes:

"He who will be generous on his family on the Day of Ashura, Allah will be generous to him throughout the year"

This Hadith has been transmitted by Tabrani and Baihaqi in his book "As-Shaub" and Fadaail-ul-Awqaat and Abu Shaikh, all of them having narrated it from Ibn Masood. Tabrani and Baihaqi have also transmitted it from Abu Saeed (Radhiallahu-anhu). In his book "Ash-Shaub", Baihaqi has also narrated this Hadith from Jaabir and Abu Hurairah. Baihaqi therefore says:

"The chains of narrators of these Ahaadith are `Daeef' Weak, However, when they are considered collectively, the chain of narrators becomes strong (i.e. the Hadith becomes reliable)".

Allamah Shaami too has indicated towards the authenticity of this Hadith.

He says:

"The hadith of generosity upon ones family is an established and authentic (Sahih) narration as mentioned by Hafiz Suvuti in `Ad-Durar'".

 

[shaami, vol 2, pg 155].

 

RECTIFICATION OF BELIEF

 

Many erroneous beliefs exist regarding the Day of Ashura. It is necessary that such beliefs be discarded. The day of Ashura is regarded by many as the day of mourning the martyrdom of Sayyidina Husein (Radhiallahu-anhu). To attribute the significance of Ashura to the martyrdom of Sayyidina Husein (Radhiallahu-anhu) is baseless. The significance of Ashura is from the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) whilst Sayyidina Husein (Radhiallahu-anhu) was martyred fifty years later than the demise of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Similarly, the significance of Ashura is attributed to many such occurrences and events, most of which are not proven by authentic sources.

 

In refutation of such fallacious beliefs and customs, Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dahlawu (Radhiallahu-anhu) writes:

"Beware, do not participate in innovations of the Rawafidh. Do not involve yourself in mourning, lamenting and displaying grief. This is not the conduct of Believers or else the date of the demise of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) would have been more worthy of being observed (by mourning and lamenting)".

 

Similarly, refrain from participating in the innovations of those who harbour hatred for the Ahlul-bait (the family of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam), or the innovations of the ignorant; those who oppose corruptions with corruption, innovations with innovations and evil with sin. Hence, they display great joy and happiness. They regard this day as an occasion of merrymaking and adornment and indulgence in Khidaab, applying surmah, wearing new clothes, sending lavishly and cooking various foods which are not generally prepared. All these actions are regarding as Sunnah by these ignorant people whereas the true Sunnah is to shun these practices, since no authentic narrations sanctioning such actions has been recorded. [Ma thabata bis Sunnah, pg 254].

 

Regarding the various beliefs about the significance of the Day of Ashura; many of which are often quoted in our time; Sheikh Muhaddith Dahlawi (Radhiallahu-anhu) writes:

It is said that:

a. The person who applies `surmah' on the Day of Ashura will not have sore eyes for the entire year.

b. The person who takes a bath on this day will not fall ill till the next year.

c. The person who spends freely on his family on the Day of Ashura, Allah Ta'aala will increase his sustenance for the whole year.

and the claims such as:

1. The virtue of Salaah on this day.

2. On the day the repentance of Adam (Alaihis-Salaam) was accepted.

3. Ibrahim (Alaihis-Salaam) was removed from the fire.

4. Ismail (Alaihis-Salaam) was saved from being sacrificed.

5. Yusuf (Alaihis-Salaam) was returned to Yaqoob (Alaihis-Salaam).

All the above are FABRICATIONS EXCEPT the Hadith of spending freely on one's family. However one of the narrators is not absolutely reliable" [Ma thabata bis Sunnah, pg 254].

From the list of fabrications which have been quoted from Sheikh Muhaddith Dahlawi (Radhiallahu-anhu), the Ark of Nuh (Alaihis-Salaam) settling on the mountain will be excluded from being a fabricated Hadith. This exclusion is dur the Hadith which appears in the "Musnad" of Imaam Ahmad (Alaihis-Salaam) vol 2, pg 259.

 

CONCLUSION

 

The Day of Ashura is a great day. While observing it's greatness, let us shun all innovations and unfounded customs which deprive us of blessings and reward. Let us firmly cling onto the Qur'aan and Sunnah and attain success of both the worlds. Ameen.

 

Source: This is a summary of a booklet which was compiled under auspicious guidance of Sheikhul Hadith Sh. Ml. Fazlur Rehman of Darul Uloom, Azaadville, (S.A.).

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The Month of Muharram

By Shaykh Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullah

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Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, is one of the four sacred months mentioned in the Glorious Qur’ān:
 

Lo! The number of the months with Allāh is twelve months by Allāh’s Ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred: that is the right religion. So wrong not yourselves in them...(9:36)

 

The specification of these four sacred months is stated in a hadīth narrated by Abū Bakrah radhiyallāhu ‘anhu that Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “Verily time has completed its cycle and returned to its original stage as it was on the day Allāh created the heavens and the earth. The year consists of twelve months, four of which are sacred. Three of them occur consecutively; Dhul Qa‘dah, Dhul Hijjah and Muharram, (the fourth being) Rajab of Mudar (named after the tribe of Mudar as they used to respect this month) which occurs between Jamādi‘ul Ākhir and Sha‘bān.” (Bukhārī)

From out of the four sacred months, Muharram has been blessed with certain specific virtues. The noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “The best of fasts besides the month of Ramadān is the fasting of Allāh’s Month of Muharram and the best of salāh besides the fard (compulsory) salāh is the tahajjud salāh (performed after midnight before dawn).” (Muslim)

In another hadīth, Ibn ‘Abbās radhiyallāhu ‘anhu reports that the Messenger of Allāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “He who fasts on the day of ‘Arafāt (9th Dhul Hijjah), his fast will be a compensation for the sins of two years, and one who keeps a fast in the month of Muharram will receive the reward of thirty fasts for each fast.” (Tabrānī, at-Targhīb wat-Tarhīb)

 

THE DAY OF ‘ĀSHŪRĀ (10th Muharram)

The tenth day of the month of Muharram is known as ‘Āshūrā. It is one of the most important and blessed days in the Islamic calendar. Some ‘ulamā (scholars) are of the opinion that before the fasts of Ramadān, the fast of the day of ‘Āshūrā was compulsory upon the Ummah. This is stated in a hadīth reported by ‘Ā’ishah radhiyallāhu ‘anhā that the noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam ordered the observance of the fast of ‘Āshūrā. However, when the fast of Ramadān became compulsory, then whosoever wished, kept this fast and whosoever desired did not observe this fast. (Bukhārī)

But the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam, nevertheless, continued to fast this day and encouraged his companions to do the same. Ibn ‘Abbās radhiyallāhu ‘anhu says, “I did not see Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam anxiously await the fast of any day, which he gave preference to over other days, but this day, the day of ‘Āshūrā.” (Bukhārī)

Humayd Ibn ‘Abdur Rahmān radhiyallāhu ‘anhu narrates that he heard Mu‘āwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān radhiyallāhu ‘anhumā on the day of ‘Āshūrā, during the year he performed Hajj, saying on the pulpit, “O the people of Madīnah! Where are your ‘ulamā? I heard Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam saying, ‘This is the day of ‘Āshūrā. Allāh has not enjoined its fasting on you, but I am fasting it. Whosoever wishes, keep (this) fast and whosoever desires do not observe (this fast).’” (Bukhārī)

In another hadīth, Ibn ‘Abbās radhiyallāhu ‘anhu narrates that the noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam came to Madīnah and found the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Āshūrā. Hence the noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam inquired of them, “What is (the significance of) this day on which you fast?” They replied, “This is a great day. On this day Allāh saved Mūsā ‘alayhis salām and his people and drowned Fir‘awn and his nation. Thus Mūsā ‘alayhis salām fasted on this day as a token of thanksgiving, therefore we too fast on this day.” The Messenger of Allāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “We are more worthy of Mūsā and nearer to him than you.” Thereafter, the noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam fasted on this day and ordered (his companions radhiyallāhu ‘anhum) that a fast be kept on this day. (Muslim)

 

RECOMMENDED DEEDS ON THE DAY OF ‘ĀSHŪRĀ

1)  The noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam has exhorted and encouraged his Ummah to fast on this day. Abū Qatādah radhiyallāhu ‘anhu narrates that the noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam was asked regarding the fast of the day of ‘Āshūrā. The noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam replied, “It is a compensation for the (minor) sins of the past year.” (Muslim)

 

NOTE: It must be borne in mind that wherever a promise of forgiveness of sins is made upon the fulfilment of some action, it is only the minor sins that are forgiven. The major sins are not forgiven without true tawbah (repentance). 

2)  One should also observe the fast of the 9th or 11th Muharram to safeguard his deed from resemblance with the non-Muslims who fast only on the 10th Muharram. Ibn ‘Abbās radhiyallāhu ‘anhu said, “When Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam observed the fast of the day of ‘Āshūrā and ordered (his companions radhiyallāhu ‘anhum) to fast, they said, ‘O Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam! It is a day revered by the Jews and Christians.’ Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, ‘The coming year, if Allāh wills, we will fast on the ninth (also).’” (Muslim)

Ibn ‘Abbās radhiyallāhu ‘anhu reports that Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “Should I live until the coming year, I will definitely fast on the ninth (also).” (Muslim)
The noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “Observe the fast of ‘Āshūrā and oppose the Jews. Fast a day before it or a day after.” (Bayhaqī) 
Hence, it is important to either fast on the ninth and tenth of Muharram or the tenth and eleventh. To fast only on the day of ‘Āshūrā is makrūh tanzīhī as stated by ‘Allāmah Ibn ‘Ābidīn Shāmī rahimahullāh

3)  One should be generous to one’s family and dependants and spend more on them than is normally spent. Abū Hurayrah radhiyallāhu ‘anhu reports that Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam said, “One who generously spends on his family on the day of ‘Āshūrā, Allāh will increase (his provision) for the whole year.” (Bayhaqī, at-Targhīb wat-Tarhīb)
This hadīth is not very authentic according to the science of hadīth. However, scholars of hadīth like Bayhaqī and Ibn Hibbān rahimahumallāh have accepted it as reliable.

These are the only actions supported by ahādīth.

 

ACTS TO REFRAIN FROM

1)  It is absolutely clear that the significance of the day of ‘Āshūrā is from the time of the noble Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam. However, many people regard this day as the day of mourning the martyrdom of Husayn radhiyallāhu ‘anhu. The martyrdom of Husayn radhiyallāhu ‘anhu was indeed a great tragedy, but Islam is not a religion of perpetual mourning. Abū Sa‘īd radhiyallāhu ‘anhu relates that Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam has cursed mourners and those who listen to them. (Abū Dāwūd)

The pages of Islamic History are filled with the blood of the martyrs. Should we begin to mourn the martyrdom of the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum alone, every other day would be a day of mourning. Thus, to attribute the significance of ‘Āshūrā to the martyrdom of Husayn radhiyallāhu ‘anhu is baseless. Therefore, the host of baseless customs with regard to his martyrdom — mourning, lamenting and displaying grief — must be discarded. If mourning were permissible, then the day of the demise of Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam would have been more worthy for mourning and lamenting.  

2) The following misconceptions with regard to ‘Āshūrā are baseless:
• This is the day in which Ādam 'alayhis salām was created.
• This is the day in which Ibrāhīm 'alayhis salām was born.
• This is the day on which Qiyāmah will take place.
• Whoever has a bath on the day of Āshūrā will never get ill.

3) Some regard the tenth of Muharram as a day of ‘Īd. They indulge in adornment, applying surmah (collyrium), wearing new clothes, spending lavishly and cooking a particular type of  meal which is not generally prepared. All these actions are regarded as sunnah according to their belief, whereas no authentic narration sanctioning and permitting such actions can be found.

4) Another misconception is that the month of Muharram is an unlucky month; hence marriage ceremonies should be avoided in this month. This concept is again contrary to the teachings of Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam.

Let us observe this great day according to the way of Rasūlullāh sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam and the Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum and refrain from all innovations which deprive us of the blessings from Allāh ta’ālā. May Allāh ta’ālā guide us all upon the Straight Path and save us from every act which brings His Displeasure. Āmīn.

 

Copyright © 2009 Islamic Da‘wah Academy

http://www.idauk.org/publications/leaflet20.html

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Muharram and the day of Aashura

 

The divine system of Allah Ta’aala

It is the divine system of Allah Ta’aala that He has afforded special virtue and significance to some things over others. From mankind, the Ambiyaa عليهم السلام have been blessed with distinguished positions and elevated statuses over others. From the different places in the world, the Haramain (Makkah Mukarramah and Madinah Munawwarah) have been accorded a special rank over the rest of the world. From the twelve months of the Islamic calendar, special sanctity and sacredness has been given to four specific months i.e. Zul-Qa’dah, Zul-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab.

By the same token, amongst the days of the Islamic year the day of Aashura has been blessed with exclusive virtue and immense blessings.

عن أبي قتادة رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم صيام يوم عاشوراء إني أحتسب على الله أن يكفر السنة التي قبله

 

It is reported from Abu Qataadah (Radhiallahu Anhu) that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “On account of observing the fast of Aashura, I have hope that Allah Ta’aala will expiate the sins of the past year.” (Ibnu Maajah 1/124, Saheeh Muslim 1/368)

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'The number of months in the

sight of Allah are twelve (in a year) - So ordained by Him

the day He created the heavens and the earth; Of them

four are sacred: That is the right religion. So wrong not

yourselves therein.' (Surah Taubah).

The four months, according to authentic Ahaadith, are

the months of Zhul-Qa`dah, Zhul Hijjah, Muharram and

Rajab. The sanctity of these four months was observed in

the Shari'ah of all the Ambiyaa (Prophets) (AS).

Four out of 12 are Holy months? What about Shaban, Shawwal and specially Ramadan?

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:jazak: But there's no tafsir in first link, just blank page?

Haya I can see the page, not sure why you cannot see...here it is

 

 

The Sacred Months  

Allah said,

﴿مِنْهَآ أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ﴾

(of them four are sacred). The Arabs used to consider these months sacred during the time of Jahiliyyah, except for a group of them called Al-Basl, who held eight months of the year to be sacred as way of exaggeration in religion. The Prophet said,

 

«ثَلَاثَةٌ مُتَوَالِيَاتٌ: ذُو الْقَعْدَةِ وَذُو الْحِجَّةِ وَالْمُحَرَّمُ وَرَجَبُ مُضَرَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَان»

 

(Three are in succession; Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab ﴿of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thani)﴾ and Sha`ban). The Prophet said "Rajab of Mudar'' to attest to the custom of Mudar, in saying that Rajab is the month that is between Jumada and Sha`ban, not as the tribe of Rabi`ah thought, that it is between Sha`ban and Shawwal, which is Ramadan in the present calendar. The four Sacred Months were made four, three in succession and one alone, so that the Hajj and `Umrah are performed with ease. Dhul-Qa`dah, the month before the Hajj month, was made sacred because they refrained from fighting during that month. Dhul-Hijjah, the next month, was made sacred because it is the month of Hajj, during which they performed Hajj rituals. Muharram, which comes next, was made sacred so that they are able to go back to their areas in safety ﴿after performing Hajj﴾. Rajab, in the middle of the lunar year, was made sacred so that those coming from the farthest areas of Arabia are able to perform `Umrah and visit the House and then go back to their areas safely. Allah said next,

﴿ذلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ﴾

 

(That is the right religion), that is the Straight Law, requiring implementing Allah's order concerning the months that He made sacred and their true count as it was originally written by Allah. Allah said,

﴿فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ﴾

 

(so wrong not yourselves therein) during these Sacred Months, for sin in them is worse than sin in other months. Likewise, sins in the Sacred City are written multiplied,

﴿وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُّذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ﴾

 

(...and whoever inclines to evil actions therein (in Makkah) or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment) ﴿22:25﴾. Similarly, sin in general is worse during the Sacred Months `Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, Allah's statement,

﴿إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللَّهِ﴾

(Verily, the number of months with Allah...), is connected to

 

﴿فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ﴾

 

(so wrong not yourselves therein), "In all (twelve) months. Allah then chose four out of these months and made them sacred, emphasizing their sanctity, making sinning in them greater, in addition to, multiplying rewards of righteous deeds during them.'' Qatadah said about Allah's statement,

﴿فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ﴾

 

(so wrong not yourselves therein), "Injustice during the Sacred Months is worse and graver than injustice in other months. Verily, injustice is always wrong, but Allah makes things graver than others as He will.'' He also said, "Allah has chosen some of His creation above others. He chose Messengers from angels and from men. He also chose His Speech above all speech, the Masajid above other areas of the earth, Ramadan and the Sacred Months above all months, Friday above the other days and Laylatul-Qadr (The Night of Decree) above all nights. Therefore, sanctify what Allah has sanctified, for doing so is the practice of people of understanding and comprehension.''

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Misconceptions
 

7 kinds of vegetable during the ten days of Muharram
 
Q. Please advise is it necessary to eat only 7 kinds of vegetable during the ten days of Muharram an were does this rule come from I would just like to confirm this an know the reason why one should eat only vegetables I know of families that are doing this is this islamic or not Please advise
Jazakallah
 
(Question published as received)
 
A. In Islam, there is no basis for eating only seven kinds of vegetables during the first ten days of Muharram. It is a baseless superstition that has no place in Islam.
 
And Allah Knows Best
Mufti Ismaeel Bassa
Confirmation:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

 

 

 

Applying surma on the day of Aashura

 

Q: Some people say that it is recomended to ​apply surma on the day of Aashura. Is this proven through the Sunnah?

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A: Applying surma is a Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). It is reported in the Mubaarak Hadith that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) used to apply surma every night before sleeping. However, the practice of applying surma during the day, especially on the day of Aashura, has no basis in Deen.

And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

واعلم أن الكحل مطلقا سنة سيد المرسلين - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وأما كونه سنة في يوم عاشوراء، فقد قيل به إلا أنه لما صار علامة للشيعة وجب تركه، وقيل إنه يكره لأن يزيد و​ابن زياد اكتحلا بدم الحسين - رضي الله عنه - عنه وقيل بالإثمد لتقر عينهما بقتله ش بالمعنى (قوله ولا بأس إلخ) نقل في القنية عن الوبري أنه لم يرد فيه أثر قوي، ولا بأس اهـ، وربما يثاب قال الشارح: والذي في حفظي أنه يثاب بالتوسعة على عياله المندوب إليها في الحديث بقوله «من وسع على عياله في يوم عاشوراء وسع الله عليه سائر سنته» فأخذ الناس منه أن وسعوا باستعمال أنواع من الحبوب، وهو مما يصدق عليه التوسعة. وقد رأيت لبعض العلماء كلاما حسنا محصله: أنه لا يقتصر فيه على التوسعة بنوع واحد بل يعمها في المآكل والملابس وغير ذلك، وأنه أحق من سائر المواسم بما يعمل فيها من التوسعات الغير المشروعة فيها كالأعياد ونحوها اهـ (قوله وبعضهم إلخ) قال في التجنيس والمزيد لا بأس بالاكتحال يوم عاشوراء هو المختار، «لأن رسول الله صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم كحلته أم سلمة يوم عاشوراء» . وفي الخانية: أنه سنة وذكر فيها: من اكتحل يوم عاشوراء لم يرمد سنته، قال الشارح ولم يصح ذلك عن رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - اهـ. قلت: والحاصل أنه وردت التوسعة فيه بأسانيد ضعيفة، وصحيح بعضها يرتقي بها الحديث إلى الحسن، وتعقب ابن الجوزي في عده من الموضوعات. وأما حديث «من اكتحل بالإثمد يوم عاشوراء لم ترمد عينه» فقال الحافظ ابن حجر في اللآلئ: إنه منكر والاكتحال لا يصح فيه أثر وهو بدعة، وأورده ابن الجوزي في الموضوعات وقال الحاكم أيضا لم يرو فيه أثر وهو بدعة ابتدعها قتلة الحسين، وقال ابن رجب: كل ما روي في فضل الاكتحال، والاختضاب والاغتسال فموضوع لا يصح، وتمامه في كشف الخفاء والإلباس للجراحي، وبه يتأيد القول بالكراهة والله أعلم. والتوسعة على من وسع مجربة. نقل ذلك المناوي عن جابر وابن عيينة. (الدر المختار 6/430)

النوع السادس: ما ورد في صلاة ليلة عاشوراء ويوم عاشوراء، وفي فضل الكحل يوم عاشوراء لا يصح، ومن ذلك حديث جويبر عن الضحاك عن ابن عباس رفعه: (من اكتحل بالإثمد يوم عاشوراء لم يرمد أبدا) ، وهو حديث موضوع، وضعفه قتلة الحسين، رضي الله تعالى عنه، وقال الإمام أحمد: والاكتحال يوم عاشوراء لم يرو عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فيه أثر، وهو بدعة. (عمدة القاري 11/118)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach

 

 

Making nikaah on the day of Aashura

Q: What is the significance of performing nikaah on the day of Aashura? Is there any special virtue in this?

 

bismillah.jpg

A: There is no special significance for performing nikaah on the day of Aashura. The Hadith teaches us that when a suitable match is found, one should immediately perform the nikaah and not delay.

And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

عن أبي هريرة قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إذا خطب إليكم من ترضون دينه وخلقه فزوجوه إلا تفعلوا تكن فتنة في الأرض وفساد عريض (جامع الترمذي رقم 1084)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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Muharram and the day of Aashura

 

The divine system of Allah Ta’aala

It is the divine system of Allah Ta’aala that He has afforded special virtue and significance to some things over others. From mankind, the Ambiyaa عليهم السلام have been blessed with distinguished positions and elevated statuses over others. From the different places in the world, the Haramain (Makkah Mukarramah and Madinah Munawwarah) have been accorded a special rank over the rest of the world. From the twelve months of the Islamic calendar, special sanctity and sacredness has been given to four specific months i.e. Zul-Qa’dah, Zul-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab.

By the same token, amongst the days of the Islamic year the day of Aashura has been blessed with exclusive virtue and immense blessings.

عن أبي قتادة رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم صيام يوم عاشوراء إني أحتسب على الله أن يكفر السنة التي قبله

It is reported from Abu Qataadah (Radhiallahu Anhu) that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “On account of observing the fast of Aashura, I have hope that Allah Ta’aala will expiate the sins of the past year.” (Ibnu Maajah 1/124, Saheeh Muslim 1/368)

The month of Muharram and the day of Aashura

Reward for fasting an entire month

عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : من صام يوم عرفة كان له كفارة سنتين ومن صام يوما من المحرم فله بكل يوم ثلاثون يوما

It is reported from Ibnu Abbaas (Radhiallahu Anhuma) that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “The one who observes the fast of the day of Arafah two years of his sins will be forgiven and the one who fasts during the month of Muharram, for each day he fasts he will receive the reward of fasting for an entire month.” (At-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb, vol. 2, p. 46)

It is an exclusive virtue of the month of Muharram that each fast in this auspicious month is equivalent in reward to fasting for an entire month. No other month has been blessed with this virtue.

 

The greatness and virtue of Aashura

While the month of Shawwaal, Zul-Qa’dah and Zul-Hijjah have been divinely selected to accommodate the rituals of Haj and sacrifice, the month of Muharram is the month that enjoys the honour of being the month of Allah Ta’aala and of accommodating the fast of Aashura, which expiates the sins of the past year. The immense virtues and abundant blessings that this day holds could be somewhat understood through the desire and eagerness that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) expressed to meet this day.

 

عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال ما رأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يتحرى صيام يوم فضله على غيره إلا هذا اليوم يوم عاشوراء

Hazrat Ibnu Abbaas (Radhiallahu Anhuma) reports: “I did not see Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) anxiously await the fast of any virtuous day more than the day of Aashura.” (Saheeh Bukhari 1/268)

عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم  أفضل الصيام بعد رمضان شهر الله المحرم وأفضل الصلاة بعد الفريضة صلاة الليل

It is reported from Abu Hurayrah (Radhiallahu Anhu) that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “The best of fasts after the month of Ramadhaan is fasting in the month of Allah, which is Muharram, and the best of Salaahs after the faraaidh (obligatory Salaah) is the Tahajjud Salaah.” (Saheeh Muslim 1/368)

 

Fasting on the day of Aashura

Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) fasted on the day of Aashura and exhorted the Sahaabah to also observe the fast. The extent of enthusiasm and passion with which the Sahaabah enlivened and upheld this mubaarak sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) could perhaps be gauged from the following hadith.

عن الربيع بنت معوذ بن عفراء رضي الله عنها قالت فكنا بعد ذلك نصومه ونصوم صبياننا الصغار منهم إن شاء الله ونذهب إلى المسجد فنجعل لهم اللعبة من العهن فإذا بكى أحدهم على الطعام أعطيناهم إياه عند الإفطار

Hazrat Rubayyi’ (Radhiallahu Anha) reports that the Sahaabah observed the fast of Aashura and encouraged their children to observe the fast. The Sahaabah used to make toys for their children out of wool and if any child felt hungry and wept for food then they kept them occupied with those toys until the time of iftaar. (Saheeh Muslim 1/360)

 

History of Aashura

Prior to the Hijrat, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the Sahabah observed the fast of Aashura in Makkah Mukarramah as this conformed to the sharee’at of Ebrahim (Alaihis salaam). Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) migrated to Madinah Munawwarah in the month of Rabiul Awwal. The following year (2 A.H.), in the month of Muharram, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) witnessed the Jews of Madinah Munawwarah fasting. Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) inquired from them as to why they were observing the fast on that day. They exclaimed that it was on that day that Allah Ta’aala delivered Moosa (Alaihis Salaam) and the Bani Israa’eel from the tyranny and oppression of Fir’oun and his people and Allah Ta’aala destroyed Fir’oun and his army. This is explained in the following narration:

عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال قدم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة فرأى اليهود تصوم يوم عاشوراء فقال ما هذا قالوا هذا يوم صالح هذا يوم نجى الله بني إسرائيل من عدوهم فصامه موسى قال فأنا أحق بموسى منكم فصامه وأمر بصيامه

Hazrat Ibnu Abbaas (Radhiallahu Anhuma) said: “When Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) migrated to Madinah Munawwarah, he witnessed the Jews observing the fast of Aashura. After inquiring, they replied that this was a virtuous day. This was the day that Allah Ta’aala had delivered the Bani Israa’eel to safety from their oppressive enemy (Fir’oun and his army). In expression of gratitude and thanks to Allah Ta’aala, Moosa (Alaihis salaam) fasted on this day. Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) remarked, ‘We are more worthy of following Moosa (Alaihis Salaam) than you.’ Thereafter, Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) continued fasting on this day and ordered the Sahabah (Radiallahu Anhum) to fast as well.” (Saheeh Bukhari 1/268)

Prior to the fast of Ramadhaan becoming compulsory, fasting on the day of Aashura was Fardh (obligatory). After the fast of Ramadhaan became compulsory, fasting on the day of Aashura was optional.

عن عائشة زوج النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أنها قالت :كان يوم عاشوراء يوما تصومه قريش في الجاهلية وكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يصومه في الجاهلية فلما قدم رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم المدينة صامه وأمر بصيامه فلما فرض رمضان كان هو الفريضة وترك يوم عاشوراء فمن شاء صامه ومن شاء تركه

Hazrat Aa'isha (Radiallahu Anha) reports: “In the pre-Islamic era, the Quraish fasted on the day of Aashura. Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) also observed the fast of Aashura. After migrating to Madinah Munawwarah, Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) continued with this noble practice (of fasting on the day of Aashura) and instructed the Sahabah (Radhiallahu Anhum) to fast on this auspicious day (as it was made obligatory). However, after the fast of Ramadhaan became obligatory, fasting on the day of Aashura no longer remained fardh.” (Rather it was made sunnah (optional).) (Muatta Imaam Maalik, p. 240)

This remained the practice of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and Sahaabah till the end of the life of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). In the 11th year of Hijri  (after the fast of Aashuraa prior to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)’s demise), Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) commanded the Sahabah (Radhiallahu Anhum) to oppose the Jews and to add another day of fasting together with the tenth. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said that if he lived till the following year he would fast for two days.

عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم صوموا يوم عاشوراء و خالفوا فيه اليهود صوموا قبله يوما أو بعده يوما (البيهقي)

Hazrat Ibnu Abbaas (Radiallahu Anhuma) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “Observe the fast of Aashura and oppose the Jews by fasting a day before it or after it (as well) i.e. the ninth and tenth or tenth and eleventh of Muharram.” (As-Sunan Al-Kubra Baihaqi 4/287 / Talkheesul Habeer 2/819)

عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه و سلم لئن بقيت الى قابل لأصومنّ التاسع (مسلم 359/1)

Hazrat Ibnu Abbaas (Radiallahu Anhuma) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “If I live until the following year, I will definitely fast on the ninth (together with the tenth).” (Saheeh Muslim 1/359) (Awjaz-ul-Masaalik, vol. 5, p. 192 / Addurrul Mandhood, vol. 4, p. 254)

 

Important lesson

While reaping the virtues of fasting on the day of Aashura, an important lesson is emphasised by means of this fast. This is the lesson of firmly maintaining one’s Islamic identity at all times, totally refraining from imitating the kuffaar (disbelievers) and even avoiding any resemblance with them. Hence, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) instructed the ummah to fast for two days (i.e. the ninth and tenth or tenth and eleventh) in order to oppose the Jews.

Dressing

Imitating the kuffaar can occur in any and every aspect of life. However, the most obvious and apparent is in the aspect of appearance and dressing. Imitating “others,” which is known as‘tashabbuh’ is completely forbidden in cases where it opposes the sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). So abhorred is this practice that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has declared: “The one who imitates a nation is from amongst them.”

Thus when the dressing and appearance taught by Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is not adhered to, and the kuffaar are imitated, at times it becomes difficult or even impossible to distinguish a Muslim from a Jew, Christian or an atheist.

Desire to resemble Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)

The Fast of Aashura highlights the importance of avoiding any resemblance to the Jews and Christians. No person prefers to resemble the one who is his enemy. Rather, he will prefer to resemble those whom he loves. A true follower of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) will love to resemble, in fact imitate, his beloved. He would love to be identified with Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), not with those who are the enemies of Islam and the Muslims.

Baseless practices

There are also many baseless practices and customs which people engage in on the tenth of Muharram. Among these baseless customs and practices is mourning over the martyrdom of Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu Anhu). This practice was introduced in the tenth century of Islam (946 A.H.) by the deviated group known as the shia. Undoubtedly the gruesome martyrdom of Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu Anhu) was among the tragic and heart breaking events that occurred in the annals of history. However despite that, it has no connection with the blessed occasion of Aashura. Instead Aashura had received its virtue and auspiciousness even before the birth of Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu Anhu). Hence the custom of mourning the martyrdom of Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu Anhu) has no basis whatsoever in Islam.

Virtue of spending on one’s family on the Day of Aashura

Apart from the virtue of fasting on the Day of Aashura, Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has also encouraged that one should be generous upon one’s family on this auspicious day.

عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال : من أوسع على عياله و أهله يوم عاشوراء أوسعالله عليه سائر سنته

Abu Hurairah radiyallahu anahu reports that Nabi Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, “Whoever spends freely upon his family on the day of Aashura Allah Ta`ala will bless him with abundant sustenance for an entire year.” (At-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb, vol. 2, p. 48)

 

قال السخاوي رواه الطبراني والبيهقي في الشعب وفضائل الأوقات وأبو الشيخ عن ابن مسعود والأولان فقط عن أبي سعيد والثاني فقط في الشعب عن جابر وأبي هريرة وقال إن أسانيده كلها ضعيفة ولكن إذا ضم بعضها إلى بعض أفاد قوةبل قال العراقي في أماليه لحديث أبي هريرة طرق صحح بعضها ابن ناصر الحافظ وأورده ابن الجوزي في الموضوعات من طريق سليمان بن أبي عبد الله وقال سليمان مجهول وسليمان ذكره ابن حبان في الثقات فالحديث حسن على رأيه قال وله طريق عن جابر على شرط مسلم أخرجها ابن عبد البر في الاستذكار من رواية أبي الزبير عنه وهي أصح طرقه ورواه هو والدارقطني في الأفراد بسند جيد عن عمر موقوفا عليه والبيهقي في الشعب من جهة محمد بن المنتشر قال كان يقال فذكره قال وقد جمعت طرقه في جزء قلت واستدرك عليه شيخنا رحمه الله كثيرا لم يذكره وتعقب اعتماد ابن الجوزي في الموضوعات قول العقيلي في هيصم بن شداخ راوي حديث ابن مسعود إنه مجهول بقوله بل ذكره ابن حبان في الثقات والضعفاء (المقاصد الحسنة ص505)

قال المنذرى في الترغيب: رواه البيهقى و غيره من طرق و عن جماعة من الصحابة و قال البيهقي:هذه الأسانيد وإن كانت ضعيفة فهي إذا ضم بعضها الى بعض أخذت قوة والله أعلم (الترغيب و الترهيب 2/48)

 

Ihyaauddeen

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Keeping qadha fast on the day of Aashura

 

Q: If one fasts on the ninth and tenth or tenth and eleventh of Muharram​ with the intention of qadha fast, will one receive the reward of the fast of Aashura?

 

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A: The fast will be valid. However, one will not obtain the reward and virtue of Aashura through keeping qadha fast. The reward and virtue of Aashura is for the one who observes nafl fasts on these days.

And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

ولو نوى فرضين كمكتوبة وجنازة فللمكتوبة ولو مكتوبتين فللوقتية ولو فائتتين فللأولى لو من أهل الترتيب وإلا لغا فليحفظ ولو فائتة ووقتية فللفائتة لو الوقت متسعا ولو فرضا ونفلا فللفرض ولو نافلتينكسنة فجر وتحية مسجد فعنهما ولو نافلة وجنازة فنافلة ولا تبطل بنية القطع ما لم يكبر بنية مغايرة ولو نوى في صلاته الصوم صح (الدر المختار 1/ 439)

فتاوى دار العلوم ديوبند (عزيز الفتاوى) 1/389

أحسن الفتاوى 4/440

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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The following booklet is a short and precise discussion on the importance and significance of the Holy month of Muharram which is the first month in the Islamic calendar.  It was compiled by a senior Hadith specialist of Indian origin by the name of Shaykh Fazlur Rahman Azmi who currently resides in South Africa.  The work has also outlined  the matters pertaining to the 10th day of Muharram known as Ashura and the days that fasting is significant.  The work also serves to dispel some of the myths and superstitions that some people have introduced over time in the name of Islam.

 

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darultahqiq

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Exchanging gifts among friends on the day of Aashura

 

Q: Is exchanging gifts among friends on the day of Aashura an established practice?

 

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A: It is Sunnah for one to spend on his family on the day of Aashura. Exchanging gifts among friends is not a Sunnah practice and hence should be discontinued.

And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من أحدث في أمرنا هذا ما ليس منه فهو رد (بخاري رقم 2697)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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What is the ruling for celebrating ashura and is it correct to say the ummayyads introduced this?

 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

Fasting on the day of Ashura (10th of Muharram) is a beloved Sunnah of Rasulullah Sallallalhu Alayhi Wasallam. Rasulullah Sallallalhu Alayhi Wasallam emphasized greatly on the virtue and significance of this day. Some virtues are as mentioned hereunder:

 

كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَصُومُ تِسْعَ ذِي الْحِجَّةِ، وَيَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ، وَثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ، أَوَّلَ اثْنَيْنِ مِنَ الشَّهْرِ وَالْخَمِيسَ

 

The Messenger of Allah () used to fast the first nine days of Dhul-Hijjah, Ashura’ and three days of every month, that is, the first Monday (of the month) and Thursday.[1]

 

صِيَامُ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ، إِنِّي أَحْتَسِبُ عَلَى اللهِ أَنْ يُكَفِّرَ السَّنَةَ الَّتِي قَبْلَهُ

 

Fast the Day of Ashura, for indeed I anticipate that Allah will forgive (the sins of) the year before it.[2]

 

مَا رَأَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَتَحَرَّى صِيَامَ يَوْمٍ فَضَّلَهُ عَلَى غَيْرِهِ إِلَّا هَذَا اليَوْمَ، يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ، وَهَذَا الشَّهْرَ يَعْنِي شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ

 

I never saw the Prophet (ﷺ) seeking to fast on a day more (preferable to him) than this day, the day of ‘Ashura’, or this month, i.e. the month of Ramadan.[3] 

 

However, to believe that the Umayyads introduced this is a misconception made by the Shia. Sayyidina Husain Radhiallahu Anhu, the son of Ali Radhiallahu Anhu was martyred on this very day in the year 61 A.H at the incident of Karbala. Hence, they tend to celebrate this day as a commemoration for Sayyyidina Husain Radhiallahu Anhu.

 

The day of Ashura and its significance was introduced much before the death of Husain Radhiallahu Anhu. This is proven by many Ahadith and by Rasulullah Sallalllahu Alayhi Wasallam himself who passed away in 11 A.H.:

 

قَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمَدِينَةَ فَوَجَدَ الْيَهُودَ يَصُومُونَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ فَسُئِلُوا عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالُوا هَذَا الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي أَظْهَرَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ مُوسَى وَبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ عَلَى فِرْعَوْنَ فَنَحْنُ نَصُومُهُ تَعْظِيمًا لَهُ . فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم  ” نَحْنُ أَوْلَى بِمُوسَى مِنْكُمْ ” . فَأَمَرَ بِصَوْمِهِ

 

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) came to Medina, he found the Jews observing the fast on the day of Ashura. They (the Jews) were asked about it and they said: It is the day on which Allah granted victory to Musa and (his people) Bani Isra’il over the Pharaoh and we observe fast out of gratitude to Him. Upon this the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: We have a closer connection with Musa than you have, and he (Allah’s Messenger ﷺ) commanded to observe fast on this day.[4] 

 

كَانُوا يَصُومُونَ عَاشُورَاءَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُفْرَضَ رَمَضَانُ، وَكَانَ يَوْمًا تُسْتَرُ فِيهِ الكَعْبَةُ ، فَلَمَّا فَرَضَ اللَّهُ رَمَضَانَ، قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنْ شَاءَ أَنْ يَصُومَهُ فَلْيَصُمْهُ، وَمَنْ شَاءَ أَنْ يَتْرُكَهُ فَلْيَتْرُكْهُ»

 

The people used to fast on ‘Ashura (the tenth day of the month of Muharram) before the fasting of Ramadan was made obligatory. And on that day the Ka`ba used to be covered with a cover. When Allah made the fasting of the month of Ramadan compulsory, Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever wishes to fast (on the day of ‘Ashura’) may do so; and whoever wishes to leave it can do so.[5] 

 

أَرْسَلَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ غَدَاةَ عَاشُورَاءَ إِلَى قُرَى الأَنْصَارِ: «مَنْ أَصْبَحَ مُفْطِرًا، فَلْيُتِمَّ بَقِيَّةَ يَوْمِهِ وَمَنْ أَصْبَحَ صَائِمًا، فَليَصُمْ»، قَالَتْ: فَكُنَّا نَصُومُهُ بَعْدُ، وَنُصَوِّمُ صِبْيَانَنَا، وَنَجْعَلُ لَهُمُ اللُّعْبَةَ مِنَ العِهْنِ، فَإِذَا بَكَى أَحَدُهُمْ عَلَى الطَّعَامِ أَعْطَيْنَاهُ ذَاكَ حَتَّى يَكُونَ عِنْدَ الإِفْطَارِ

 

“The Prophet (ﷺ) sent a messenger to the village of the Ansar in the morning of the day of ‘Ashura’ (10th of Muharram) to announce: ‘Whoever has eaten something should not eat but complete the fast, and whoever is observing the fast should complete it.’ “She (the narrator Rubayyi Bint Muawwiz) further said, “Since then we used to fast on that day regularly and also make our boys fast. We used to make toys of wool for the boys and if anyone of them cried for, he was given those toys till it was the time of the breaking of the fast.[6] 

 

كَانَ يَوْمُ عَاشُورَاءَ تَصُومُهُ قُرَيْشٌ فِي الجَاهِلِيَّةِ، وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَصُومُهُ فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ المَدِينَةَ صَامَهُ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ [ص:25]، فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ رَمَضَانُ كَانَ رَمَضَانُ الفَرِيضَةَ، وَتُرِكَ عَاشُورَاءُ، فَكَانَ مَنْ شَاءَ صَامَهُ وَمَنْ شَاءَ لَمْ يَصُمْهُ»

 

During the Pre-lslamic Period of ignorance the Quraish used to observe fasting on the day of ‘Ashura’, and the Prophet (ﷺ) himself used to observe fasting on it too. But when he came to Medina, he fasted on that day and ordered the Muslims to fast on it. When (the order of compulsory fasting in ) Ramadan was revealed, fasting in Ramadan became an obligation, and fasting on ‘Ashura’ was given up, and who ever wished to fast (on it) did so, and whoever did not wish to fast on it, did not fast.[7] 

It is evident that the fasting of Ashura was introduced even before Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam’s time. This was originally the obligatory fast before fasting in the month of Ramadan was introduced.

 

Allamah Ibn Katheer Rahimahullah also mentions the corrupt beliefs of the Shias on the day of Ashura in his Tareekh whilst discussing the death of Sayyidina Husain Radhiallahu Anhu:

 

وَقَدْ أَسْرَفَ الرَّافِضَةُ فِي دَوْلَةِ بَنِي بُوَيْهٍ فِي حُدُودِ الْأَرْبَعِمِائَةٍ وَمَا حَوْلَهَا فَكَانَتِ الدَّبَادِبُ تُضْرَبُ بِبَغْدَادَ وَنَحْوِهَا مِنَ الْبِلَادِ فِي يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ، وَيُذَرُّ الرَّمَادُ وَالتِّبْنُ فِي الطُّرُقَاتِ وَالْأَسْوَاقِ، وَتُعَلَّقُ الْمُسُوحُ عَلَى الدَّكَاكِينِ، وَيُظْهِرُ النَّاسُ الْحُزْنَ وَالْبُكَاءَ، وَكَثِيرٌ مِنْهُمْ لَا يَشْرَبُ الْمَاءَ ليلتئذٍ مُوَافَقَةً لَلْحُسَيْنِ لَأَنَّهُ قتل عطشاناً. ثم تخرج النساء حاسرات عن وجههن يَنُحْنَ وَيَلْطِمْنَ وُجُوهَهُنَّ وَصُدُورَهُنَّ، حَافِيَاتٍ فِي الْأَسْوَاقِ إِلَى غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْبِدَعِ الشَّنِيعَةِ، وَالْأَهْوَاءِ الْفَظِيعَةِ، وَالْهَتَائِكِ

الْمُخْتَرَعَةِ وَإِنَّمَا يُرِيدُونَ بِهَذَا وَأَشْبَاهِهِ أَنْ يُشَنِّعُوا عَلَى دَوْلَةِ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ، لَأَنَّهُ قتل في دولتهم. وَقَدْ عَاكَسَ الرَّافِضَةَ وَالشِّيعَةَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ النَّوَاصِبُ من أهل الشَّام، فكانوا إلى يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ يَطْبُخُونَ الْحُبُوبَ وَيَغْتَسِلُونَ وَيَتَطَيَّبُونَ وَيَلْبَسُونَ أَفْخَرَ ثِيَابِهِمْ وَيَتَّخِذُونَ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ عِيدًا يَصْنَعُونَ فِيهِ أَنْوَاعَ الْأَطْعِمَةِ، وَيُظْهِرُونَ السُّرُورَ وَالْفَرَحَ، يُرِيدُونَ بِذَلِكَ عِنَادَ الرَّوَافِضِ وَمُعَاكَسَتَهُمْ

 

The Rafidah (Shia) transgressed the bounds in the Buyid Dynasty around the year 400. Drums would be beaten in Baghdad etc on the day of ‘Ashura, and ashes and crushed wheat would be dispersed on the roads and markets. Haircloths would be hung in the stores, and the people would show grief and tears, and many of them would not drink water on that night in imitation of Husain as he was killed while thirsty. Then the women would come out exposing their faces, wailing, striking their faces and their chests, walking barefooted in the markets. And other such revolting innovations and repulsive fancies and innovated violations [would take place]. They only intended by this and the likes of this to disfigure the Umayyad Dynasty, because he was killed during their reign. The Nawasib from the people of the Levant did the reverse of the Rafidah and Shi’ah on the day of ‘Ashura. Thus they would leading up to the day of ‘Ashura cook crops and bathe and apply fragrance and wear their best clothing and they would treat that day as an Eid, preparing various dishes on it, and they would display happiness and delight; intending thereby to spite the Rawafid and do the opposite of them.[8] 

 

  • It is important to note that when fasting on the day of Ashura, one should combine a fast either on the day before it or after it in order to avoid imitation of the Jews.[9]

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

AbdulMannan Nizami

Student Darul Iftaa
Chicago, IL, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net

 

[1]  2437 – حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، عَنِ الْحُرِّ بْنِ الصَّيَّاحِ، عَنْ هُنَيْدَةَ بْنِ خَالِدٍ، عَنِ امْرَأَتِهِ، عَنْ بَعْضِ، أَزْوَاجِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَتْ: «كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَصُومُ تِسْعَ ذِي الْحِجَّةِ، وَيَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ، وَثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ، أَوَّلَ اثْنَيْنِ مِنَ الشَّهْرِ وَالْخَمِيسَ» (أبو داود)

[2]  752 – حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدَةَ الضَّبِّيُّ، قَالاَ: حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ غَيْلاَنَ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مَعْبَدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: صِيَامُ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ، إِنِّي أَحْتَسِبُ عَلَى اللهِ أَنْ يُكَفِّرَ السَّنَةَ الَّتِي قَبْلَهُ. (ترمذي)

[3] صحيح البخاري (3/ 44)

حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنِ ابْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي يَزِيدَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا، قَالَ: «مَا رَأَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَتَحَرَّى صِيَامَ يَوْمٍ فَضَّلَهُ عَلَى غَيْرِهِ إِلَّا هَذَا اليَوْمَ، يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ، وَهَذَا الشَّهْرَ يَعْنِي شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ»

[4] [صحیح مسلم، کتاب الصیام، باب فضل یوم عاشورا، مکتبة رحمانیة]

[5] صحيح البخاري (2/ 148)

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ عُقَيْلٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا، وحَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُقَاتِلٍ قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ هُوَ ابْنُ المُبَارَكِ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي حَفْصَةَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: كَانُوا يَصُومُونَ عَاشُورَاءَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُفْرَضَ رَمَضَانُ، وَكَانَ يَوْمًا تُسْتَرُ فِيهِ الكَعْبَةُ [ص:149]، فَلَمَّا فَرَضَ اللَّهُ رَمَضَانَ، قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنْ شَاءَ أَنْ يَصُومَهُ فَلْيَصُمْهُ، وَمَنْ شَاءَ أَنْ يَتْرُكَهُ فَلْيَتْرُكْهُ»

[6] صحيح البخاري (3/ 37)

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ المُفَضَّلِ، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ ذَكْوَانَ، عَنِ الرُّبَيِّعِ بِنْتِ مُعَوِّذٍ، قَالَتْ: أَرْسَلَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ غَدَاةَ عَاشُورَاءَ إِلَى قُرَى الأَنْصَارِ: «مَنْ أَصْبَحَ مُفْطِرًا، فَلْيُتِمَّ بَقِيَّةَ يَوْمِهِ وَمَنْ أَصْبَحَ صَائِمًا، فَليَصُمْ»، قَالَتْ: فَكُنَّا نَصُومُهُ بَعْدُ، وَنُصَوِّمُ صِبْيَانَنَا، وَنَجْعَلُ لَهُمُ اللُّعْبَةَ مِنَ العِهْنِ، فَإِذَا بَكَى أَحَدُهُمْ عَلَى الطَّعَامِ أَعْطَيْنَاهُ ذَاكَ حَتَّى يَكُونَ عِنْدَ الإِفْطَارِ

[7] صحيح البخاري (6/ 24)

حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ المُثَنَّى، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا، قَالَتْ: «كَانَ يَوْمُ عَاشُورَاءَ تَصُومُهُ قُرَيْشٌ فِي الجَاهِلِيَّةِ، وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَصُومُهُ فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ المَدِينَةَ صَامَهُ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ [ص:25]، فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ رَمَضَانُ كَانَ رَمَضَانُ الفَرِيضَةَ، وَتُرِكَ عَاشُورَاءُ، فَكَانَ مَنْ شَاءَ صَامَهُ وَمَنْ شَاءَ لَمْ يَصُمْهُ»

 

صحيح البخاري (6/ 24)

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا، كَانَ عَاشُورَاءُ يُصَامُ قَبْلَ رَمَضَانَ فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ رَمَضَانُ قَالَ: «مَنْ شَاءَ صَامَ، وَمَنْ شَاءَ أَفْطَرَ»

[8] [البدایة والنھایة، سنة احدی وستین، فصل فی الاخبار بمقتل الحسین بن علی رضی اللہ عنہ، ج۸، ص٣٦٩، دار ابن رجب]

 

قِيلَ وَكَانَ عُمُرُ الْحُسَيْنِ يَوْمَ قُتِلَ خَمْسًا وَخَمْسِينَ سَنَةً، وَقِيلَ: قُتِلَ وَهُوَ ابْنُ إِحْدَى وَسِتِّينَ، وَلَيْسَ بِشَيْءٍ.

وَكَانَ قَتْلُهُ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ سَنَةَ إِحْدَى وَسِتِّينَ

[الكامل في التاريخ، سنة احدی وستین من الھجرة، ج۳، ص۱۳۱، دار الحدیث]

[9]  133 – (1134) وحَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْحُلْوَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَيُّوبَ، حَدَّثَنِي إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ أُمَيَّةَ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا غَطَفَانَ بْنَ طَرِيفٍ الْمُرِّيَّ، يَقُولُ: سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا، يَقُولُ: حِينَ صَامَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ إِنَّهُ يَوْمٌ تُعَظِّمُهُ الْيَهُودُ وَالنَّصَارَى فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «فَإِذَا كَانَ الْعَامُ الْمُقْبِلُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ صُمْنَا الْيَوْمَ التَّاسِعَ» قَالَ: فَلَمْ يَأْتِ الْعَامُ الْمُقْبِلُ، حَتَّى تُوُفِّيَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ (مسلم)

 

وَرُوِيَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: صُومُوا التَّاسِعَ وَالعَاشِرَ وَخَالِفُوا اليَهُودَ. (ترمذي)

 

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal rahimahullah narrates on the authority of Abdullah ibn Abbas radiallahu taala anhuma that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “Fast on the day of ‘Aashuraa, and also fast the day before or the one after to differ from the way of the Jews.” However, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam passed away before the coming of the next ‘aashuraa. This hadith teaches us that fasting on the 10th of Muharram is a sunna of our blessed Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and it is mustahab, i.e. desirable, to fast on the 9th or the 11th as well.

[10][Hans Wehr pg, 523]

 

السَّيْفُ: الَّذِي يُضربُ بِهِ مَعْرُوفٌ، وَالْجَمْعُ أَسْيَافٌ وسُيُوفٌ وأَسْيُفٌ؛ عَنِ اللِّحْيَانِيِّ؛ وأَنشد الأَزهري فِي جَمْعِ أَسْيُفٍ:

كأَنهم أَسْيُفٌ بِيضٌ يَمانِيةٌ، … عَضْبٌ مَضارِبُها باقٍ بِهَا الأُثُرُ

واسْتَافَ القومُ وتَسايَفُوا: تَضَارَبُوا بِالسُّيُوفِ. وَقَالَ ابْنُ جِنِّي: اسْتَافُوا تَناولوا السُّيوفَ كَقَوْلِكَ امْتَشَنُوا سُيُوفَهم وامْتَخَطوها، قَالَ: فأَما تَفْسِيرُ أَهل اللُّغَةِ أَنَّ اسْتَافَ القومُ فِي مَعْنَى تَسايَفُوا فَتَفْسِيرُهُ عَلَى الْمَعْنَى كَعَادَتِهِمْ فِي أَمثال ذَلِكَ

[لسان العرب،ج٤، ص٧٧٤، دار الحدیث]

 

السَّيْفُ، الَّذِي يُضْرَبُ بِهِ، م مَعْرُوفٌ، وأسْمَاؤُهُ تُنِيفُ علَى أَلْفٍ، وذَكَرْتُهَا فِي الرَّوْضِ الْمَسْلُوفِ فِيمَا لَهُ اسْمَانِ إِلَى الأُلُوفِ. ج:} أَسْيَافٌ، {وسُيُوفٌ، وَعَلَيْهِمَا اقْتَصَر الجَوْهَرِيُّ،} وأَسْيُفٌ، وهذِه عَن اللِّحْيَانِيِّ، {ومَسْيْفَةٌ، كَمَشْخَةٍ، وشاهدُ} أسْيُفٍ قَوْلُ الشاعِرِ، أَنْشَدَه الأًزْهَرِيُّ:

(كأَنَّهُمْ أَسْيُفٌ بِيضٌ يَمَانِيَةٌ … عَضْبٌ مَشَارِبُهَا باقٍ بهَا الأُثُرُ)

{وسَافَةُ،} يَسِيفُهُ: ضَرَبَهُ بِهِ، وَقد {سِفْتُهُ، فأَنَا} سَائِفٌ، نَقَلَهُ الجَوْهَرِيُّ، وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الفَرَّاءِ وَكَذَلِكَ: رَمَحْتُهُ، ونَقَلَهُ الكِسَائِيُّ أَيضاً. ورَجُلٌ سَائِفٌ: ذُو سَيْفٍ، نَقَلَهُ الجَوْهَرِيُّ

[تاج العروس، ج۱۲، ص۲۹۱، دار الفکر]

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Du’a for a New Year

At the approach of a New Year or month, the Sahabah (radiyallahu ‘anhum) would recite the following du’a.

Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn Hisham (radiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that the Sahabah (radiyallahu ‘anhum) would learn the following du’a for when the new month or New Year would begin:

اللّٰهُمَّ أَدْخِلْهُ عَلَيْنا بِالأَمْنِ وَالإِيمان وَالسَّلامَةِ وَالإسْلام وَرِضْوَانٍ مِّنَ الرَّحْمٰن وِجوارٍ مِّنَ الشَّيْطان

Allahumma adkhilhu ‘alayna bil amni wal iman, was salamati wal islam, wa ridwanim minar Rahman, wa jiwarim minash Shaytan

Translation: O Allah, bring this [month or year] upon us with security, iman, safety, Islam, your pleasure and protection from Shaytan.

(Al-Mu’jamul Awsat of Tabarani, Hadith: 6237)

‘Allamah Haythami (rahimahullah) has ruled the chain as sound (hasan).

(Majma’uz Zawaid, vol. 10 pg. 139-140)

Hafiz Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah) has graded the chain that was quoted by ‘Allamah Baghawi for this narration as authentic (sahih).

(Al-Isabah, no. 5007)

Lets learn this du’a and teach it to others. The Ummah is in dire need for every part of this du’a.

Download the PDF here

al-miftah

 

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Fasting on the 9th and 10th or 10th and 11th of Muharram

(As the element of tashabbuh (emulation) of the Jews is no longer found)

Q: I was recently informed by a friend that there is no need to fast on the 9th or 11th of Muharram together with the 10th in this era, as the element of tashabbuh (emulation) of the jews is no longer found. Is this correct?

 

A: Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) commanded the ummah to fast on either the 9th and 10th or the 10th and 11th of Muharram, in order to oppose the Jews who only fasted on the 10th.  Though opposing the Jews was the initial reason for Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) commanding the ummah to fast an extra day, once this practice has become a sunnah, it will not change, even if the Jews of today do not fast on the day of Aashura.

There are certain sunnah practices which the Sahaabah were commanded to carry out for certain reasons. However, despite those reasons no longer remaining in today’s times, since these practices have become practices of Deen, they will remain Sunnah for the rest of time. One such example is that of ramal in the tawaaf of Hajj and Umrah. In the Mubaarak era of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), when Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the Sahaabah came to Makkah Mukarramah to perform umrah, the Sahaabah were commanded by Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) to make ramal during tawaaf to show the mushrikeen of Makkah their bodily strength and might. The mushrikeen were under the impression that the Sahaabah had become very weak through staying in Madinah Munawwarah (as the climatic conditions of Madinah Munawwarah prior to the hijrat of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) were not conducive to good health and people would fall ill and succumb to sicknesses very easily). Despite this reason no longer remaining after the demise of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), ramal is still carried out as a sunnah practice in the tawaafs.

عن زيد بن أسلم عن أبيه قال : سمعت عمر يقول : فيم الرملان الآن وقد أطأ الله الإسلام ونفى الكفر وأهله وأيم الله ما ندع شيئا كنا نفعله على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ( سنن ابن ماجه ص211)

Hazrat Zaid bin Aslam (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) reports from his father who mentioned: I once heard Hazrat Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) saying, “Why do we need to make ramal presently, whereas Allah Ta‘ala has strengthened Islam and banished disbelief and the people of disbelief? (Hazrat Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) thereafter explained the reason for the practice of ramal remaining) By the oath of Allah! We will not abandon a practice which we would carry out during the blessed era of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam).”

It should be borne in mind that at times the Sunnah will be established through the Mubaarak words or actions of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and at times it will be established through the tawaaruth and taaamul of the ummah (i.e. a practice existing in the Mubaarak era of Sahaaba and continuing in the ummah throughout the centuries of Islam till this day). When we view the issue of fasting for two days in the Mubaarak month of Muharram, we realize that it conforms to the taamul of the the ummah throughout the centuries of Islam and will therefore continue to be practiced in this manner.

Hence, even if the Jews of today do not fast on the day of Aashura, the sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) regarding fasting on the 9th and 10th or 10th and 11th will not change. It is for this reason that the Fuqahaa have declared that fasting only on the day of Aashura is makrooh. (For further details on this issue, refer to http://muftionline.co.za/node/21912). 

And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

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