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Sayyidina Uthmaan (RA)

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Part Twenty Six

The Consideration of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) towards his Servants

‘Abdullah Roomi (rahimahullah) mentions that when Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) would perform wudhu during the night, he would not take assistance from anyone (in pouring the water over his limbs). When someone suggested to him that he appoint one of the servants to assist him and pour the water for him, he said, “No! I do not wish to take service from them at night as the night is the time for them to rest.”

(Tabaqaat ibn Sa’d vol. 3 pg. 44)

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Part Twenty Seven

Adopting a Soft and Lenient Approach when Dealing with People:

‘Ataa bin Farrookh (rahimahullah) narrates the following:

On one occasion, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) purchased a plot of land from a certain person. However, despite Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) calling the person to receive payment for the land, the person was delaying.

When Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) met the man thereafter, he asked him, “What prevents you from coming to collect your money?” The man replied, “The reason that I delayed in coming to collect the money is that I felt that you have not paid me a fair price for the land! Every person that I meet is rebuking me over the price at which I sold you the land.” Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) asked, “Is this really the reason for you not coming to collect your money?” The man replied in the affirmative.

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) addressed the man saying, “The sale is complete, However, I give you an option to cancel the sale and take back your land or to leave the sale as is and take your money.”

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) thereafter explained to him the reason for giving him the option of cancelling or allowing the sale to continue saying, “Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) had made du‘aa saying, ‘May Allah Ta‘ala bless that person with Jannah who adopts a soft and lenient approach with people at the time of purchasing, selling, making payment and requesting payment.”

(Musnad Ahmed #410)

 

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Part Twenty Eight

On one occasion, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) entered his pen and found his slave feeding fodder to a camel. On inspecting the fodder, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was not pleased with the manner in which the slave had prepared it and thus twisted his ear. After a little while, taking stock of his actions, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) became concerned and feared that he should not be taken to task for this action in the Hereafter.

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) thus addressed the slave saying, “Take retribution from me,” but the slave refused to do so. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) continued to insist, until the slave agreed and began to twist his ear. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then instructed him, “Twist it harder!” until he was satisfied that the slave had inflicted on him the same pain that he had inflicted on the slave.

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then exclaimed, “How wonderful is the retribution which is taken in this world, before it can be claimed in the next world!”

(Al-Ahwaal libni Abid Dunya #264, Akhbaar-ul-Madinah #1777)

Note: Disciplining the slave was permissible for Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). However, he asked the slave to take retribution from him as he feared that he could have overstepped the mark in disciplining the slave. This conduct of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was, in actual fact, a reflection of the fear of Allah Ta‘ala within him, and the concern of accountability in the Hereafter. May Allah Ta‘ala bless us with the taufeeq of emulating Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) in being concerned about our spiritual reformation and the accountability of the Hereafter.

 

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Part Twenty Nine

The Character of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu):

Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Uthmaan Al-Qurashi (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) reports that on one occasion, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) entered the home of his respected daughter, Hazrat Ruqayyah (radhiyallahu ‘anha), while she was serving her husband, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and washing his hair. Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) addressed her saying, “O my beloved daughter! Serve your husband, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), well for he possesses excellent character and resembles me the most in sublime character from all my Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum).”

(Majma’uz Zawaa’id #14500, 14501)

 

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Part Thirty

During the era of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), there was a need to extend Musjid-e-Nabawi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). For this purpose, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) required a certain plot of land that was adjacent to the musjid. Hence, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) approached an Ansaari Sahaabi (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) who was the owner of this land and encouraged him to give it in the path of Allah for the musjid saying, “If you give this land for the musjid, you will receive a palace in Jannah.” However, the Ansaari Sahaabi (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) did not wish to donate his land as he needed the land.

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then came to the Ansaari Sahaabai (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and offered to purchase the plot of land from him for ten thousand dirhams. The Ansaari Sahaabi (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) accepted the offer and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) purchased the land. Thereafter, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) came to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and said, “O Rasul of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)! Accept from me the land that I purchased from the Ansaari Sahaabi (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), in exchange of a palace in Jannah! Indeed I purchased the plot of land for ten thousand dirhams.” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) accepted the land from Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) in exchange of a palace in Jannah.

Thereafter, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) commenced the foundation-laying by placing the first brick. He then called Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to lay the second brick, after which he called Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to lay the third brick. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was then asked to place the fourth brick. Finally, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) instructed all the other Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) to lay the bricks and commence the extension.

(Majma’uz Zawaa’id #14524)

Note: There are different narrations regarding the amount that Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) contributed towards the extension of the musjid. In the narration of Sunan Daaraqutni #4436, it is mentioned that he contributed twenty or twenty five thousand dirhams. However, ten thousand dirhams has been mentioned in the narration above. According to ‘Allaamah Samhoodi (rahimahullah), both narrations refer to the same incident of extending the musjid. This was the second time that Musjid-e-Nabawi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) underwent construction. Hence, it is possible that Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) initially paid ten thousand dirhams to purchase the land, and thereafter spent more wealth which equaled an additional ten or fifteen thousand dirhams for the construction.

 

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Part Thirty One

On one occasion, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) approached a certain person in Makkah Mukarramah and said to him, “O so-and-so! Why do you not sell your house to me, so that I can use the land to extend the musjid around the Ka’bah, and in reward for this good action (besides the money that you will receive for the house), I will guarantee you a palace in Jannah?” The man replied, “O Rasul of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)! By Allah, I do not possess any other house besides this house! If I sell you my house, there will be nothing to shelter my children and I in Makkah Mukarramah.”

Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) again encouraged the man saying, “Despite what you have mentioned, sell your house to me, so that I can use the land to extend the musjid around the Ka’bah, and in reward for this good action, I will guarantee you a palace in Jannah.” The man replied, “By Allah! I do not intend selling my house.”

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) thereafter learnt of what had transpired. He thus went to the man, who was his friend from the pre-Islamic era, and said, “O so-and-so! I have learned that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) intended buying your house, to use the land to extend the musjid around the Ka’bah, and in reward for this good action, he had guaranteed you a palace in Jannah, and you declined to accept his offer.” The man replied, “Yes, I did decline.”

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then continued to encourage him to sell his house, until he eventually agreed and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) purchased it from him for 10 000 dinars (gold coins).

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then proceeded to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and said, “O Rasul of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)! I learnt that you intended to buy the house of so-and-so, to use the land to extend the musjid around the Ka’bah, and you had guaranteed the owner a palace in Jannah. The house now belongs to me, as I have purchased it from the owner. Will you accept it from me for free and guarantee me a palace in Jannah?” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) replied in the affirmative and accepted the house from Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), guaranteeing him a palace in Jannah and making the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) witness to that.

(Fazaa’il-us-Sahaabah lil-Imaam Ahmed bin Hambal #784, Mirqaat 9/3922)

 

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Part Thirty Two

Hazrat Haani (rahimahullah), the freed slave of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), mentions that when Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) would stand at a grave, he would weep so profusely that his beard would become wet with his tears. Someone asked Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), “We notice that when you remember Jannah and Jahannum and discuss them, then you are not affected to the point that you begin to cry, yet when you stand at a grave, then we see you so overcome by fear that you begin to cry profusely. What is the reason for this?”

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) replied, “Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, ‘The grave is the first stage from the stages of the Hereafter. If one passes this stage and gains salvation, then there is hope that the stages to come will be easier, and if one does not pass this stage and gain salvation, then the stages to come will be even more difficult and severe for him.”

(Sunan Tirmizi #2308)

 

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Part Thirty Three

During the khilaafat of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Huzaifah bin Yamaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was sent with the people of Iraq and Shaam to wage jihaad in Armenia and Azerbaijan.

While in those lands, Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) noticed that the people were disputing with one another in regard to the different dialects of the Qur’aan Majeed. Each group, not being familiar with the dialect of the next, began to regard their dialect to be better, and in certain cases, even denied the other dialect.

This condition of the people greatly worried and concerned Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), as it was resulting in the people denying the Qur’aan Majeed. This concern prompted him to immediately mount his conveyance and set out for Madinah Munawwarah. When he reached Madinah Munawwarah, even before going to see his family, he came to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to alert him regarding the fitnah and urge him to address it. Hence, Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), “Save this ummah before they differ and dispute in the Qur’aan Majeed as the Jews and Christians disputed regarding their scriptures, and this led to their misguidance.”

 

Prior to Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) coming to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) with this concern, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had noticed the very same condition in Madinah Munawwarah and addressed the people saying, “You people are here with me in Madinah Munawwarah, yet you are disputing regarding the different dialects of the Qur’aan Majeed. If this is your condition here in Madinah Munawwarah, then I can well imagine what the condition of the people who are far away from Madinah Munawwarah will be.” Thus, when Hazrat Huzaifah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) brought the news of the disputes to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), it was not a surprise to him but rather confirmed what he had anticipated.

The Qur’aan Majeed which had been compiled by Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was in the care of Hazrat Hafsah (radhiyallahu ‘anha) at that time. Hence, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) sent a message to Hazrat Hafsah (radhiyallahu ‘anha), requesting her to send the Qur’aan Majeed to them so that they could keep it before them and prepare numerous copies of the Qur’aan Majeed that would all have a standard dialect of the Qur’aan conforming to the original dialect of the Quraish which was revealed to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam).

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then entrusted the task of compiling these copies of the Qur’aan Majeed to Hazrat Zaid bin Thaabit (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), as he was the scribe of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and was tasked with the responsibility of compiling the Qur’aan in one book form during the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had commanded that Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin Zubair (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Sa‘eed bin ‘Aas (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin Haarith bin Hishaam (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) also assist him in this task. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) addressed these Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) saying, “When any of you differ with Hazrat Zaid bin Thaabit (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) regarding the manner in which any word should be written, then write it according to the dialect of the Quraish, as the Qur’aan Majeed was revealed in their dialect.”

After the numerous copies were prepared, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) sent them to the various corners of the Islamic empire and had all other copies of the Qur’aan Majeed burnt, as it would lead to the Qur’aan getting lost.

Note:

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), with the consensus of all the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), had all the other dialects burnt, as the permission to recite the Qur’aan in the other dialects was regarded as a concession in deen for those tribes that were experiencing difficulty in reciting certain words according to the dialect of the Quraish. Hence, at that time, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) granted certain tribes permission to replace certain words with words of their own tribe when they found these words difficult to pronounce in the dialect of the Quraish. Hence, there was no change in the Qur’aan according to the different dialects, and it was a mere concession granted to certain tribes. However, when this concession was leading to the Qur’aan being lost or destroyed, then the concession no longer remained and it was agreed upon by the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) that the Qur’aan would have to be recited according to the original dialect of the Quraish.

Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said, “Do not speak anything regarding Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and the decision that he made concerning the Qur’aan but good. By Allah, he only took this decision concerning the Qur’aan Majeed with the consensus of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum).”

(Saheeh Bukhaari #4987, Fat-hul Baari vol. 9 pg. 16, also refer to Al-Kawkabud Durri of Hazrat Moulana Gangohi (rahimahullah))

 

 

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 Part Thirty Four

The aunt of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Su‘daa, recited the following poetry when he married the respected daughter of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), Hazrat Ruqayyah (radhiyallahu ‘anha):

هدى الله عثمان الصيفي بقوله      فأرشده والله يهدي إلى الحق

فتابع بالرأي السديد محمدا      وكان ابن أروى لا يصد عن الحق

وأنكحه المبعوث إحدى بناته      فكان كبدر مازج الشمس في الأفق

فداؤك يا ابن الهاشميين مهجتي      فأنت أمين الله أرسلت في الخلق

Allah has guided His fortunate servant ‘Uthmaan towards the path of guidance. Allah has blessed him with divine guidance and Allah alone guides those whom He wishes towards the truth.

After all, he is the son of Arwaa, and the son of Arwaa treaded on the path of truth and did not move away from it.

And the one sent as the Nabi of Allah (Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)) handed one of his daughters to him in marriage. This union is such that it resembles the sun and the full moon combining on the horizon.

May my life be sacrificed for you, O son of the Banu Haashim (Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam))! You are the trustee of Allah over deen and you have been sent for the guidance of the entire creation.

(Isaabah 8/178)

 

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 Part Thirty-Five

Appointment as the Khalifah:

Before passing away, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) did not appoint any specific person to succeed him as the Khalifah. Instead, when someone suggested to Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) that he appoint the next Khalifah, he said, “If I do not appoint a Khalifah, then Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) did not appoint a Khalifah, and if I appoint a Khalifah, then Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had appointed a Khalifah.”

Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) says, “By Allah! When I heard my father mention the example of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), then I knew that he would choose the example of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and would not equate any one to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). Hence, I understood that he would not appoint a Khalifah.”

In one report, it is mentioned that Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) replied in the following words:

“If I appoint a Khalifah, then the person who was before me and superior to me appointed a Khalifah (referring to Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddeeq (radhiyallahu ‘anhu)), and if I do not appoint a Khalifah, then there was someone before me who did not appoint a Khalifah (referring to Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)).”

(Saheeh Muslim #567 and #1823)

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 Part Thirty Six

Appointment as the Khalifah (continued)

Before passing away, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) formed a Shura (council) consisting of the following six Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum):

Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Zubair (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Sa’d (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).

In regard to these six Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum), Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) mentioned, “I do not find any people to be more worthy of the Khilaafah than this group of Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) on account of the fact that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) left this world in the condition that he was extremely pleased with them.”

In this manner, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) decided that this Shura of six Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) would decide among themselves and reach a conclusion as to who which of them would be appointed as the Khalifah. Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) also instructed that they should make the decision within three days.

Although Hazrat Sa’eed bin Zaid (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was also worthy of the Khilaafah, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) did not appoint him to this Shura. The reason is that he was the cousin of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) did not want to appoint any of his family members to succeed him as the Khalifah.

Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) also advised the Shura to include his son, Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma), in their mashura in order to assist them to nominate the Khalifah, and Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made it clear that he should not be made the Khalifah.

(To be continued insha Allah)

(Saheeh Bukhaari #3700, Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 295-296, Tabaqaat ibnu Sa’d vol. 3 pg. 261, Fat-hul Baari vol. 7 pg. 84 and Al-Ishaa’ah pg. 34)

 

 

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Part Thirty Seven

Appointment as the Khalifah (continued)

After appointing the Shura of six personalities, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) further remarked, “I do not think that the people will regard any person to be as great as Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). These two Sahaabah would record the wahi with the instruction of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) at the time when Hazrat Jibreel (‘alaihis salaam) would bring the wahi to him.”

Before passing away, Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) appointed Hazrat Suhaib bin Sinaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to lead the salaah until the Khalifah was elected. When Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) breathed his last and it was time to perform his janaazah salaah, Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) both rushed forward as each wished to receive the honour of leading the janaazah salaah of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). However, Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said, “The two of you do not have the right to lead the salaah. The right to lead the salaah belongs to Hazrat Suhaib (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), as Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) appointed him to lead the people in salaah.”

In this manner, Hazrat Suhaib (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) went forward and led the people in the janaazah salaah of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).

(To be continued insha Allah)

(Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 296)

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 Part Thirty Eight

Appointment as the Khalifah (continued)

After the janaazah salaah of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was performed, the members of the Shura went into the grave with Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) in order to lower the body of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) into the grave. However, from the members of the Shura, Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) did not descend into the grave as he was not present on that occasion.

After Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was laid in his grave and the burial was complete, Hazrat Miqdaad bin Aswad (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) gathered the Shura members in the home of Hazrat Miswar bin Makhramah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). They then sat in the house to make the decision while Hazrat Abu Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) stood guard to prevent people from entering and disturbing the Shura.

After Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) arrived, the members of the Shura agreed that three of them would forego their right and make it over to another member of the Shura. In this way, Hazrat Zubair (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Sa’d (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).

(To be continued insha Allah)

(Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 296)

 

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Part Thirty Nine

Appointment as the Khalifah (continued)

After Hazrat Zubair (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat Sa’d (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and Hazrat Talhah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) made his right over to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) also forewent his right, leaving the Khilaafah between Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).

Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then asked Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) if they would allow him to pass the decision as to which one of them would be the Khalifah. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) agreed to his proposal and also pledged that they would wholeheartedly abide by his decision. The members of the Shura then dispersed.

Thereafter, for the next three days and nights, Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) approached the people of Madinah Munawwarah, asking them who they felt should be appointed as the Khalifah. He also approached the eminent and prominent personalities of Madinah Munawwarah, at times, individually, and at times, collectively. He discussed the matter with some openly and others secretly, in accordance to what he felt most appropriate. He also enquired regarding the opinion of the womenfolk and the children of Madinah Munawwarah, as well as the travellers and Bedouins who came to Madinah Munawwarah during these three days.

Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) barely slept during these three days and nights. Instead, he remained engaged in salaah, du‘aa, istikhaarah and consulting the people. After the three days elapsed, the outcome of his enquiry was that the people felt that though both were worthy of the Khilaafah, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was more worthy as the people did not see anybody equal to him.

(To be continued insha Allah)

(Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 296-297)

 

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Part Forty

Appointment as the Khalifah (continued)

After the three days and nights had elapsed, Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) came to the home of his nephew, Hazrat Miswar bin Makhramah (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). On arriving, he found him asleep, and thus awoke him saying, “You are sleeping, O Miswar? By Allah, I indeed had very little sleep for the last three days!”

Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then said to him, “Go and call Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).” Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) asked, “Who should I call first?” Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) replied, “Whoever you wish.”

Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then went to Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and informed him that Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had called for him. Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) asked, “Did he instruct you to call anyone else with me?” Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) replied, “He instructed me to call Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) as well.” When Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) asked him who he was instructed to call first, he replied that he was not instructed to call anyone first, but was told that he could call whoever he wanted first.

Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) thus left his home with Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). As they proceeded, they passed by the house of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) remained seated outside the house while Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) entered the house to call Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). On entering, he informed Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) that Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had sent for him. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then asked him the same question that Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had asked, regarding who he had been instructed to call first, and received the same answer that Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had received. The three of them then set off towards Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).

(To be continued insha Allah)

(Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol. 7 pg. 297)

 

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Part Forty One

Appointment as the Khalifah (continued)

On arriving at the home of Hazrat Miswar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) found Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin ‘Auf (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) standing in salaah.

When he completed his salaah, he turned to Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and said, “I have asked the people regarding the two of you, and I did not find any person who considered anyone from among the people to be greater than you in deeni status and position.”

Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then made Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) pledge that from the two of them, the one whom he appointed as Khalifah would definitely rule with justice, and the one who was not appointed would definitely be pleased with the decision that was taken and accept the other person as Khalifah.

Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) thereafter wore the turban that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) had tied on his head, he strapped on his sword and went with Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to the musjid. Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) sent a message to the eminent Sahaabah of the Muhaajireen and Ansaar summoning them, and also instructed for a general announcement to be made, calling the people to the musjid. Accordingly, people began to come to the musjid, forming rows, until the musjid was filled with people.

Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) could not find any place to sit and thus, on account of his high level of hayaa, sat behind all the people in the musjid.

Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then ascended the mimbar of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and stood on the step which Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) would sit on. He stood there for a lengthy period and made a long du‘aa which the people could hear. He then addressed the people saying, “O people! I have asked you (regarding Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu)) in private and in public, in pairs and individually, and I found that you did not equate anybody to these two Sahaabah.”

Hazrat ‘Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then held the hand of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and declared him to be the Khalifah. He thereafter made Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) sit on the step of the mimbar below him so that the people could come to him and pledge their allegiance. From all the people, it was Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) who came first and pledged his allegiance to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).

(Al-Bidaayah-wan-Nihaayah vol 7 pg. 297-298)

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Part Forty Two

Hazrat Mu‘aaz (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) mentioned:

I was once in Mina with Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). On that occasion, he asked me, “Which person do you think that the people will be pleased to appoint as Khalifah after me?” I replied, “The people are most pleased with Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).”

(Siyar A’laam min Nubalaa 2/155)

When Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was appointed as the Khalifah, Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ood (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) remarked, “We appointed the best of the Sahaabah who remained after Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), and we did not fall short in appointing the best person as Khalifah.”

(Siyar A’laam min Nubalaa 2/156)

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Part Forty Three

When Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was in his final illness, he dictated the following letter to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) in which he appointed Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) as the Khalifah after him:

Bismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem

This is the instruction of Abu Bakr, the son of Abu Quhaafah, at the very end of his life in this world, while exiting the world and entering the life of the Hereafter, and he is close to reaching the point (of the throes of death, wherein the signs of the Hereafter become clear to a person and) where a kaafir will wish that he had brought Imaan, a sinner realizes and gains full conviction of his condition, and a liar will wish to become truthful.

 I have appointed ‘Umar, the son of Khattaab, as the Khalifah over you. You should thus listen to him and express complete obedience to him, for indeed I have not fallen short in fulfilling my obligation to Allah, His Rasul (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), His deen, and the right I owe to myself and to you, in appointing the best person over you who is most worthy of the Khilaafah from the people.

If he rules with justice then that is what I expect of him and that is what I know of him, and if he changes his ways ( after I leave this world, and becomes evil and oppressive) then each man will have to bear the sin that he earns. It is only goodness that I intended in appointing him, and I do not have knowledge of the unseen.

وَسَيَعْلَمُ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوٓا۟ أَىَّ مُنقَلَبٍ يَنقَلِبُونَ

The wrongdoers will soon come to know to what end they will return

Was salaamu ‘alaikum warahmatullah

To be continued Insha Allah

(Hayaatus Sahaabah 2/ 31)

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Part Forty Four

When Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) commenced dictating the letter and he reached the point where the name of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was going to be written, he fell unconscious before he could mention the name of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) immediately continued the letter for Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) by writing, “I have appointed ‘Umar, the son of Khattaab, as the Khalifah over you.

On regaining consciousness, Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) said to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), “Read to me what you have written.” Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) thus read the sentence in which Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was appointed as the Khalifah. Hearing this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) exclaimed, “Allahu Akbar! I see that you feared that if I had passed away while unconscious, before the name of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) could be written, people could have differed regarding the Khilaafah. May Allah Ta‘ala reward you well on behalf of Islam and the Muslims (for writing the name of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) as I also feel that he is the most worthy for the Khilaafah after my demise). I take an oath in the name of Allah! You have the capability of becoming the Khalifah!”

Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then instructed for the letter to be sealed and thereafter handed it to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to read to the people. Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) went to the people with Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and Hazrat Usaid bin Sa‘eed Al-Qurazi (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and said to them, “Will you pledge allegiance to the person who has been appointed as the Khalifah in this letter?” The people said yes, and Hazrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) further said, “We know whose name is contained in the letter – it is Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).” The other people also expressed their desire that Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) be appointed as the Khalifah, and they all happily and wholeheartedly pledged allegiance at his hands.

(Hayaatus Sahaabah 2/ 31-33)

 

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Part Forty Five

Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then called Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) in private and gave him certain advices. Thereafter, when Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) left the room, Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) raised his hands high and made the following du‘aa:

O Allah! I only intended the good and benefit of the ummah in appointing Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). I fear that if I do not appoint the correct person, the people will fall into fitnah after my demise, and hence I have decided that which I felt was most appropriate, but You know best. After pondering deeply over the matter, I have appointed over them the one whom I felt was the best among them, the most capable of leading the people, and the most desirous for that which will ensure their guidance and goodness. I am now beset by Your command of death which has come to me, so You see to their affairs after me, as they are Your slaves and their forelocks are in Your control. I beseech You to decide that which is the best for them in appointing their Khalifah after me. Make Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) be among the Khulafaa-e-Raashideen (rightly guided Khalifas) who will follow the blessed way and example of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), the Nabi of mercy, and the way of all the righteous servants whose positions come after the position of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) (from the Ambiyaa (‘alaihimus salaam)) after him, and make his subjects righteous and obedient to him.

(Hayaatus Sahaabah 2/ 31-33)

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Part Forty Six

According to some narrations, before Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) commenced dictating the letter, he said to Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), “Give me mashura and advise me regarding who I should appoint as the Khalifah, for by Allah, in my sight, you are also worthy of the position of Khilaafah.” Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) replied, “I will write the name of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu)” and he then commenced writing the letter. However, when he reached the point where the name of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) had to be written, Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) fell unconscious. Since, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) knew that Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) wanted Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) to be the next Khalifah, he wrote his name.

Thereafter, when Hazrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) regained consciousness, he specified, “Write the name of Hazrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).”

(Hayaatus Sahaabah 2/ 31-33)

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 Part Forty Seven

‘Uthmaan bin Mawhab (rahimahullah) narrates the following:

On one occasion, a person from Egypt arrived in Makkah Mukarramah and performed haj. While in Makkah Mukaaramah, he saw a group of people seated and asked, “Who are these people?” They replied, “These are the Quraish.” He then asked, “Who is the most learned amongst them?” They replied, “The most learned among them is Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma).”

The Egyptian man thus addressed Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) saying, “O Ibnu ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma)! I wish to ask you regarding something, so please answer my questions.” The man thereafter commenced asking his questions. He asked, “Do you know that Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) fled during the Battle of Uhud?” Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) replied, “Yes.”

The man next asked, “Do you know that Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was absent during the Battle of Badr?” Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) replied, “Yes.”

Finally, the man asked, “Do you know that Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was absent during the Bay‘ah of Ridwaan and did not participate in it?” Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) replied, “Yes.” As this Egyptian was biased against Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and had ill feelings for him, he exclaimed, “Allahu Akbar!” in happiness, thinking that Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) supported the stance that he held against Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) then said to him, “Come, let me explain to you the reality of what you are asking about.”

Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) then explained:

As for Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) fleeing during the Battle of Uhud, I bear witness that Allah Ta‘ala pardoned him and forgave him, together with the other Sahaabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) that fled during the Battle of Uhud (as Allah Ta‘ala declared forgiveness in the Qur’aan Majeed for all those who fled during the Battle of Uhud).

As for Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) not participating in the Battle of Badr, then the reason is that he was married to the respected daughter of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) and she was ill. Hence, Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) remained behind on the instruction of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) so that he could attend to her and nurse her. Thus Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said to him, “You will receive the reward of the one who participated in Badr and you will also receive a share in the booty.”

As for Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) being absent during the Bay‘ah of Ridwaan, then the reason is that there was no person who was more honored in the sight of the people of Makkah Mukarramah then Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). Hence, Rasululah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) sent him to speak to the people of Makkah (and inform them that the Muslims had only come to perform ‘umrah and had not come to fight). Had anyone been more honored than Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu), Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) would have sent that person instead of him. The Bay‘ah of Ridwaan only took place after Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) went to Makkah on the instruction of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) (as the rumor had spread that the people of Makkah had killed Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu)). Since Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) was not present for the bay‘ah, Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) gestured with his own blessed right hand saying, “This is the hand of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).” Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) then placed his blessed right hand on his left hand and pledged allegiance on behalf of Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu).

Hazrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu ‘anhuma) then addressed the man and said, “Go, and take these answers to your objections against Hazrat ‘Uthmaan (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) so that you do not harbor ill feelings against him.”

(Saheeh Bukhaari #3698)

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