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Foreword and approval on the research by Shaykh (Mufti) Ebrahim Desai (HA)

Moulana Ismail Moosa (Sallamahu) has completed his first year Mufti course at the Darul ifta.

 

There is still much confusion on the issue of masah on socks, especially in America, Canada, UK, and the Middle East countries where masah is made on regular cotton or nylon socks

 

This is of particular concern to people performing Salah behind Imams who make masah on regular cotton or nylon socks. The Darul Iftaa regularly receives queries i n this regard. Amongst other queries are the follow ing:

 

  1. Is the Imams wudhu valid?
  2. Is the follower’s wudhu valid?
  3. Should we perform our own Salah etc.?

 

Recently, a new sock, SealSkinz has come into the market and the position of wiping on that is being queried.

 

Alhamdulillah, Moulana Ismail Moosa (Sallamahu) in this document has discussed the issue in much detail. Healso proves the impermissibility of masah on regular cotton socks. He concludes that masah on SealSkinz is permissible.

 

This treatise should be presented to Imams and trustees of the Masaajid. The issue of masah on regularsocks MUST be considered before appointing a person as an Imam of the Masjid.

 

(Mufti) Ebrahim Desai Saheb

 

An extensive Research on Wiping on Socks by Shaykh (Mufti) Ismail Moosa (HA)

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Q. What does Quran / Hadith say about performing Masah over socks?

 

A. Assalāmu `alaikum Warahmatullāhi Wabrakatuh,

Making masah on cotton socks is not permissible because they do not meet the requirements outlined by the jurists. One may make masah on leather socks with the relevant injunctions.

( قوله أو جوربيه ) الجورب لفافة الرجل قاموس ، وكأنه تفسير باعتبار اللغة ، لكن العرف خص اللفافة بما ليس بمخيط والجورب بالمخيط ونحوه الذي يلبس كما يلبس الخف شرح المنية ( قوله ولو من غزل أو شعر ) دخل فيه الجوخ كما حققه في شرح المنية

وقال : وخرج عنه ما كان من كرباس بالكسر : وهو الثوب من القطن الأبيض ويلحق بالكرباس كل ما كان من نوع الخيط كالكتان والإبريسم ونحوهما وتوقف ح في وجه عدم جواز المسح عليه إذا وجد فيه الشروط الأربعة التي ذكرها الشارح وأقول : الظاهر أنه إذا وجدت فيه الشروط يجوز وأنهم أخرجوه لعدم تأتي الشروط فيه غالبا يدل عليه ما في كافي النسفي حيث علل جواز المسح على الجورب من كرباس بأنه لا يمكن تتابع المشي عليه فإنه يفيد أنه لو أمكن جاز ويدل عليه أيضا ما في ط عن الخانية أن كل ما كان في معنى الخف في إدمان المشي عليه وقطع السفر به ولو من لبد رومي يجوز المسح عليه - رد المحتار (1/499) دار المعرفة

 

Masah should be made on the top section of the leather socks and not of the soles. The method of performing the masah is that after wetting the fingers, they should be placed in the front i.e. the toes. Place the fingers flat on the socks with the palms away from them. Thereafter, draw or pull the fingers towards the ankles. If the palms are also placed flat on the socks together with the fingers, it will be permissible.

(Bahishti Zewar vol. 1, pg. 95)

 

والسنة أن يخطه ( خطوطا بأصابع ) يد ( مفرجة ) قليلا ( يبدأ من ) قبل ( أصابع رجله ) متوجها ( إلى ) أصل ( الساق ) ومحله ( على ظاهر خفيه ) من رءوس أصابعه إلى معقد الشراك- الدر المختار (1/497) دار المعرفة

 

 

( قوله والسنة إلخ ) أفاد أن إظهار الخطوط ليس بشرط وهو ظاهر الرواية ، بل هو شرط السنة في المسح وكيفيته كما ذكره قاضي خان في شرح الجامع الصغير أن يضع أصابع يده اليمنى على مقدم خفه الأيمن وأصابع يده اليسرى على مقدم خفه الأيسر من قبل الأصابع ، فإذا تمكنت الأصابع يمدها حتى ينتهي إلى أصل الساق فوق الكعبين ؛ لأن الكعبين يلحقهما فرض الغسل ويلحقهما سنة المسح ، وإن وضع الكفين مع الأصابع كان أحسن هكذا روي عن محمد ا هـ بحرأقول : وظاهره أن التيامن فيه غيره مسنون كما في مسح الأذن وفي الحلية : والمستحب أن يمسح بباطن اليد لا بظاهرها ( قوله قليلا ) ذكره في البحر عن الخلاصة ( قوله ومحله ) زاده على المتن ، ليعلم أن ذلك شرط ( قوله على ظاهر خفيه ) قيد به إذ لا يجوز المسح على الباطن والعقب والساق درر - رد المحتار (1/497) دار المعرفة

 

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mufti Faizal Riza,

Australia.

Checked and Approved by,

Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net

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By Mufti Taqi Usmani

Translated by Ebrahim Saifuddin

 

khuff.jpg

 

Question: On what types of socks is Masah permissible? What do 'Ulema of Islam say regarding this?

a) As far as masah on leather socks is concerned, in this matter the opinion of permissibility is almost unanimous.

However, there is some difference regarding masah on socks made out of wool, cotton, nylon etc. Some put conditions to the permissibility of masah on such socks. One famous personality of present times says that masah on socks of all types is permissible without any restrictions.

 

b) Below is what this famous personality says regarding the conditions which fuqaha (jurists) have placed on the permissibility of masah on such socks:

 

“I have tried to find the basis for such conditions but I could not find anything in the Sunnah. From Sunnah it is established that the prophet Muhammad (saw) did masah on socks and shoes. Apart from Nasai, Book of Sunan and Musnad Ahmed relate from Mugheera Ibn Sha'bah that prophet Muhammad (saw) performed wudhu (ablution) and did masah on his socks and shoes (masah 'ala al-jurbain wa al-na'layn). Abu Dawood says that Ali (ra), Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (ra), Bara' ibn 'azab (ra), Anas ibn Malik (ra), Abu Amamah (ra), Suhail bin Sa'd (ra) and 'Umar bin Harith (ra) all did masah on socks and this act is also related from 'Umar (ra) and 'Abbas (ra). Furthermore Baihaqi relates from Ibn 'Abbas (ra) and Anas bin Malik (ra) and Tahawi relates from Ovais ibn Aus that prophet Muhammad (saw) performed masah only on his shoes. There is no mention of socks in these narrations and the same act is narrated by 'Ali (ra). These narrations prove that not only is masah on socks permissible but masah on shoes worn on socks is also permissible. None of these narrations mention the prophet Muhammad (saw) had put conditions on performing masah like fuqaha have put conditions. Moreover none of these narrations mention the material out of which the socks were made on which the prophet Muhammad (saw) and Sahabah (Companions) did masah.

 

Because of this I am compelled to say that there is no basis for the conditions which the fuqaha have put on masah of socks and thus if anyone does not follow their conditions then he will not be sinful. The summary of this research is that masah can be done on all forms of socks whether they are made of wool, cotton, nylon or of some other material, leather or oilcloth. In fact if cloth is wrapped around the feet then masah on it is also permissible.”

 

Apart from him, Allama Ibn Taymiyyah has also given the same fatwa in volume 2 of his fatawa book. Hafiz ibn Qayyim and Allama Ibn Hazm have the same ruling that masah can be performed on any type of socks without any restriction.

 

Answer: None of the Imams and Mujtahideen have regarded it permissible to do masah on the type of wollen, cotton and nylon socks that are available today. You have understood it incorrectly that there is a difference of opinion regarding this matter. In fact the opinion of impermissibility is unanimous regarding such thin socks.

This is what Malik al 'Ulema Kasani رحمة اللہ علیہ writes:

 

“So if socks are so thin that water can be strained through them then as per ijma masah on them is impermissible.” (Bada'i al-sana'i vol.1 page 10)

'Allamah Ibn Najeem رحمة اللہ علیہ writes:

 

ولا یجوز المسح علی الجورب الرقیق من غز ل اوشعر بلا خلاف ولو کان ثخینا یمشی معة فرسخا فضا عدا فعلی الخلاف

 

"It is not permissible to do masah on a sock made out of  hair Ghazl (i.e. cotton, wool etc) and that is without any disagreement among the 'ulema. If the sock is thick and it is possible to walk with it about 3 miles, then there is a disagreement." (al-Jar al-Raiq Vol.1 pg 192)

This shows that the socks which do not have to condition of “thakheen” ( ثخین ) i.e. water can be strained through them or they need to be tied because they cant stay upright because of their thickness or one cant walk a mile in them without shoes then masah on them is not permissible in the madhhab of any mujtahid. Yes, the socks which fulfill all these three conditions, there is a difference of opinion regarding masah on them.

As far as Syed Abu al-'ala Maududi is concerned, he has taken a different path from the majority and this matter is one such place where he adopted an opinion different from the majority fuqaha. This is a serious mistake on his part. The arguments of Maududi which you have presented show that he did not try to understand the reality of this matter in its entirety. For your satisfaction the gist of the matter is explained hereunder.

The Qur'an in Surah Maidah has defined a method to do wudhu which includes the command to wash your feet and not to do masah on them. Hence, according to the Qur'an, feet are to be washed whenever wudhu is performed and masah would be impermissible in any situation even if a person is wearing leather socks. But the permissibility to do masah on leather socks is given so that masah is done on such socks and this permission has been given by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in tawatir manner and is undeniable.

If masah on leather socks was mentioned in only 2 or 3 ahadith then the permissibility of masah would not have been given because no alteration can be made in the order of the Qur'an based on khabar ahad. But because the ahadith of masah on leather socks are mutawatir, that is why in light of these mutawatir ahadith it has become the ijma of entire ummah that the verse of the Qur'an is special to the case when a person is not wearing leather socks.

Hence Imam Abu Hanifa رحمة اللہ علیہ states:

 

“I was not convinced about masah on leather socks till the time I did not have evidence for it which was as clear as the sunlight in the day.” (al-Jara al-Ra'iq Vol.1 pg 731)

80 Companions رضی اللہ عنھم have related the order of masah on leather socks. Ibn Hajar, in Fath al-Bari Vol.1 pg 176 writes:

 

“A large group of huffaz have attested that the order of masah is mutawatir and some collected the sahabah رضی اللہ عنھم who narrated these traditions and the number of sahabah was more than 80 including 'ashara mubashara.”

And Hasan al-Basri رحمة اللہ علیہ says:

“If the issue of masah on leather socks was not proven through tawatir or excess narrations then there would have been no place for any alteration or extension of the Qur'anic order to wash feet.” (Talkhees al-Jabeer Vol.1 pg 158; Bada'i Vol.1 pg 7)

Hence Imam Abu Yusuf رحمة اللہ علیہ states:

“Qur'anic order can only be abrogated by Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ only when it is proven by tawatir like in the case of masah on leather socks” (Ahkam al-Qur'an lil Jassas Vol.2 pg 425)

 

The summary is that the order of the Qur'an is not something which can be limited to certain conditions based on 2 or 3 ahadith. For this to be done it should be proven by tawatir like the issue of masah on leather socks is proven in ahadith. Now as far as the issue of leather socks are concerned, it is established by tawatir the the prophet Muhammad ﷺ did masah on leather socks and even told the ompanions رضی اللہ عنھم to do it. But for socks made of other materials, no such tawatir is present. “Khufain” in Arabic language refers only to leather socks and socks made out of cloth cannot be called “Khuff”. Thus this permissibility is only for leather socks. For other types of socks, the command by the Qur'an to wash the feet will be followed. However, if the material of the socks are so thick (Thakheen) that their characteristics are at par with leather socks, which means water cannot be strained through them and to keep them erect one does not need to tie them and one can walk a mile or two in them, then there is a difference of opinion among the fuqaha regarding this matter. Some have stated that because such socks come under the meaning of leather socks, hence masah on them should also be permissible. And some have stated that because only masah on leather socks is established by tawatir, hence masah on anything else is impermissible.
 

Now socks are therefore of three types as far as the issue of masah is concerned:

a) Leather socks which are called “Khufain”; masah is permissible on them unanimously.

 

b) Thin socks which are not of leather and neither are characteristics of leather are found in them, like the socks of cotton, wool and nylon that are available today, the ijma on them is that on these masah is not permissible. This is because masah on them is not proven by such evidence, in light of which, the command of washing feet in the Qur'an can be left.

 

c)Those socks that are not of leather but their thickness give them characteristics of leather socks. There is difference of opinion regarding masah on them.

The gist of the entire matter is that those socks which are not made of leather, on them there is no difference in the mujtahideen regarding lack of reason for doing masah. And this is due to the fact that the command to wash feet in the Qur'an cannot be left unless proven by tawatir evidence like the reason to do masah on leather socks is proven. Hence the conditions which fuqaha have applied, on socks made out of material other than leather, are not due to their whims and desires but to determine whether such socks have the characteristics of leather socks and there has been a difference of opinion in this matter as well whether doing masah on socks that have passed the conditions is permissible or not.

After understanding the reality of the matter, now see those narrations in which masah on socks (jurbain) is mentions. In the entire ocean of ahadith there are only a total of 3 ahadith. One is from Bilal, one from Abu Musa Ash'ari and one from Mugheera bin Shu'ba رضی اللہ عنھم.

Hadith by Bilal رضی اللہ عنہ is in Mun'ajam Sagheer Tabrani and the one by Abu Musa Ash'ari رضی اللہ عنہ is in Ibn Majah and Baihaqi etc. Hafiz Zail'ee رحمة اللہ علیہ, in Nasb al-Rayah Vol.1 pg 183-4, has proven both these ahadith to have da'eef (weak) sanad (chain of narrators).

Abud Dawood says regarding the hadith of Abu Musa Ash'ari: لیس بالمتصل ولا بالقوی "It is not strong." (Bazal al-Majhood Vol.1 pg 96).

Hence both these ahadith are out of the discussion.

Now what remains is the hadith by Mugheera bin Shu'ba رضی اللہ عنہ. The issue of this hadith is that although Imam Tirmidhi رحمة اللہ علیہ has stated that it is hasan sahih, other prominent muhaditheen have strongly criticized this classification by Imam Tirmidhi رحمة اللہ علیہ.

 

Imam Abu Dawood رحمة اللہ علیہ quotes the hadith and writes:

“Abdul Rahman bin Mahdi would not narrate this hadith because the famous ahadith from Mugheera are regarding masah on leather socks.” (Bazal al-Majhood Vol.1 pg 96)

 

Imam Nasai رحمة اللہ علیہ in Sunan Kubra writes:

“Apart from Abu Qays, no one else has narrated this tradition and no other narrator supports this according to my knowledge. However the sahih narration from Mugheera is about masah on leather socks.” (Nasb al-Rayah Vol.1 pg 183)

Other than this, Imam Muslim, Imam Baihaqi, Sufyan Thawri, Imam Ahmed, Yahya bin Mu'een, Ali bin al-Madni and other muhaditheen رحمة اللہ علیھم have declared this hadith da'eef (weak) on basis of the weakness of Abu Qays and Huzayl bin Sharjeel.

Imam Nawawi رحمة اللہ علیہ in his sharh of Sahih Muslim writes:

“Those people who declared this hadith weak, if each one of them would have been alone, even then they would hold more weight over Imam Tirmidhi (rh). Moreover, the principle is that jarh is given preference to ta'deel and huffaz of Hadith are unanimous over the weakness of this hadith. Therefore, Tirmidhi's opinion that this hadith is hasan sahih, is not acceptable.” (Nasb al-Rayah Vol.1 pg 183)

This is the value of the isnad of this hadith which Maududi has presented as evidence for his opinion. You saw that this hadith is da'eef and not acceptable to majority of huffaz of hadith.

Secondly, if for argument's sake, we accept the classification of Imam Tirmidhi رحمة اللہ علیہ and say that this hadith is hasan sahih, so in the entire ocean of ahadith this would be the one and only narration in which prophet Muhammad ﷺ performed masah on socks.

Now how can we leave the clear command in the Qur'an to wash the feet because of this one solitary hadith which has been severely criticized by muhaditheen?

It has been seen that the matter of masah on leather socks was only established when the ahadith regarding it reached the level of tawatir and Imam Abu Yusuf رحمة اللہ علیہ states that if the issue of masah on leather socks was not proven by so many ahadith then there was no room to leave out the washing of feet as commanded by the Qur'an. The command of masah on socks is only mentioned in 3 ahadith. 2 of them have been unanimously declared da'eef and the third one is declared da'eef by the majority of muhaditheen. Only Imam Tirmidhi رحمة اللہ علیہ classified it as sahih. On the basis of such a narration, no restriction can be placed on a command by the Qur'an.

Thus Imam Abu Bakr Jassas رحمة اللہ علیہ says:

“The reality of the matter is the verse refers to washing the feet like stated earlier. Hence, if it was not proven through mutawatir ahadith of prophet Muhammad (saw) regarding masah of leather socks, then we would never have said that masah on leather socks is permissible.....and because masah on socks (made out of cloth) are not related in the same manner like the one regarding leather socks, thus here we have upheld the order in the Qur'anic verse to wash the feet.” (Ahkam al-Qur'an lil Jassas Vol.2 pg 428)

Now the question remains that those Sahabah رضی اللہ عنھم who performed masah on socks or permitted it, for what reason did they do this.

The answer is that the Sahabah رضی اللہ عنھم did not state anywhere that these socks were made of thin cloth material. And unless this is not stated anywhere then how can one prove the permissibility of doing masah on these socks?

The famous 'alim of ahl-e-hadith Allama Shams-ul-Haq Azeem Abadi writes:

“Socks are made of leather, wool, cotton and all of them are called 'socks'. And masah on any type of socks cannot be proven until it is not proven that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ did masah on wollen socks.” ('Awn al-Ma'bood Vol.1 pg 62)

On the contrary it is proven that these people who did masah on socks, they were either made of leather or were like leather socks because of their thickness and they had the characteristics of leather socks. This is why Ibn Abi Sheeba رحمة اللہ علیہ narrates:

 

“Sa'eed bin Museet and Hasan Basri رحمة اللہ عنھما said that masah on socks is permissible on the condition that they are very thick.” (Musanif ibn Abi Sheeba Vol.1 pg 188)

It is to be noted that the words in the narration is Thawb Safeeq (ثوب صفیق) which means that cloth which is highly strong, durable and firm. For reference please check Qamoos and Mukhtaar al-Sahaah etc.

Hasan Basri and Sa'eed bin al-Museeb رحمة اللہ عنھما both were famous and prominent tab'een and they gave this fatwa after witnessing the act practiced by the Sahabah رضی اللہ عنھم.
 

Hence, by the practice of these people and their fatwa, it is established that those socks which due to their thickness have similar characteristics of leather socks, masah on them is permissible. And to clarify this thickness of the socks, I have mentioned the 3 conditions: that water cannot be strained through them, they would stay erect due to their thickness and thus need not be tied, and third that one can walk a mile or two wearing them. Such socks fall under the same category of leather socks and based on this, as well as the actions of the Sahabah رضی اللہ عنھم, the majority of the fuqaha have included them in the ruling of masah on leather socks.

 

Hence Allama Ibn al-Hamaam رحمة اللہ علیہ writes:

“There is not doubt the permissibility of masah on leather socks was established without qiyas and hence qiyas of anything else cannot be done on them except if they enter the meaning of leather socks and by Khufeen, such socks are meant which have covered the feet completely and it would be possible to continuously walk in them during travelling.” (Fath al-Qadeer Vol.1 pg 109)

 

So it is incorrect to state permissibility to do masah on any type of socks is established in hadith and thus the fuqaha who put conditions on them are wrong and did it just by themselves without any evidence. The reality of the matter is that the command to wash feet cannot be left unless it is proven through mutawatir ahadith. Because such ahadith were present in the case of leather socks, hence masah was allowed in its case. But regarding socks of any other material, no such hadith is present that can be unanimously declared sahih hence masah on them cannot be allowed except for those socks which fall under the same category of leather socks because of their characteristics. And because from the Sahabah رضی اللہ عنھم and tab'een رحمة اللہ علیھم, masah on such socks was established, hence majority of fuqaha permitted it and defined the 3 conditions which would prove something to fall under the same category as leather socks. Thus ijma of all mujtahideen is held.

As far as Ibn Hazm and Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Qayyim رحمة اللہ علیھم are concerned, their high status is in its place but they have taken positions contrary to the majority in many matters which the Ummah have rejected. Especially in this matter where they have provided no evidence for their ruling. Hence on the basis of an opinion from only these 3 people against the unanimous opinion from all others, the command of the Qur'an to wash the feet cannot be left out. And there is absolutely no basis whatsoever for the “ijtihad” of wrapping cloth around feet and doing masah on them. Allegations are raised against fuqaha by some that they have no evidence for their ruling even though you have witnessed the undeniable evidence in this reply. On the other hand these same people do their own “ijtihad” in which you can wrap your feet with a cloth for no reason and do masah on them. Is there any source for this to omit the command of the Qur'an to wash feet?

The extract which you presented of Maududi has the issue of masah on shoes also in it. So now the reality of that matter will be discussed in short here in the end.

If socks are thick then there are fuqaha who agree to the legality of performing masah on them. However, masah on shoes is not permissible in any madhhab of the imams.

In Ma'ruf ul San Vol.1 pg 347 it is written:

“None of the imams agreed on the permissibility of doing masah on shoes.”

The reason for this is that masah on shoes is proven by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ at such a time when he ﷺ was already in a state of wudhu and would do a new wudhu for a new salah. In such a condition, because he ﷺ was already in a state of wudhu, he ﷺ would do masah on shoes instead of washing his feet.

Thus there is a narration in Sahih Ibn Huzaima Vol.1 pg 100:

“Ali رضی اللہ عنہ asked for a glass of water and did a concise wudhu and did masah on his shoes. He then said: 'Prophet Muhammad ﷺ used to do wudhu just like this when the previous wudhu was intact and not invalidated.'”

After this clarification it is clear that there is no room for a person who is without wudhu to do masah on his shoes when doing wudhu.

Conclusion:
All fuqaha unanimously agree that masah on thin socks through which water can be strained, need to be tied to stay erect and cannot be used to walk a mile or two is not permissible and neither is masah on shoes permissible. And because the socks we have today are thin and they do not pass the 3 conditions stated, hence masah on them is not permissible under any condition. The person who does masah on them, then according to Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi'i, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmed, in fact according to any mujtahid, the wudhu of such a person will be invalid.

 

 

(Fiqhi Maqalat Vol.2 pg 9-24)

Source

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Question

 

Is it permissible to wipe over thin cotton socks during wudhu?

 

Answer

 

It is not permissible to wipe over thin socks according to any of the four Mazahib. Whichever Imam gave permission for wiping over socks restricted it to Thakhinayn(thick socks), therefore if they are thin and water is seeping through, then wiping over them will not be permissible.

 

It is written in Ma’rifus-sunan:

 

اتفقوا على جواز المسح على المجلدين والمنعلين وكذالك اتفقوا على عدم جوازه على الرقيقين يشفان واختلفوا فى الثخينين فالجمهور جوزوه ومنعه ابو حنيفة

 

“They all agree upon wiping over socks which are covered with leather or which have leather soles, similarly they agree upon the impermissibility of wiping over thin socks through which water seeps, and they differ regarding thick ones, the majority permit it whereas Imam Abu Hanifah (ra) prohibits it.”
(Ma’arifus-sunan pg 346 vol 1)

 

There is no Hadith in Sahih Bukhari or Sahih Muslim which states the permissibility of wiping over thin socks. However, there are Mutawatir Ahadith regarding wiping over Khuffayn (leather socks).

 

There is one Hadith in Abu Dawud regarding Masah alal Jawrabayn. However, even Imam Abu Dawud narrated this Hadith and said, ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Mahdi would not narrate this Hadith, as this is narrated from Mughirah ibn Shu’ba’ and what is well known in the Hadith of Mughirah is that, “He wiped over Khuffayn (leather socks).” (In other words, Jawrabayn here is Wahm (mistake)). Imam Abu Dawud says, ‘This Hadith is also narrated from Abu Musa, however the chain is not Muttasil (connected) nor Qawiyy (strong)’.
(Abu Dawud Pg22)

 

The great Salafi scholar Sheikh Abdul-Rahman Al Mubarakpuri writes in Tuhfatul Ahwazi Sharhut-Tirmizi, “(Imam Tirmizi has classed this Hadith as ‘Sahih’) however, Bayhaqi has narrated the Hadith of Mughirah and said that the Hadith is Munkar. Sufyaan Thauri has classed it Dhaeef and so has Abdur-Rahman ibn Mahdi, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Maeen, Ali ibnul Madini and Muslim ibn Hajjaj. What is actually recorded from Mughirah is the Hadith of wiping over leather socks. Imam Nawawi (ra) has mentioned that all the above Muhadditheen, had they been alone, they would have been put ahead of Imam Tirmizi (ra).

 

Another point is that Jarh supersedes Ta’deel and two narrators in this chain are Dhaeef, Abu Qays al-Awadi and Hudhail ibn Shurahbil.

Sheikh Mubarakpuri writes there are two other Ahadith from Ibn Mas’ood (ra) and Bilal (ra) but they are both Dhaeef and unsuitable as evidence, thereafter he mentions the chain of both the Ahadith and their weaknesses.

 

He concludes saying:

والحاصل انه ليس فى باب المسح على الجوربين حديث مرفوع صحيح خال عن الكلام هذا ما عندي والله اعلم

 

The conclusion is, that with regards to wiping over cotton socks, there is no Marfoo’ Hadith which could be classed Saheeh and free from dispute.
(Tuhfatul Ahwazi pg 333 vol 1)

 

He further states that some people who allow wiping over socks put forward in their argument the Hadith Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal narrates in his Musnad Ahmed from Thawban (ra) which mentions wiping over ‘Tasakheen’ thus they say that ‘Tasakheen’ means cotton socks. Sheikh Mubarakpuri writes, “This Hadith is also not suitable for use as evidence because Raashid ibn Sa’d did not hear from Thawbaan so there is a disconnection in the chain. Secondly, the scholars of Lughat have said that Tasakheen are socks made from leather. Imam Ibnul-Atheer quotes in his Nihayah under the letter taa’

 

التساخين هى الخفاف ولا واحد لها من لفظها وقيل واحدها تسخين و تسخان و تسخن

“Tasakheen are leather socks”
(Tuhfatul Ahwazi pg 339 vol 1)

 

Shaykh ibn Baz (ra) has also written in his Fatawa, “It is not permissible to wipe over them” (thin socks). (fatawa islamiyya pg102).

For reference for all four mazahib see text below from al fiqhul islami wa adilatuhu vol 1 pg 498:

 

قال ابو حنيفة لا يجوز المسح على الجوربين الا ان يكونا مجلدين او منعلين لان الجورب ليس معنى الخف لانه لا يمكن مواظبة المشى فيه الا اذا كانا منعلا وهو محمل الحديث المخبر للمسح على الجورب…الا انه رجع الى قول الصاحبين في اخر عمره…واشترط المالكية كابي حنيفة ان يكونا الجوربان مجلدين ظاهرهما وباطنهما حتى يمكن المشي فيهما عادة… واجاز الشافعية المسح على الجورب بشرطين احدهما ان يكون صفيقا لا يشف بحيث يمكن متابعة المشي عيله الثانى ان يكون منعلا فان اختل احد الشرطين لم يجز المسح عليه… واباح الحنابلة المسح على الجورب بالشرطين المذكورين في الخف وهما الاول ان يكون صفيقا لا يبدو منه شئ من القدم الثانى ان يمكن متابعة المشى فيه…

 

Therefore, if you are a follower of any of the four mazaahib, it would be Haram for you to wipe over thin cotton socks. Any Salah preformed by wiping over thin socks will not be valid and that Salah will have to be repeated after washing the feet.

 

Consequently, Salah behind an Imam who has wiped over thin socks will not be allowed. Therefore, Salah should only be lead by a person who has washed his feet according to the command of the Holy Quran or wiped over khuffayn according to the Mutawatir Ahadeeth.

 

In the verse of the Quran, Allah orders the washing of 3 limbs and the wiping of only the head. Therefore, if someone only wipes his arms or face, his wudu is not valid. The same applies to foot wiping – and foot wiping is done only by the Rawaafidh, Shias.

 

We have been forced to write this fatwa as we have been informed and seen with our own eyes people wiping over thin socks in wudhu areas where there are puddles of water. Socks get wet on the soles and with these socks, they enter the masjid, wetting the carpet wherever they tread. This makes the carpet smell and others would have to prostrate at that place where they have wetted. If these people had taken their socks off, washed their feet and then wiped them on the mats provided outside the wudhu area, this would not have happened.

 

Furthermore, Salaah is the most important Ibadah. It should be performed in such a manner that it is correct according to the opinion of all the Ulema. That is why we say that even though Salat alan nabiyy during the final Tashaahhud is only masnoon according to the majority of the mazhabs, however Imam Shafi’i (ra) has said that it is Fard, so one should not neglect it. Similarly, Ta’adile Arkaan (exercising composure during postures) is not fardh according to the Hanafi Madhab. However, according to the other mazhabs, it is fardh, therefore Salaah should be performed with great calmness.

 

The Prophet (Saw) has said, “Allah loves the effects of worship on his servants.” (Mishkaat). For example, the smell appearing due to fasting is more beloved to Allah than Musk. Similarly, any suffering due to washing the limbs in Wudhu is beloved to Allah. Jannat has been surrounded by things that a person dislikes, so one should be cautious about all the facts of Shariah.

 

If you are at work, on a plane or in a difficult situation, and need to complete Wudhu quickly, a single wash will suffice. Washing 3 times is Sunnah and better, but it isn’t fardh, so it can be left out when needed.

 

Those people who find it inconvienient taking off their shoes and socks every time they perform Wudhu, have 2 alternatives to the normal washing of the feet.

 

Alternative 1: Wear leather socks.

 

Alternative 2: Wear Khuff-like waterproof socks which go above the ankles, produced by companies like Sealskinz and Gortex. These socks meet all the criteria of being wudu-wipable, and therefore are permissible to wear and wipe over during Wudhu. They cost about £20 a pair and can be bought on the internet.

 

 

Please note: The conditions of Masah alal khuff:

  1. They should be worn after performing full wudhu including washing of the feet.
  2. They should not be torn, if they have holes more than three small toes then masah on them will not be correct.
  3. The timing of masah is one day and one night for a muqeem and three days and three nights for a musafir.
  4. The timing does not start from the moment you make wudhu or when you wear them but rather from the moment your wudhu breaks e.g. if you washed the feet for the wudhu of fajar then you wore the socks thereafter, your wudhu broke at 10:00am then you will be allowed to wipe over them until 10:00am the following day, then at that time your masah limit and wudhu will be finished and you will have to do wudhu all over again, washing the feet.
  5. Masah can only be done after hadath asghar (minor impurity). Therfore, if janabat (major impurity) takes place the khuffayn will have to be taken off and the feet will be washed.

 

Please note: The terminological difference between wiping (masah) and washing (ghasl).

 

Masah is just wiping a wet hand over the area. For example, passing your hand across part or all of your head, or wiping the top of the Khuff.

On the other hand, Ghasl is wetting the whole limb, in such a way that some drops of water fall off the limb. Thus, wetting the whole arm or foot with a single cupped handful of water is sufficient, and the Fardh of a single wash will be completed.

 

قَوْلُهُ : أَيْ إسَالَةُ الْمَاءِ إلَخْ ) قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ : وَاخْتُلِفَ فِي مَعْنَاهُ الشَّرْعِيِّ ، فَقَالَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ وَمُحَمَّدٌ : هُوَ الْإِسَالَةُ مَعَ التَّقَاطُرِ وَلَوْ قَطْرَةً حَتَّى لَوْ لَمْ يُسِلْ الْمَاءَ بِأَنْ اسْتَعْمَلَهُ اسْتِعْمَالَ الدُّهْنِ لَمْ يَجُزْ فِي ظَاهِرِ الرِّوَايَةِ ، وَكَذَا لَوْ تَوَضَّأَ بِالثَّلْجِ وَلَمْ يَقْطُرْ مِنْهُ شَيْءٌ لَمْ يَجُزْ . عَنْ أَبِي يُوسُفَ هُوَ مُجَرَّدُ بَلِّ الْمَحَلِّ بِالْمَاءِ سَالَ أَوْ لَمْ يَسِلْ .رد المحتار951

 

Note that even under normal circumstances, one should not use an excessive quantity of water. The Prophet (saw) used no more than a small bowlful of water for Wudhu. In the hadith this has been narrated as one Mudd equal to nearly 775ml/655g.

 

Once Rasulullah (saw) passed by one sahabi who was using excessive water during wudhu so he said, “O sa’d! Do not exceed the limit!” he asked, “Are there any limits in wudhu which are exceeded? He replied, “Yes, even if you are on a flowing river.”

 

Once Rasullulah (saw) was riding, he passed by a river and he felt like performing wudhu so he dismounted, took a bowl, filled it from the river and performed wudhu. There was some water left in the bowl so he went back and poured it inside the river saying, “maybe Allah will benefit some bird, animal or human being through this amount.”

 

Written by: Shaykh Abdur-Rahim

Attested by: Mufti Tahir Sahib, Mufti Ibrahim Raja sahib, and Moulana Nawshaad Sahib

Tafseer Raheemi

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Question

I wanted to ask a question concerning masah over socks or shoes. we have jumah here in school every friday. Most of the kids here go do wudu in the public bathrooms since we dont have a bathroom set aside for just muslim students. I wanted to ask is it allowed to just wipe over our shoes or do we have to take off our shoes and wipe over our sock or do we have to take off our shoes and socks and wipe over our feet and then put everything on.
JazakAllah Kahir

 

Answer

In the name of Allah the Magnificent

 

It is not permissible to make masah (to use wet hands) over shoes and the regular socks which are worn in today’s environment.

 

Socks are of three types:

 

(1) The socks which are called KHUFFAIN, (Leather socks). It is permissible to make masah over KHUFFAIN as it is proven from Hadith:

 

Ja`far bin `Amr bin Umaiya Ad-Damri narrates: My father said, “I saw Rasulullah passing wet hands over his Khuffs (socks made from leather).”(Bukhari)

 

(2) Thick socks which are not made from leather, but are so thick that they characterize the qualities of leather. E.g. they are waterproof. The conditions are that the socks are so durable that one is able to walk three or four miles without them tearing. It is permissible to make Masah over such socks.

 

(3) Socks which have a leather soul. It is permissible to perform Masah on such socks.

 

(4) Thin socks, not made of leather, nor do they possess the qualities of leather, but are like the regular socks made from cotton, wool, nylon etc. It is not permissible to make masah on such socks as it is not established with enough evidence that would enable one the leave the order of washing the feet as mentioned in the Qur’an.

 

In regards to the masah over the shoes I have included a brief article which was written by Sheikh Mufti Taqi Uthmani.

Making masah over shoes

 

Some Fuqaha allow performing masah over the Jowrab (stokings, long socks) when it is thick, but none of them allow making masah on shoes. Sheikh Yusuf Benori (R.A.) writes, “None of the Imaams have given permission to make masah over shoes.”(Ma’arifus-Sunan Vol. 1, p. 347).

 

The reason for this is that Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) wiped over his shoes only when he already was in the state of Wudhu. He would perform a fresh Wudhu for every prayer, because he was already in the state of Wudhu, instead of washing his feet he would wipe over his shoes. The proof of this is in Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah, “It is reported from Ali (Radhi Allahu anhu) that he asked for a glass of water, he then performed a brief ablution and wiped over his shoes. He then said, this is how the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) used to perform his wudhu when his wudhu was not broken. (Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah, Vol. 1, Hadith 300, Chapter 154, p. 100).

 

From this Hadith we learn that a person who does not have Wudhu, can’t wipe over his shoes. After the clear evidence has been brought, there is no flexibility in the issue.

 

It is quite apparent that to perform Masah over shoes such as trainers, running shows or other footwear and gear is not permissible at all.

 

In conclusion, I would suggest that for the Salaats which you pray in the school which includes Jummah, that you wear the leather socks from home after performing Wudhu and thereafter if the necessity to renew the Wudhu arises you perform masah over the leather socks after removing only your shoes. It is even better to stand on your shoes and perform the masah as one is aware that school lavatory floors could be impure.

 

And Allahn knows best
20th September 2005

 

References

Sahih Al-Bukhari

Al-Hidayah, Vol 1

Bada’ee us Sanaeh, Vol. 1 pg 83

 

Mufti Abubakr Karolia

Batley, U.K

Founder of the “Islamic Foundation for Theology and Research” (I.F.T.A.R)

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Extended period of Masah on leather socks
 
Q. If I have made Masah on my leather socks and I am a Muqeem, then before one day and one night passed, I made Safr, do I have to break my Masah on my leather socks and start again or do I continue?
 
(Question transcribed from telephonic query)
 
A. A Muqeem (resident/non-Shari’ traveller) is permitted to make Masah (wipe) over leather socks during Wudhu for a period of 24 hours (one day and one night).
 
A Musaafir (Shari’ traveller) is permitted to make Masah (wipe) over leather socks during Wudhu for a period of 72 hours (three days and three nights).

In an event, a Muqeem embarked on a journey whilst wearing and making Masah of his/her leather socks and became a Musaafir before the termination of a 24-hour period, their 24-hour period will be extended to a 72-hour period and there will be no need to discontinue the 24-hour period or start again. (Masaail Rifat Qaasimi 1/46)

And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

Mufti Ismaeel Bassa
Confirmation:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

(The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh.)
 
Fatwa Department
Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
Council of Muslim Theologians
223 Alpine Road, Overport

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