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  2. Guidelines regarding Male Haircuts Q: I know that it is not permissible for women to cut or trim their hair. However, I wish to enquire about male haircuts. Is it permissible for males to cut their hair in uneven lengths? I was informed that this is permissible as it does not enter under the prohibition of qaza’ mentioned in the Hadith. A: At the onset, one should understand that a believer's entire life is governed by the laws and injunctions of Shari’ah. In every aspect of one's life, whether relating to one's domestic, social and economic dealings, or one's ibaadaat, deeni rituals and acts of worship, one is commanded to follow the mubaarak sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Similarly, in dressing and physical appearance, a believer is duty bound to emulate the way of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and refrain from adopting the culture and ways of the kuffaar. In essence, every aspect of Islam is perfect and totally distinguished from all other religions. Islam has shown great importance to the laws regarding hair. It is for this reason that every kitaab of Hadith has a separate chapter dedicated to discussing the description of the mubaarak hair of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and other related aspects. Making a Center Path when Combing the Hair Hazrat ibn Abbaas (Radhiyallahu Anhuma) mentioned that in the beginning of Islam, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) would conform to the ways of the Ahl-e-Kitaab in those matters regarding which no specific injunction was revealed by Allah Ta’ala. Therefore, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) would not make a center path when combing his blessed hair, as this conformed to the way of the Ahl-e-Kitaab (Jews and Christians). Later on, Wahi was sent to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) commanding him to oppose the ways of the Ahl-e-Kitaab in all matters. It was after this that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) opposed the ways of the Ahl-e-Kitaab in all matter and began to make a center path when combing his blessed hair. In this way, Allah Ta’ala wished that Islam be totally distinguished from all other religions. (Saheeh Muslim #2336) Allaamah ibnu Abdil Barr, Imaam Nawawi and Haafiz ibnu Hajar (Rahimauhumulah) have mentioned that it is mustahab for one to make a center path when combing his hair as this conforms to the mubaarak practice of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). [1] The Two Options regarding Hair In Fataawa Hindiyyah, it is mentioned that Shari’ah has given a person two options regarding his hair; he may either grow his hair or he may shave his hair. This is also mentioned in other kitaabs of Fiqh such as Raddul Muhtaar and Haashiyatut Tahtaawi. [2] In regard to these two options, the Fuqahaa mention that the option of growing the hair is preferred, as this was the constant amal (practice) of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Apart from the occasions of Haj and Umrah, there is no other occasion on which it is reported that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) shaved his mubaarak head. Similarly, during the era of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), most of the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) were accustomed to growing their hair, as this conformed to the mubaarak way of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Shaving the Head As far as the option of shaving the head is concerned, there are two views of the Fuqahaa. Imaam Tahaawi (Rahimahullah) and Allaamah Teebee (Rahimahullah) have mentioned that shaving the head is sunnah, as this conformed to the practice of Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) which was approved by Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). On the other hand, Haafiz ibnu Hajar (Rahimahullah) and Mulla Ali Qari (Rahimahullah) have mentioned that shaving the head is not sunnah as it was not the constant practice of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the other Khulafaa-e-Raashideen viz. Hazrat Abu Bakr, Hazrat Umar and Hazrat Uthmaan (Radhiyallahu Anhum), as well as the majority of the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum). Therefore, shaving the head is not sunnah but merely permissible. [3] Keeping Uneven lengths of Hair and Adopting Hairstyles of the Kuffaar The Hadith has commanded that all the hair be grown or the entire head be shaved. It is not reported in any Hadith that the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) would keep uneven lengths of hair. Rather, there are certain Ahaadith in which this type of hairstyle has been prohibited by Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and strongly condemned by the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum). Hence, the hairstyles that are in vogue today such as shaving a portion of the head, keeping different lengths of hair and dying or styling the hair according to the fashions of the kuffaar are all impermissible and against the way of Islam. The Description of the Blessed Hair of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) The Ahaadith have described three lengths of the blessed hair of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). 1. At times, the mubaarak hair of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) would reach his blessed earlobes. This length of hair is referred to in the Hadith as wafrah. [4] 2. At times, the mubaarak hair of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) would reach his blessed shoulders. This length of hair is referred to in the Hadith as jummah. [5] 3. At times, the mubaarak hair of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) would reach between his blessed earlobes and shoulders. This length of hair is referred to in the Hadith as limmah. [6] It is commendable for one to grow his hair according to these lengths as these conform to the mubaarak appearance of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). However, it should be understood that in regard to the hair, since Shari’ah has given a person the two options of either growing the hair or shaving the hair - and there is no injunction from the side of Shari’ah commanding a person to grow his hair to any specific length - if a person keeps his hair shorter than the lengths mentioned in the Ahaadith regarding the mubaarak hair of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), it will be permissible. Nevertheless, men should refrain from growing their hair further than the shoulders or tying their hair into a plait or bun as these styles are specific to women, and Shari’ah has prohibited men from emulating women in their dressing, appearance, etc. This is clearly seen in the following Hadith: عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال لعن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم المتشبهين من الرجال بالنساء والمتشبهات من النساء بالرجال (صحيح البخاري رقم 5885) Hazrat ibn Abbaas (Radhiyallahu Anhuma) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) cursed those men who emulate women, and those women who emulate men.” Guidelines regarding Male Haircuts In regard to the topic of permissible and impermissible haircuts , Hazrat Moulana Rasheed Ahmed Ludyaanwi (Rahimahullah) and Hazrat Moulana Ahmad Khanpuri (Daamat Barakaatuhu) have prepared a detailed article outlining the Islamic perspective of haircuts and providing guidelines through which one will be able to refrain from kuffaar emulation. [7] Below we will mention a few of the Shar’ee guidelines in regard to cutting the hair as well as some of the important points detailed in the article of Hazrat Moulana Rasheed Ahmed Ludyaanwi (Rahimahullah) and Hazrat Moulana Ahmad Khanpuri (Daamat Barakaatuhu). It is essential for one to adhere to these guidelines in order to emulate the sunnah and refrain from adopting the alien culture of the kuffaar. Basically, there are four styles in which people cut their hair: 1. The first style is where the entire head is shaved, or all the hair on the head is cut to an equal length. Shari’ah has permitted this style. It is reported regarding Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) that he used to shave his head. عن علي رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال من ترك موضع شعرة من جنابة لم يغسلها فعل بها كذا وكذا من النار قال علي فمن ثم عاديت رأسي ثلاثا وكان يجز شعره (سنن أبي داود رقم 249) Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, “Whichever person in the state of janaabah performs ghusal and leaves an area equal to a strand of hair without washing it, he will be undergo such-and-such punishment of Jahannum.” Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) thereafter said three times, “Since then, (it is on account of the fear that I should not leave out any portion of my hair unwashed during ghusal that) I treated (the hair of) my head with enmity (and would remove all my hair through shaving my head).” Therefore, Hazrat Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) would shave his head. 2. The second style is where the hair of one portion of the head (or different portions of the head) is shaved while the remaining hair on the head is not shaved. This style is not permissible. The Hadith has prohibited this and termed it as qaza’. عن ابن عمر أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم رأى صبيا قد حلق بعض شعره وترك بعضه فنهاهم عن ذلك وقال احلقوه كله أو اتركوه كله (سنن أبي داود رقم 4195) Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhuma) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) saw a child whose head was partially shaved (i.e. a portion was shaved and a portion was left). Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) prohibited them from cutting the hair in this manner and said, “Shave all the hair or leave all the hair.” Similarly, we find that the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) objected to these impermissible haircuts, where a portion of the head is shaved while the remaining hair is kept. عن أبي سلام قال دخلت على عائشة وفي رأسي قزع فأمرت به فجز أو حلق (مصنف ابن أبي شيبة رقم 25782) Hazrat Abu Salaam (Rahimahullah) narrates, “I once entered into the presence of Hazrat Aa’ishah (Radhiyallahu Anha) while some of the hair on my head was shaved and the remaining hair on my head was left. Hazrat Aa’ishah (Radhiyallahu Anha) commanded regarding my hair (that all the hair be removed). Hence, all my hair was removed or shaved.” عن الحجاج بن حسان قال دخلنا على أنس بن مالك فحدثتني أختي المغيرة قالت وأنت يومئذ غلام ولك قرنان أو قصتان فمسح رأسك وبرك عليك وقال احلقوا هذين أو قصوهما فإن هذا زي اليهود (سنن أبي داود رقم 4197) Hazrat Hajjaaj bin Hassaan (rahimahullah) narrates, “We once entered into the presence of Hazrat Anas (radhiyallahu ‘anhu). My sister mentioned to me, ‘You were a young boy at the time, and you had two plaits. Hazrat Anas (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) passed his hand over your head and made du‘aa for you to be blessed with barakah (blessings). Hazrat Anas (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) then said, ‘Shave these two (plaits)” or he said, “cut them (i.e. totally remove them), as this is the style of the Jews .’’” Allamah Nawawi (Rahmatullahi Alaih) has explained that the reason for Hazrat Anas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) commanding that the plaits of the child be shaved or totally removed was that this was qaza’ as the remaining hair of the head was shaved. It should be noted that in the above-mentioned Ahaadith, though Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the Sahaabah disapproved that the hair of a child be cut in the style of qaza’, the Muhadditheen and Fuqahaa have mentioned that the prohibition of qaza’ is not restricted to a child. Rather, it applies to adults as well. 3. The third style is where the hair of one portion or different portions of the head is cut shorter while the remaining hair is left longer. Though this will not enter under the definition of qaza’ mentioned in the Hadith, it will not be permissible as this resembles the ways of the kuffar. There are many Ahaadith that prohibit resembling the ways of the kuffaar. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: عن ابن عمر قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من تشبه بقوم فهو منهم (سنن أبي داود رقم 403) The one who emulates a people will be counted amongst them (in the court of Allah Ta’ala) The esteemed and renowned commentators of Hadith, Allaamah Nawawi (Rahimahullah) and Allaamah Aini (Rahimahullah), have mentioned that the impermissibility of qaza’ is due to one of three reasons: Disfiguring the natural way Allah Ta’ala has commanded that the hair be kept. Resembling the Jews. Resembling the ways of immoral people. [8] Hence, we understand that the above three reasons for the impermissibility of qaza’ are also found in the case where one cuts his hair to different lengths. 4. The fourth style is that which resembles the styles and fashions of the kuffaar. This includes the situation where one cuts his hair at an even length, but styles it or dyes it with colors that resemble the ways and fashions of the kuffaar. This is also impermissible in Shari’ah. Among the impermissible hairstyles are those listed below: • Crew cut • Buzz cut • Dreadlocks • Fohawk • Mowhawk • Flattop • Spikes • Cornrows • Half ponytail • Step Cutting the Hair in Different Lengths If one has to closely examine the Hadith of Hazrat ibn Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhuma) mentioned above wherein Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) had commanded that a portion of the head of the child should not be shaved while the remaining hair be left, one will find that at the end of the Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) highlighted the Islamic perspective in regard to growing the hair. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: احلقوه كله أو اتركوه كله [9] “Shave the hair entirely or leave the hair entirely”. From this statement of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), “Shave the hair entirely or leave the hair entirely”, one understands that in the case where a person wishes to shave his hair, then one should shave the entire head. Similarly, if one wishes to keep his hair, then he should keep all his hair at the same length. In other words, all the hair of the head should be treated equally. If one wishes to keep the hair, then he should keep all the hair at the same length and should not cut some and leave some. This meaning will be easily understood from the manner in which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) would keep their hair. Similarly, this can also be understood from the context of Haj where Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) gave the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) the two options of either shaving the hair or trimming it. It is not reported that the Sahaabah (Radhiyalahu Anhum) would trim their hair at uneven lengths. Hence, this statement of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) “Shave the hair entirely or leave the hair entirely” should be understood in the correct context in which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) were growing and keeping their hair. Therefore, for one to understand this Hadith in any other way and feel that if one keeps all his hair, but cuts it at uneven lengths, then it will be permissible, as he is still keeping all his hair, this will be incorrect as it opposes the manner in which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) would grow and keep their hair. Hence, in today’s times, the trend of cutting the hair at different lengths is the way of the kuffaar and not the way of the sunnah. Another Form of Qaza’ Nowadays, when men cut their hair, they neaten the nape area by shaving the hair on the nape. Similarly, they sometimes neaten the area behind the ears by shaving the hair in that area. In this regard, it is important to bear in mind that if the one shaving the hair on the nape has to remove some of the hair above the nape (i.e. he removes some of the hair of the head) then this will also be regarded as qaza’ according to the Ulamaa and will hence be impermissible. Accordingly, if while neatening the area behind the ears, one has to remove extra hair past the hairline, it will also be regarded as qaza’ and will be impermissible. This point has been highlighted by Mufti Ahmed Khaanpuri (Daamat Barakaatuh) in Mahmood-ul-Fataawa. [10] Conclusion We make du’a that Allah Ta’ala bless us with the tawfeeq of preserving Islam in its pure and pristine form, living our entire lives in accordance to the mubaarak Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and refraining from emulating the kuffaar in their culture and ways. We should realize that true respect, honour and dignity can only be attained by following the pristine, pure teachings of Islam and the mubaarak sunnah of Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) in all facets of our lives.If we seek honour and respect elsewhere, we will bring nothing but disgrace and humiliation to ourselves. Hazrat Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhu) has emphasized: إنا كنا أذل قوم فأعزنا الله بالإسلام فمهما نطلب العز بغير ما أعزنا الله به أذلنا الله (حاكم #207) "We were the most disgraced of people. Allah Ta’ala then gave us honour through Islam. If we ever seek honour in something besides that through which Allah Ta’ala has honoured us (Islam), Allah Ta’ala will disgrace us." [1] (كان أهل الكتاب يسدلون أشعارهم وكان المشركون يفرقون رؤسهم وكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يحب موافقة أهل الكتاب فيما لم يؤمر به فسدل ناصيته ثم فرق بعد) قال أهل اللغة يقال سدل يسدل ويسدل بضم الدال وكسرها قال القاضي سدل الشعر إرساله قال والمراد به هنا عند العلماء إرساله على الجبين واتخاذه كالقصة يقال سدل شعره وثوبه إذا أرسله ولم يضم جوانبه وأما الفرق فهو فرق الشعر بعضه من بعض قال العلماء والفرق سنة لأنه الذي رجع إليه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قالوا فالظاهر أنه إنما رجع إليه بوحي لقوله إنه كان يوافق أهل الكتاب فيما لم يؤمر به قال القاضي حتى قال بعضهم نسخ المسدل فلا يجوز فعله ولا اتخاذ الناصية والجمة قال ويحتمل أن المراد جواز الفرق لا وجوبه ويحتمل أن الفرق كان باجتهاد في مخالفة أهل الكتاب لا بوحي ويكون الفرق مستحبا ولهذا اختلف السلف فيه ففرق منهم جماعة واتخذ اللمة آخرون وقد جاء في الحديث أنه كان للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لمة فإن انفرقت فرقها وإلا تركها قال مالك فرق الرجل أحب إلي هذا كلام القاضي والحاصل أن الصحيح المختار جواز السدل والفرق وأن الفرق أفضل والله أعلم(شرح النووي على مسلم 15/90) وَفِيهِ أَيْضًا مِنَ الْفِقْهِ أَنَّ الْفَرْقَ فِي الشَّعْرِ سُنَّةٌ وَأَنَّهُ أَوْلَى مِنَ السَّدْلِ لِأَنَّهُ آخِرُ مَا كَانَ عَلَيْهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَهَذَا الْفَرْقُ لَا يَكُونُ إِلَّا مَعَ كَثْرَةِ الشَّعْرِ وَطُولِهِ وَالنَّاصِيَةُ شَعْرُ مُقَدَّمِ الرَّأْسِ كُلُّهُ وَسَدْلُهُ تَرْكُهُ مُنْسَدِلًا سَائِلًا عَلَى هَيْئَتِهِ وَالتَّفْرِيقُ أَنْ يُقَسِّمَ شَعْرَ نَاصِيَتِهِ يَمِينًا وَشِمَالًا فَتَظْهَرَ جَبْهَتُهُ وَجَبِينُهُ مِنَ الْجَانِبَيْنِ وَالْفَرْقُ سُنَّةٌ مَسْنُونَةٌ.( التمهيد 6/75) قوله ثم فرق بعد في رواية معمر ثم أمر بالفرق ففرق وكان الفرق آخر الأمرين ومما يشبه الفرق والسدل صبغ الشعر وتركه كما تقدم ومنها صوم عاشوراء ثم أمر بنوع مخالفة لهم فيه بصوم يوم قبله أو بعده ومنها استقبال القبلة ومخالفتهم في مخالطة الحائض حتى قال اصنعوا كل شيء الا الجماع فقالوا ما يدع من أمرنا شيئا إلا خالفنا فيه وقد تقدم بيانه في كتاب الحيض وهذا الذي استقر عليه الأمر ومنها ما يظهر لي النهي عن صوم يوم السبت وقد جاء ذلك من طرق متعددة في النسائي وغيره وصرح أبو داود بأنه منسوخ وناسخه حديث أم سلمة أنه صلى الله عليه و سلم كان يصوم يوم السبت والأحد يتحرى ذلك ويقول أنهما يوما عيد الكفار وأنا أحب أن أخالفهم وفي لفظ ما مات رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم حتى كان أكثر صيامه السبت والأحد أخرجه أحمد والنسائي وأشار بقوله يوما عيد إلى أن يوم السبت عيد عند اليهود والأحد عيد عند النصارى وأيام العيد لا تصام فخالفهم بصيامها ويستفاد من هذا أن الذي قاله بعض الشافعية من كراهة إفراد السبت وكذا الأحد ليس جيدا بل الأولى في المحافظة على ذلك يوم الجمعة كما ورد الحديث الصحيح فيه وأما السبت والأحد فالأولى أن يصاما معا وفرادى امتثالا لعموم الأمر بمخالفة أهل الكتاب قال عياض سدل الشعر إرساله يقال سدل شعره وأسدله إذا أرسله ولم يضم جوانبه وكذا الثوب والفرق تفريق الشعر بعضه من بعض وكشفه عن الجبين قال والفرق سنة لأنه الذي استقر عليه الحال والذي يظهر أن ذلك وقع بوحي لقول الراوي في أول الحديث إنه كان يحب موافقة أهل الكتاب فيما لم يؤمر فيه بشيء فالظاهر أنه فرق بأمر من الله حتى ادعى بعضهم فيه النسخ ومنع السدل واتخاذ الناصية وحكى ذلك عن عمر بن عبد العزيز وتعقبه القرطبي بأن الظاهر أن الذي كان صلى الله عليه و سلم يفعله إنما هو لأجل استئلافهم فلما لم ينجع فيهم أحب مخالفتهم فكانت مستحبة لا واجبة عليه وقول الراوي فيما لم يؤمر فيه بشيء أي لم يطلب منه والطلب يشمل الوجوب والندب وأما توهم النسخ في هذا فليس بشيء لا مكان الجمع بل يحتمل أن لا يكون الموافقة والمخالفة حكما شرعيا إلا من جهة المصلحة قال ولو كان السدل منسوخا لصار إليه الصحابة أو أكثرهم والمنقول عنهم أن منهم من كان يفرق ومنهم من كان يسدل ولم يعب بعضهم على بعض وقد صح أنه كانت له صلى الله عليه و سلم لمة فإن انفرقت فرقها وإلا تركها فالصحيح أن الفرق مستحب لا واجب وهو قول مالك والجمهور.( فتح الباري 10/362) [2] وفي روضه الزندويستي أن السنة في شعر الرأس إما الفرق وإما الحلق وذكر الطحطاوي الحلق سنة ونسب ذلك إلى العلماء الثلاثة كذا في التتارخانية.(الفتاوى الهندية 5/357) قوله ( وأما حلق رأسه إلخ ) في الروضة للزندويستي أن السنة في شعر الرأس إما الفرق أو الحلق وذكره الطحاوي أن الحلق سنة ونسب ذلك إلى العلماء الثلاثة.( رد المحتار 1/407) وفي روضة الزند ويستى السنة في شعر الرأس اما الفرق واما الحلق.( حاشية الطحطاوي على مراقي الفلاح ص526) [3] وكان أي علي يجز أي يحلق شعره رضي الله عنه وبهذا الحديث استدل الطيبي على سنية حلق الرأس لتقريره صلى الله عليه وسلم ولأنه من الخلفاء الراشدين الذين أمرنا بمتابعة سنتهم ورد عليه القاري وابن حجر فقالا: إن فعله - رضي الله عنه - إذا كان مخالفا لسنته عليه الصلاة والسلام وبقية الخلفاء يكون رخصة لا سنة. (بذل المجهود 1/152) [4] حدثنا محمد بن المثنى، ومحمد بن بشار، قالا: حدثنا محمد بن جعفر، حدثنا شعبة، قال: سمعت أبا إسحاق، قال: سمعت البراء، يقول: «كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رجلا مربوعا بعيد ما بين المنكبين عظيم الجمة إلى شحمة أذنيه عليه حلة حمراء ما رأيت شيئا قط أحسن منه صلى الله عليه وسلم». (صحيح مسلم رقم 2337) [5] حدثنا محمود بن غيلان حدثنا وكيع حدثنا سفيان عن أبي إسحق عن البراء قال : ما رأيت من ذي لمة في حلة حمراء أحسن من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم له شعر يضرب منكبيه بعيد ما بين المنكبين لم يكن بالقصير ولا بالطويل. (سنن الترمذي رقم 1724) [6] حدثنا سليمان بن داود، قال: أخبرنا عبد الرحمن، عن هشام بن عروة، عن أبيه، عن عائشة، قالت: " كان شعر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم دون الجمة، وفوق الوفرة ".(مسند أحمد رقم 24871) [7] أحسن الفتاوى 8/79-86 ، محمود الفتاوى 3/274-278 [8] فإن قلت ما الحكمة في النهي عن القزع قلت تشويه الخلقة وقيل زي اليهود وقيل زي أهل الشر والدعارة.(عمدة القاري 22/58) قال العلماء والحكمة في كراهته أنه تشويه للخلق وقيل لأنه أذى الشر والشطارة وقيل لأنه زي اليهود وقد جاء هذا في رواية لأبي داود والله أعلم.( شرح النووي على مسلم 14/104) [9] سنن أبي داود رقم 4195 [10] محمود الفتاوى 3/274-278 Answered by: Mufti Zakaria Makada Checked & Approved: Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)
  3. Today
  4. Fabricated narrations - Stop quoting them

    IS LOVING ONE'S COUNTRY PART OF FAITH? Status: FABRICATED Question What is the status of this Hadith? Hubbul Watan Minal Iman Translation: Loving one’s homeland is part of Iman Answer There are several narrations which report Rasulullah’s (sallallahu’alayhi wasallam) love and yearning for his birthplace; Makkatul Makarramah. However, the particular Hadith you question has no basis according to the Muhaddithun. ‘Allamah Saghani and Mulla ‘Ali Al Qari (rahimahumallah) have deemed this narration a fabrication. (Mawdu’atus Saghani, hadith: 81 and Al Masnu’, hadith: 106) Mulla ‘Ali Al Qari (rahimahullah) writes that IF this hadith were to be proven authentic, the correct meaning of ‘homeland’ would be Jannah or Makkah. He also offers other explanations for this narration. (Al Asrarul Marfu’ah, pg. 190-191) Note: Mulla ‘Ali Al Qari (rahimahullah) has not said that the Hadith is authentic, all he is saying is: “If per chance it was found to be authentic then the explanation would be..” (which hasn’t happened. No Muhaddith has proven these words as the words of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) Therefore one cannot quote this as a Hadith. And Allah Ta’ala Knows best, Answered by: Moulana Suhail Motala Approved by: Moulana Muhammad Abasoomar Checked by: Moulana Haroon Abasoomar Hadithanswers
  5. Last week
  6. Revive Forgotten Sunnats

    Archery And Horse Riding It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Amir (ra) who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say- and he was delivering a sermon from the pulpit: 'Prepare to meet them with as much strength as you can afford. Beware, strength consists in archery. Beware, strength consists in archery. Beware, strength consists in archery.' (Saheeh Muslim, 4711) It has been narrated on the authority of Uqba b. Amir (ra) who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: 'Lands shall be thrown open to you and Allah will suffice you (against your enemies), but none of you should give up playing with his arrows.' (Saheeh Muslim, 4712) It has been reported by 'Abd al-Rahman b. Shamasa (ra) that Fuqaim al-Lakhmi (ra) said to Uqba b. Amir (ra): You frequent between these two targets and you are an old man, so you will be finding it very hard. 'Uqba said: But for a thing I heard from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him), I would not strain myself. Harith (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: I asked Ibn Shamasa: What was that? He said that he (the Holy Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said: 'Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us. or he has been guilty of disobedience (to Allah's Apostle).' (Saheeh Muslim, 4714) It has also been narrated that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said, "Practice archery; that is good for you." (Reported by al-Bazzar and by al-Tabarani on good authority.) The Prophet (peace be on him) once passed by a group of his Companions who were competing in archery. He encouraged them, saying, 'Shoot, and I am with you.' (Reported by al-Bukhari) Allah has commanded: 'And make ready for them all thou art able of (armed) force....'(8:60) The Prophet (peace be on him) said, "The missiles (arrows) are the force," repeating it three times. (Reported by Muslim.) Allah Ta'ala says, 'And (He created) horses, mules, and donkeys for you to ride and as adornment....' (16:8), and the Prophet (peace be on him) said, "There is blessing in the forelocks of horses." (Reported by Ahmad.) He also said, "Practice archery and horseback riding." (Reported by Muslim.) And again, 'Any action without the remembrance of Allah is either a diversion or heedlessness excepting four acts: walking from target to target (during archery practice), training a horse, playing with one's family, and learning to swim.' (Reported by al-Tabarani on good authority.) Said Hadrat 'Umar (RA), "Teach your children swimming and archery, and tell them to jump on the horse's back." The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) also said, 'Horses are of three kinds: the horse of al-Rahman (the Most Merciful, i.e., Allah), the horse of man, and the horse of Satan. As for the horse of the Most Merciful, it is dedicated to jihad in the cause of Allah, so feeding it, cleaning its urine and dung, and everything related to it are counted as good deeds. As for the horse of Satan, it is that on which people bet and gamble. As for the horse of man, it is that which is for breeding, and it is a protection against poverty.' (Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
  7. Disciplining the Soul

    DISCIPLINING THE SOUL In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful Know that all the facets of mankind's disposition are for their benefit - either directly such as the desire for food, or indirectly by preventing harm, such as the capacity for anger. However, when these natural impulses are not moderated it culminates in harm. If the desire for food is excessive it leads to gluttony. Similarly when anger is uncontrolled it leads to transgression. The aim should be to achieve equilibrium of the soul, to allow the faithful to approach God without distraction. The author addresses many spiritual diseases - such as envy, greed, uncontrolled lust, sexual desire, arrogance, gluttony, anger, stinginess, extravagance, vanity and attachment to this world. He also discusses the qualities that the seeker of God must acquire - such as love, self discipline, humility, self-criticism, improvement of character, patience and truthfulness. In a simple yet effective way he shows the wayfarers how to cure their spiritual diseases and acquire the necessary qualities for their journey to Allah. This masterpiece has been divided into thirty chapters to facilitate the reader's comprehension. Important points are highlighted using anecdotes from the early righteous predecessors. The author, Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597 AH) was an erudiate scholar of the Hanbali madhab. Download
  8. Remember Death

  9. 9 Lessons from Surah Hujurat

    9 Lessons from Surah Hujurat When a glass breaks, the sound of breaking disappears in mere moments, but the glass pieces are scattered all over, hurting whoever walks over it. Similarly, when you say something that hurts someone's emotions and feelings, your words disappear, but the pain in the heart remains for a long time. Therefore, before uttering any statement, remember the nine advises and prohibitions that Allah Ta’ala has given in Surah Hujurat: 1.فتبينوا: "Fa Tabayyanu" Investigate: whenever you receive an information, ensure it is accurate lest you harm people out of ignorance. 2.فأصلحوا: "Fa Aslihu" Reconciliation: reconcile between one’s fellow Muslim as believers are brothers/sisters to one another. 3. وأقسطوا: "Wa Aqsitu" Act justly: whenever there is a dispute and one is attempting reconciliation, act justly among both parties as Allah loves those who are just. 4.لا يسخر : "La Yaskhar" Don't ridicule people, perhaps they may be better than you in the eyes of Allah. 5.ولا تلمزوا : "Wa La Talmizu" Don't insult one another. 6. ولا تنابزوا:"Wa La Tanabazu" Don't call each other with offensive nicknames. 7.اجتنبو كثيرا من الظن : "Ijtanibu Kathiiran minaz zan" Avoid negative assumptions, indeed some of the assumptions are sins. 8.ولا تجسسوا : "Wa La Tajassasu" Don't spy on each other. 9. ولا يغتب بعضكم بعضا: "Wa La Yaghtab" Don't backbite about each other. It is a sin equivalent to eating your dead brother's flesh. Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  10. Performing Salah (Prayer) on A Chair

    Praying on a Chair - by Mufti Amjad M Mohammed Praying on a Chair-Mufti Amjad Mohammed.pdf
  11. Earlier
  12. On Knowledge

    Islamically, What is Beneficial Knowledge?: The Prophet ﷺ instructed us: سَلُوا اللَّهَ عِلْمًا نَافِعًا وَتَعَوَّذُوا بِاللَّهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ لَا يَنْفَعُ 'Ask Allah for beneficial knowledge and seek Allah's protection from knowledge that does not benefit.' * Beneficial knowledge, in short, is that which increases us in knowledge of God; acquaints us with the divine commands and prohibitions; leads us to detaching ourselves from the world and becoming desirous of the Hereafter; and brings home to us the flaws and defects in our own actions and character. Knowledge must be transformative. It should be internalised and rooted in the heart in order to beget reverent awe before God and humility before man. Sound intention is key. Malik b. Dinar said: ‘Whoever learns knowledge so as to act by it, his knowledge humbles him. Whoever seeks it for other than that, will only increase in pride by it.’** In this regard, Imam al-Dhahabi left us with this gem: ‘Whoever seeks knowledge in order to act by it, his knowledge humbles him and causes him to weep at himself. But one who learns knowledge just to teach, give fatwas, to brag or show-off, becomes foolish, arrogant, argumentative, perishes in his vanity and is despised by others: "He is indeed successful who purifies it [his soul], and is a failure who corrupts it." [Qur'an 91:9-10].’*** Our prayer, then, should be as our Prophet taught: اللَّهُمَّ انْفَعْنِي بِمَا عَلَّمْتَنِي وَعَلِّمْنِي مَا يَنْفَعُنِي وَزِدْنِي عِلْمًا 'O Allah! Benefit me by what you have taught me, teach me what will be of benefit to me and increase me in knowledge.'**** ——————— *Ibn Majah, no.3843. **Cited in al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Iqtida al-‘Ilm al-‘Aml (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1977), no.31. ***Siyar A‘lam al-Nubala (Beirut: Mu’assasah al-Risalah, 1996), 18:192. **** Al-Tirmidhi, no.3599, where he said: 'This hadith is hasan gharib.'
  13. Using Social Media - A Responsibility

    SELFIES AND SOCIAL MEDIA When a supervisor says “I am watching you”, it is said in a threatening manner. Allah regularly reminds us in the Qur’an that He is the All-Seeing in a loving, merciful and compassionate manner. I was pondering over this, and social media came to mind. In our day and age, technology is considered the way forward and an obsession in our modern era. Whether young or old, you would be hard-pressed to find someone without a handheld device. Though a phone was designed to call and text, nowadays, the camera is a greater selling point. That is how Shaytan has made common the sin of taking pictures of living beings. Selfies which were once unheard of, have become very common now. It made me wonder, why do people do it? Why do people who would once upon a time, cycle to simply unwind, now cycle and video their journey? Or keep a log of their activities on social media, which they would have previously kept to themselves? Often it is an act of ostentation or vanity. Our concern lies with impressing people online, thus we share private aspects of our lives to draw attention. But in reality, only a few people may notice, some may be jealous and most people do not care. In contrast, Allah cares about what we do, He is the All-Seeing. Even when our cameras are off, His are still on. He is watching even when no-one else can. Technology can fail us. At times the camera dies whilst a person may think it is still on and recording. Allah never fails to watch and record us. Therefore, if you desire to show someone, show Allah. Want to impress someone? Impress Allah. If you impress people on social media you may just get a few likes, comments and shares and that is all. However, if you impress Allah He will grant you Jannah, a reward far greater than we can possibly imagine. A seeker will always find what he seeks. Seek people, you will never be able to acquire their pleasure. Seek Allah and you will acquire Him, via His mercy in this life and His honorable presence in the afterlife. May Allah rid our hearts of ostentation, vanity and all such evil qualities, Aameen. — Hazrat Ml. Dawood Seedat حفظه الله Above is an article taken from www.islaahiadvices.com. It is an extract from Hazrat’s talk on 25/09/17. To listen to the full talk, please click here.
  14. Using Social Media - A Responsibility

    Selfie craze and evil eye New car? Take a selfie. Put it on social media. Child's birthday? Take a slefie. Put it on social media. New job? Take a selfie. Put it on social media. Nice meal? Take a selfie. Put it on social media. Got married? Take a selfie. Put it on social media. Performed Hajj/Umrah? Take a selfie. Put it on social media. New look? Take a selfie. Put it on social media. All done? Then we wonder why things go terribly wrong. Allah Almighty says 'And from the evil of the envier when he envies'. (113:5) The Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وصحبه وسلم said 'the evil eye is real'. (Hadeeth) A private life, is a safe life. But it's difficult to kill the ego and desire, and not share half of our lives with half the world. May Allah Almighty protect us all from the evil eye Ameen
  15. Using Social Media - A Responsibility

    SELFITIS Among the greatest qualities of a Believer is humility. Conversely, pride and arrogance are among the worst diseases that can afflict a person. A humble person is beloved to Allāh Ta‘ala and is also loved by people, while a proud person or one who loves to “show off” falls from the grace of Allāh Ta‘ala and is disliked by people as well, though they may appear to respect him. Pride and vanity are not detected by means of an X-ray or CT scan. Instead they are manifested in one’s utterances, reactions to situations, choices, manner and general conduct. One of the recently discovered symptoms is “Selfitis”. Inflamed Ego and Narcissism The Psychiatrists have defined “Selfitis” as being “the obsessive, compulsive urge to take photos of one’s self and upload them on social media.” In essence, the victims of this illness are major attention seekers[1]. They further explained that the suffix “itis” by which the word ends generally refers to inflammation. Hence bronchitis refers to inflammation of the lungs and tonsillitis to the inflammation of the tonsils. Thus this disorder was named “Selfitis” as the people who suffer from it are generally prone to having “Inflamed egos” which leads to Narcissism.[2] Pious Disorder In Makkah al-Mukarramah, authorities are concerned about people causing serious congestion by stopping to take selfies of themselves in the midst of making tawāf (circumbulation) of the Kā’bah. “We now have people who during the Friday prayers, instead of listening to the Imam, prefer to take pictures of worshippers or to indulge in selfies. The problem is that you cannot talk to them because these are the Friday prayers and worshippers must not speak at all,” authorities said. Another pilgrim, Khalid Al-Shimrani, a Kuwaiti, said: “The sight of the Kā’bah is truly wonderful and being next to it is an exhilarating experience that I would love to share with my friends and followers on social media,”. [3] Doesn’t Mr. Shimrani know that the exhilarating experience is that of the heart? A selfie cannot capture a feeling of ecstasy, only an emotion of the face. Can one be so devoid of spirituality at a place when he is supposed to be full of it? Is the Kā’bah an entertainment hot-spot? Can a selfie help one to relive an intensely spiritual moment in which you are drowned in communication with your Lord? The ahādīth have sounded numerous warnings for people who engage in the sin of photography. Apart from these warnings, when a person is filled with such vanity and conceit that his ego tricks him into thinking that the entire world is simply dying to share every moment of his mundane life with him, and thus he cannot see past his own face, how is he supposed to see the majesty and glory of Allāh Ta‘ala? Finally, it’s understandable that all humans have a desire to be recognized and appreciated, or to relive some of their memories, but this is not achieved by photographs or selfies. We need the recognition and approval of our Creator, and not His creation. In our most intense moments of prayer and spirituality, there is no thought of anyone but Him, why destroy this sacredness with a picture? This year, take the best selfie on the day Eid, that of your heart, and present it to your Lord. Wait for the ‘like’ or ‘dislike’ on the Day of Judgment. Footnotes: [1]- Barry, C. T., Doucette, H., Loflin, D. C., Rivera-Hudson, N., & Herrington, L. L. (2015, June 29). “Let Me Take a Selfie”: Associations Between Self-Photography, Narcissism, and Self-Esteem. “Let Me Take a Selfie”: Associations Between Self-Photography, Narcissism, and Self-Esteem. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281317126_Let_Me_Take_a_Selfie_Associations_Between_Self-Photography_Narcissism_and_Self-Esteem [accessed Jun 22, 2017]. [2]- Gwendolyn Seidman Ph.D. Are Selfies a Sign of Narcissism and Psychopathy? Available from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/close-encounters/201501/are-selfies-sign-narcissism-and-psychopathy [accessed Jun 22, 2017]. [3]- http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/kaaba-selfies-trigger-heated-online-debate-1.1541422 Published by: Naseeha Channel (Telegram)
  16. The Gift of Gratitude

    The Gift of Gratitude On one occasion, after Nabi Ismaeel Alayhis salaam had married, Nabi Ebrahim Alayhis salaam came to visit him in Makkah Mukarramah. On arriving at his home, however, he did not meet Ismaeel Alayhis salaam as he was out, and instead met his wife. As she had never met Ebrahim Alayhis salaam before, she did not recognize him. Ebrahim Alayhis salaam asked her where Ismaeel Alayhis salaam was to which she replied, “He has gone to find sustenance for us (i.e. he has gone out to hunt).” Ebrahim Alayhis salaam next asked her regarding their condition and state. She replied by complaining and mentioning, “We are in a bad condition. We are undergoing constraints and poverty.” Ebrahim Alayhis salaam then said to her, “When your husband arrives, convey my salaam to him, and tell him to change his doorstep.” When Ismaeel Alayhis salaam later returned, he perceived that someone had visited, and thus asked his wife, “Did anyone come?” She replied, “Yes, an old man with such-and-such an appearance arrived. He asked me where you were, and so I told him that you were out. He asked me regarding our condition, and so I told him that we are in difficulty and hardship.” Ismaeel Alayhis salaam asked her, “Did he give you any message?” She replied, “Yes, he told me to convey salaam to you, and to tell you to change your doorstep.” Ismaeel Alayhis salaam responded, “That was my father, Ebrahim Alayhis salaam. He has instructed me to separate from you.” (Ebrahim Alayhis salaam was actually referring to the wife of Ismaeel Alayhis salaam when he used the term ‘doorstep’.) After some time had passed, Ismaeel Alayhis salaam remarried. When Ebrahim Alayhis salaam came to visit him after he remarried, he was again out of the home. Hence, Ebrahim Alayhis salaam met his wife who did not recognize him. Ebrahim Alayhis salaam asked her where Ismaeel Alayhis salaam was to which she answered, “He has gone to search for sustenance for us.” Ebrahim Alayhis salaam next asked her regarding their condition. She praised Allah Ta‘ala and replied, “We are in a good condition, enjoying prosperity.” Ebrahim Alayhis salaam then said to her, “When your husband arrives, convey my salaam to him, and tell him to keep and look after his doorstep.” When Nabi Ismaeel Alayhis salaam later returned, he perceived that someone had visited, and thus asked his wife, “Did anyone come?” She replied in the affirmative and informed Ismaeel Alayhis salaam of what had transpired, together with conveying to him the salaam and the message of Ebrahim Alayhis salaam. Ismaeel Alayhis salaam responded, “That was my father, and you are the ‘doorstep’ to which he referred. He has instructed me to keep you as my wife and look after you.” (Bukhaari #3364) NB: The doorstep acts as a form of protection for the door and the home. Similarly, the woman of the home is a form of protection for the home, as she guards the home in the absence of the husband. Furthermore, the wife always remains at home (in the ideal situation) just as the doorstep never moves and always remains in one place. For this reason, the word ‘doorstep’ was used to refer to the woman of the home. (Fathul Baari vol. 6, pg. 499 and Al-Kautharul Jaari vol. 6, pg. 261) Lessons: 1. The first wife and second wife of Ismaeel Alayhis salaam had lived in the same home and had both experienced the same conditions of hardship. However, there was a great difference between the two wives. The first wife had the bad qualities of ingratitude and complaining, and hence she was deprived of remaining in the marriage of Ismaeel Alayhis salaam. The second wife was blessed with the qualities of gratitude for the favours they enjoyed, patience over their hardships, and contentmentwith the little that they had, and so she was honoured to remain the wife of Ismaeel Alayhis salaam. 2. The importance of the wife remaining grateful to her husband and abstaining from complaining can be clearly understood from the hadeeth in which Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam warned the women of this Ummah that one of the main causes for them entering Jahannum is their excessive complaining and lack of appreciation for the favours and kindness of the husband.(Muslim #2048) In another hadeeth, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam described those women who do not have the quality of appreciation saying, “If you treat such a woman kindly for your entire life, and she thereafter sees something from you (that she dislikes), she will say, ‘I never saw any good from you!’ (i.e. on account of one unhappy experience, she will immediately forget the lifetime of good that you showed her and will immediately complain.)” (Bukhaari #29) 3. Ismaeel Alayhis salaam heeded the advice of his father, Ebrahim Alayhis salaam regarding his wife. Similarly, we should ensure that we consult and follow the advice of our parents and elders when choosing a spouse. uswatulmuslimah.co.za
  17. On Knowledge

    "Still studying? Come on!" A man entered upon a gathering where a Shaykh was teaching Sahih Al-Bukhari to his students. In mockery of that gathering, the man said, "People in the West have managed to land on the moon whilst you're still teaching Sahih Al-Bukhari!" The Shaykh responded, "Why does that surprise you? They are a creation who've reached another creation, whilst we are a creation who want to reach the Creator. But I tell you this; you are the most hopeless person in this gathering, for you've both failed to reach the moon with them and failed to study Al-Bukhari with us" If Allah has inspired you to pursue a path of knowledge, then you've been inspired with a blessing that's beyond the planets. وَمَنْ سَلَكَ طَريقًا يَلْتَمِسُ فِيهِ عِلْمًا سَهَّلَ اللهُ لَهُ طَريقًا إِلَى الجَنَّةِ "Whoever pursues a path to gain knowledge, Allah will ease for him a path that leads to Paradise." Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم (copied)
  18. Why is there Suffering in the World? Q. I have a question regarding sufferings. People in general suffer, some a lot some not at all regardless of their religion. What is the reason behind these sufferings? Is it sins? In so many books it is said Allah is most merciful most kind and most loving yet we don’t see his love and mercy. My question is what is the reason and how do we make it stop? A. The first thing to understand is that this world is only the stepping stone to our true abode which is the hereafter. This world is our place for trial and examination. In this world we understand that the higher the qualification, the harder the exam. Our test in this world is not for qualifications or for degrees. It is for eternal life in gardens of paradise. It is for the supreme success. How can such a test be easy? Study the life of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam and you will find that no one went through greater tests and trials than him. Did Allah not have mercy on him? In the Quran, Allah tells us, “Indeed Allah has purchased your lives and wealth in exchange for Jannah.” This means that everything we are and everything we have is at the ready to be sacrificed in the attainment of Jannah. You may have come across children, whose parents have given them everything, yet their ingratitude is of a level that they say, “My parents have done nothing for me.” The child sees only the negative and his eyes have become blind to the many sacrifices and privileges his parents have afforded him. It is similar when we say that we do not see Allah’s mercy. In the Qur’aan, Allah tells us, “If Allah had to punish man in accordance to his sins, then not a creature would be left living on the earth (due to the punishment due).” It is Allah’s mercy that he affords the creation grace. It is Allah’s mercy that despite our sins, we may eat and drink and breath. The Nabi of Allah Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam informed us, “The first favour of Allah that we will be questioned about on the Day of Judgement will be, “Have I not given you a sound body and quenched your thirst with cold water?” These are great favours of Allah upon us but how many of the creation are thankful. There is another aspect that we must consider. Allah has created this world as a place of means, a place of cause and effect and, by and large, Allah allows it to run its own course. A person who wants to do good is able to do good. A person who wants to do evil is able to do evil. The judgement and consequence is not in this world but in the hereafter. When people cause suffering and when greed and hatred cause war, genocide, looting and rape, do we blame Allah? No, the blame is on the wrongdoers. When governments usurp their countries wealth and leave the population in want and desperation, the blame is on them. Allah Ta’ala asks us in the Qur’an, “Why would Allah punish you if you are grateful and believing?” If the Ummah will en masse turn to Allah, then Allah will divinely intervene to change their condition for the better. But if they continue to live as they please then Allah will leave them to their own devices. And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Moosa Salie Confirmation: Mufti Ismaeel Bassa (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN)
  19. Understanding the Three Types of Nafs

    The stages of the nafs: Nafs al ammara part 1 From Ashrafiya . Shaikh Abdul Ghani at Tarablusi al Khalwati (Allah have mercy on him) said, ‘It is your lower self (nafs) that veils you from Allah. The scholars of Reality (al haqiqa) have mentioned seven stages of the nafs according to its changing states, the ammara, lawamah, mulhema, mutmainah, radhiya, mardhiya and kamilah.’ Following is a summary of Shaikh’s discussion. 1. The inciting nafs (nafs-i-ammara) إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلاَّ مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّيَ‎ Surely, man’s inner self often incites to evil, unless my Lord shows mercy.”[12:53] In its primitive stage the nafs incites us to commit evil: this is the corrupt nafs as the lower self, the base instincts. Its characteristics include; stinginess, greed, envy, ignorance, arrogance, lust, anger, heedlessness, coveting, mad manners, involvement in useless, making others’ fun, having malice for them and harming them with speech or hand. It becomes the instrument of Satan’s seduction (to sin). It the most lethal enemy. Therefore extreme caution is needed in not listening to its insolent commands. In Prophetic saying the struggle against it has been mentioned as highest level of righteous effort (jihad al akbar). Being steadfast on the commandments of Shariah is essential. Keeping constant vigilance (muhasba) is required. It is imperative to have extreme humility and engagement in supererogatory deeds. This is facilitated by giving up (after consultation with Shaikh) the excessive permissible pleasures and all useless activities. By routinely crying in front of Allah asking for help and making remembrance of Allah as instructed by the Shaikh. ‘Never leave supplication because of being depressed and frustrated (by frequent slips) or lose hope by considering the goal to be unrealistic. This will severe the determination altogether.’ If one persists then Allah will spiritually enlighten the heart of the seeker that will make it possible to see the diseases that inflicts the nafs. Then comes the second stage. The stages of the nafs: Nafs al Lawwamah / part 2 The Self-reproaching nafs لا أقسم بيوم القيامة ولا أقسم بالنفس اللوامة [75:1] I swear by the Day of Resurrection, [75:2] and I swear by the self-reproaching conscience, (that Resurrection is a reality.) This is the stage where the conscience is awakened and the self reproaches one for listening to one’s ego. That is, in committing the evil acts or omitting the virtuous or doing them in a sloppy manner. Its characteristics include; reproaching, greed, coveting, self praise, show-off, cruelty, back-bitting, lying and heedlessness, love of fame and status. In sharing many characteristics of nafs al ammarah it maintains the ability to differentiate between the good and evil. However, it is not proficient, as yet, to fully follow the good commands and abstain from sinful. Moreover, if it does do some good acts it develops desires of self-praise (ujub) or showing-off or expecting praise from others. In this stage it is imperative that he acknowledges and exposes these blame worthy desires to his fellow-brethren (as per the instruction of his Shaikh). Otherwise these blame-worthy morals will cut-off his journey on this path. It is essential that in this phase he makes excessive remembrance of Allah and exerts in the struggle (to do good and abstain from evil). Here he is inflicted will excessive abstract, useless ideas, and random, bizarre thoughts. He has to fight them off with assistance of excessive remembrance of Allah and supplications, asking Allah for assistance in doing so effectively. If he does so, he passes to the third stage. The stages of nafs: Nafs e mulhimah / part 3 The Inspired Nafs Allah Almighty says, (9)ونفس وما سواها ( 7 ) فألهمها فجورها وتقواها ( 8 ) قد أفلح من زكاها [91:7] and by the soul, and the One who made it well, [91:8] then inspired it with its (instincts of) evil and piety, [91:9] success is really attained by him who purifies it, In this stage of development the nafs is gifted with the ability to distinguish between good and evil. Moreover,the performance of good actions and abstinence from evil is facilitated for him by the Grace of Allah. This Grace is manifested as immense desire to please Allah. And at this stage nafs remains drowned in intense love of Allah (‘ishq illahi). This is possible by following the recommendations of the Shaikh and excessive remembrance of Allah as instructed by him. In fact it is mandatory (wajib) to follow the recommendations of the Shaikh at this stage to be successful. This is both a phenomenal and a challenging stage. Any heedlessness here will pull the nafs to its initial stage. (May Allah protect us all from this disaster. Amin!) Its characteristics include; self restraint (hilm), philanthropy, contentment, humility, repentance, patience, forbearance, forgiveness, maintaining a good opinion about others, acceptance of others’ excuses, etc. In addition to the excessive remembrance of Allah and following the instructions of Shaikh meticulously one has to repeatedly remind himself of meeting Allah and His perfections. He has to be vigilant in following the Shariah and be compliant to his daily wird. He must efface his ego by purposefully doing permissible humble actions. Here the individual observes that everything is from Allah (tawhid e afa’li). He abandons all criticism. He cries often and is deeply effected by the crying of others. He withdraws from all the creation and finds solace with Allah. He is attracted to beautiful audition. In short this stage is marked by intense love, lofty desires and high aspirations to please Allah.
  20. Is it Proper to Refer to a Scholar as “Mawlānā” ? By Mufti Waseem Khan Edited by IlmGate Question: I heard that the word Mawlānā means master and that you cannot address anyone with that title as Mawlānā. Can you please clarify? Answer: The word Mawlānā is an Arabic word which is combined of two words namely Mawlā and nā – Mawlānā. It is not one word as some would think, but in reality it is two words as I have mentioned. As such, the permissibility or impermissibility of the usage of the word Mawlānā can only be seen when one looks at the two parts of this word with respect to its meaning and usage in the Arabic Language. Nā in the Arabic language is a pronoun which is used for possession when connected with a noun. Hence if you want to say ‘our book’ (in Arabic) you would say kitābunā – kitābu and nā. Similarly if you want to say ‘our pen’, you would say qalamunā – qalamu and nā. Therefore the word nā simply means ‘our’ in Arabic. As far as the word Mawlā is concerned, it is used in many different ways due to its varying meanings. In the book Mu’jam Lughat al-Fuqahā’ (Dictionary of Islamic legal terminology) written by Dr. Muhammad Rawwas (contributor to the encyclopedia of Islamic law and professor of Islamic Institutions) and Dr. Hamid Sadiq (Professor of Terminology and Dictionaries) it is written: The word Mawlā conveys many different meanings. Some of which are: 1. Master 2. Leader 3. The one who has freed a slave 4. The slave who has been freed 5. A slave 6. Sovereign 7. A patron 8. A client The Hans Wehr Arabic Dictionary has also given similar meanings. It states that Mawlā means master, lord, protector, patron, client, charge, friend, companion, and associate. It also states that al-Mawlā is used to say the lord, God, and the words Mawlāya (ya means ‘my’ in Arabic) and Mawlānā are forms of address to a sovereign. Similarly in the book Mu’jam al-Mustalahāt al-Dīniyah (a dictionary of religious terms) written by Dr. Abdullah Ibn Ashy Al-Maliki and Dr. Abdul Lateef Sheikh Ibrahim, it is mentioned that Mawlā means ‘a protector’ or ‘a guardian’. Based on these meanings, it shows that when the pronoun nā (our) is attached to the word Mawlā, it would have many different meanings such as: ‘our master’, ‘our leader’, ‘our slave’, ‘our freed slave’, ‘our master who freed the slave’, ‘our patron’, ‘our client’. It is therefore very clear that a master can address his slave as Mawlānā meaning ‘our slave’. Likewise a slave can address his master as Mawlānā meaning ‘our master’. In the same manner, people can address their leader as Mawlānā meaning ‘our leader’. In this manner all the above meanings can be used in the word Mawlā when connected to the pronoun nā. This is very clear and accepted in the Arabic Language. Additionally, the word Mawlā has been used in a tremendous amount of traditions where it sometimes referred to a slave and at times referred to a master and also to the one who freed the slave. While narrating the sanad (chain of narrators) for different Hadiths, Imams Bukhari, Muslim and all scholars of Hadith referred to certain narrators as the Mawlā of others. For example, sometimes Imam Bukhari would introduce Kurayb as the Mawlā of Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه. He would also introduce Nafi’ as the Mawlā of Ibn Umar رضي الله عنه and would refer to Humran as the Mawlā of Uthman رضي الله عنه. There are hundreds of such examples in the books of Hadith. Additionally, the Qur’an has also used the word Mawlā for different meanings. It has been used singly and has also been used combined with other pronouns. [Amongst] these verses is Surat Al-Hajj, verse 78: And hold fast to Allah. He is Mawlā kum [your Patron, Lord]. What an excellent Mawlā [Patron, Lord] and what an excellent helper. Here the word has been used connected to a pronoun in the first case i.e. Mawlā kum (kum means ‘your’) and in the second case it has been used singly. In both cases, it is used to refer to Allah as being the Patron, the Lord. Similar usages have been given in other verses such as Surat Anfāl’s verse 40, Surat Āle Imrān’s verse 150, Surat Tahrīm’s verse 2, etc. In these verses, the word Mawlā has been used to mean ‘lord’, ‘patron’ and refers to Allah since He is the real Patron, the Lord and the real Governor of our affairs. Along with this, the word Mawlā has been used for several other meanings in the Holy Qur’an. For example Surat Dukhān’s verse 41 states: “The Day when no Mawlā (friend, protector, leader, etc) can avail another Mawlā in anything and no help can they receive.” In this verse, Mawlā does not refer to Allah Our Creator, but it refers to human beings. Similarly, Surat Hadīd verse 15 states: “This Day no ransom shall be accepted from you, nor of those who rejected Allah. Your abode is the fire, that is your Mawlā (place, destination) and an evil refuge it is.” In this verse, the word Mawlā has the meaning of ‘a place’ or ‘a destination’. Taking this meaning into consideration, if we were to attach the pronoun nā to this word and say Mawlā-nā, it would mean our place or our destination. It is therefore evident in the Qur’an itself that this word does not only mean master. In two places of the Holy Qur’an, the word Mawlā attached to the pronoun nā has been used and they both refer to Allah. In Surat Baqarah verse 286, it states: “And blot out our sins and grant us forgiveness and have mercy on us. You are Mawlā-nā (our Protector, Master).” In the above verse, the word Mawlā has the meaning of master and protector and our true and real protector and master is only Allah, hence the use of the word Mawlānā for Allah. Secondly in Surat Tawbah verse 51, it states, “Say nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us. He is Mawlā-nā (our protector) and on Allah let the believers put their trust.” Here again the word Mawlā conveys the meaning ‘protector’ and when used with the pronoun nā, it means our protector. Since Allah is our protector, it is used to refer to him in the above verse. It should be noted that the real issue is not with the word Mawlānā. Instead, it is with the usage of the word Mawlā, since the word nā is a pronoun which can be used for anyone. In this manner, the words Mawlā-hum’ (their Lord), Mawlā-kum (your Lord) and Mawlā–hu (his protector) have all been used in the Holy Qur’an to refer to Allah. In each of the above, a different pronoun was used with the word Mawla and when combined together were all used to refer to Allah. As such, it can be seen that the permissibility or impermissibility of the usage of the word Mawlānā is not based upon the word Mawlānā alone but instead it is based totally upon the usage of the word Mawlā. In some passages of the Holy Qur’an and traditions, as well as the books of Fiqh, it is evident that the word Mawlā has been used to convey many different meanings and is not confined with the meaning of ‘Protector’ and ‘Master’. In Surat Tahrīm verse 4, it states: “But if you back up each other against him, truly Allah is his Protector (Mawlā) and Jibreel عليه السلام and the righteous ones from among those who believe.” In this verse it is clear that Allah has used the word Mawlā (protector) for Himself, Angel Jibreel عليه السلام, and the righteous servants. In other words, the verse means that truly Allah is the Mawlā (protector) of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, Jibreel عليه السلام is also his Mawlā (protector) and the righteous believers are also his Mawlā (protector). The summary of this entire explanation is that in the Arabic language, the word Mawlā has been used for many different meanings. As such, whenever it is used singly or combined with another word or pronoun, one must look to see which of its meaning is used. From the given meanings, it is clear that it can also mean ‘a leader’, hence using it with the pronoun nā by saying Mawlānā would be allowed to refer to someone as ‘our leader’. It is also important for one to understand that during the course of Islamic history, many words bearing respect and authority have been used by great scholars to refer to a person with great learning ability. One would therefore find the words Muhaddith (traditionist), Mufassir (commentator), Faqīh (jurist), Shaykh al-Islam (the sheikh, leader of Islam) etc being used to describe the status of a particular scholar of Islam. Although these names were not found to be used during the time of the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم and the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, they were all acceptable to all scholars since they were in no violation of any Islamic teaching. In the same manner, other words became prevalent among the Muslims living in different cities of the Islamic world. Words such as Mullah, ‘Allāma, Shaykh, Muftī, Mawlānā, Mawlawī etc. all became prevalent in different cities and were used to describe a person of great Islamic learning and authority. These words gained the wide acceptance of the general scholars and were not considered as being impermissible to use, since there was no meaning in any of the above words which could make its usage impermissible in the Shari’ah. Of late, the word Doctor (Daktūr) has also come into use in many Arab countries. Although this word has never been used by the al-Salaf al-Sālihīn (Pious Predecessors), all the Islamic scholars have given an allowance for its usage. And Allah knows best. Mufti Waseem Khan (Principal of Darul Uloom Trinidad & Tobago) Courtesy of Darul Uloom Trinidad & Tobago
  21. Death & Burial / Inheritance

    Renewing Expressions of Grief Q. Is it permissible for family members of a deceased to post tributes and statuses expressing grief to the one who has passed on? Yes it makes the person feel better as they express how they feel but this sometimes continues for years after the person has passed away reigniting that atmosphere of mourning and grief etc. A. The time period to offer condolences is up to 3 days after the death of a person, unless a person is out of town. Such a person may offer condolences at a later time. Once a person has offered condolences once, then it should not be repeated. Renewing grief is against Islamic teachings. There is a reason why the mourning period is restricted to three days. Islam is not a religion of mourning. Mourning is a human requirement for a time but to perpetuate it is to make life gloomy, miserable and depressing. This is against Islamic spirit and teachings. The practice of continuing to post tributes and statuses expressing grief is against Islamic teachings and should be abandoned. (Hindiyyah Vol. 1 page 167) And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best Mufti Moosa Salie Confirmation: Mufti Ismaeel Bassa (The answer hereby given is specifically based on the question asked and should be read together with the question asked. Islamic rulings on this Q&A newsletter are answered in accordance to the Hanafi Fiqh unless otherwise stated.) Fatwa Department Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) Council of Muslim Theologians
  22. Ayat and Ahadith about the Hour

    The Hour will not come until… IT was reported from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “Thunderbolts will increase so much as the Hour approaches that when a man comes to a people, he will ask, ‘Who amongst you was struck by a thunderbolt this morning?’ and they will say, ‘So-and-so and so-and-so was struck’.” (Ahmad) Heavy rain before the Day of Resurrection. It was reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The hour will not come until there has been rain which will destroy all dwellings except tents.” We have already mentioned many Ahadith about the signs of the Hour. Now we will turn our attention to some Ahadith which could indicate that the Hour is close at hand. It was reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said: “The Hour will not come until the following events have come to pass: people will compete with one another in constructing high buildings; two big groups will fight one another, and there will be many casualties – they will both be following the same religious teaching; earthquakes will increase; time will pass quickly; afflictions and killing will increase; nearly thirty dajjals will appear, each of them claiming to be a messenger from Allah; a man will pass by a grave and say, ‘Would that I were in your place’; the sun will rise from the West; when it rises and the people see it, they will all believe, but that will be the time when ‘No good will it do to a soul to believe in them then, if it believed not before’ (al-An’am 6:158); and a wealthy man will worry lest no-one accept his Zakat.” (Bukhari, Muslim). It was reported from Anas that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said: “Among the signs of the Hour are the following: knowledge will decrease and ignorance will prevail; fornication and the drinking of wine will be common; the number of men will decrease and the number of women will increase, until one man will look after fifty women.” (Bukhari.) ‘A’ishah said, “I heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) say, ‘Day and night will not pass away until people begin to worship Lat and ‘Uzza’ (two goddesses of pre-Islamic Arabic). I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I thought that when Allah revealed the Ayah “It is He Who has sent His Apostle with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it)” (al-Tawbah 9:33), it implied that (this promise) would be fulfilled’. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘It will happen as Allah wishes. Then Allah will send a pleasant breeze, which will take everyone who has as much faith as a grain of mustard-seed in his heart. Only those with no goodness in them will be left, and they will revert to the religion of their forefathers’.” (Muslim) It was from Abu Hurairah that one day, while the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) was sitting with the people, a Bedouin came to him and asked him about Iman and Islam ‘ then he asked, “O Messenger of Allah, when will the Hour be?” He said, “The one who is asked about it does not know more than the one who asks, but I tell you about its signs. When a slave gives birth to her mistress, and when the bare-footed and naked become the chiefs of the people – these are among the signs of the Hour. There are five things which no-one knows except Allah.” Then he recited: “Verily the knowledge of the Hour is with God (alone). It is He Who sends down rain, and He Who knows what is in the wombs. Nor does anyone know what it is that he will earn on the morrow: nor does anyone know in what land he is to die. Verily God is All-Knowing, All Aware.” (Luqman 31:34). Then the man went away, and the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “Call him back to me,” but when the people went to call him, they could not see anything. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “That was Gabriel, who came to teach the people their religion.” (Bukhari, Muslim). “The bare-footed and naked paupers will compete with one another in constructing high buildings” means that they will become the chiefs of people. They will become rich, and their only concern will be to compete in constructing high buildings. This is as in the Hadith we shall see later: “The Hour will not come until the happiest people in the world will be the depraved sons of the depraved.” It was reported from Abu Sa’id that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said: “The Hour will not come until the time when a man will leave his home, and his shoes or whip or stick will tell what is happening to his family.” (Ahmad). It was reported from Abu Sa’id that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said: “By Him in Whose hand is my soul, the Hour will not come until wild animals talk to men, and a man speaks to his whip or his shoe, and his thigh will tell him about what happened to his family after he left.” Anas said, “We were discussing the fact that the Hour would not come until there is no rain, the earth does not produce crops, and fifty women will be cared for by one man; and if a woman passes by a man, he will look at her and say, ‘This woman once had a husband’.” (Ahmad.) Abu Hurairah said: “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said: ‘The Hour will not come until time passes so quickly that a year will be like a month, a month like a week, a week like a day, a day like an hour, and an hour like the time it takes for a palm-leaf to burn’.” (Ahmad.) Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said: ‘The world will not pass away until the one who enjoys it the most is the depraved son of the depraved’.” (Ahmad.) Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘Before the Hour comes, there will be years of deceit, in which a truthful person will be disbelieved and a liar will be believed; and the insignificant will have a say’.” (Ahmad) Abu Hurairah said: “I heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) say: ‘The Hour will not come until the sheep with horns no longer fights the sheep without horns’.” (Ahmad.) It was reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Hour will not come until wealth increases so much that a wealthy man will be worried lest no-one accept his Sadaqah: tribulations will appear; and there will be much Harj.” The people asked, “What is Harj”, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “Killing, killing” (Ahmad.) It was reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “By Him Who sent me with the Truth, this earth will not pass away until people are afflicted with landslides, are pelted with stones, and are transformed into animals.” The people asked, “When will that be, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “When you see women riding in the saddle, when singers are common, when bearing false witness becomes widespread, and when men lie with men and women with women”. Tariq ibn Shihab said, “We were sitting with ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud, when a man came and told us that the time for prayer had come. So we got up and went to the mosque. After the prayer, a man came to ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud and said, ‘As-salam ‘alayka (Peace be upon you), O Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman’. ‘Abd Allah answered, ‘Allah and His Messenger have spoken the truth’. When we went back, we asked one another, ‘Did you hear the answer he gave? Who is going to ask him about it? I said, ‘I will ask him’; so I asked him when he came out. He narrated from the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam): ‘Before the Hour comes, there will be a special greeting for the people of distinction; trade will become so widespread that a woman will help her husband in business; family ties will be cut; the giving of false witness will be common, while truthful witness will be rare; and writing will be widespread.” (Ahmad.) DESCRIPTION OF THE PEOPLE WHO WILL BE ALIVE AT THE END OF TIME It was reported from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Hour will not come until Allah takes away the best people on earth; only the worst people will be left; they will not know any good or forbid any evil.” (Ahmad.) ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud said, “I heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) say: Eloquence can be bewitching; the worst of the people are those upon whom the Hour will come while they are still alive, and those who turn graves into mosques’.” (Ahmad.) It was reported from Anas that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Hour will not come until no-one on earth says ‘La ilaha illa Allah’.” (Ahmad.) It was also reported from Anas that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said: “The Hour will not come until no-one on earth says, ‘Allah, Allah’.” (Ahmad.) There are two suggestions as to the meaning of the phrase, “until no-one on earth says ‘Allah, Allah'”: 1. It could mean that no-one will forbid evil, or try to correct another if he sees him doing something wrong. We have already come across this in the Hadith of ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr: “Only the worst people will be left; they will not know any good or forbid any evil.” 2. It could mean that Allah will no longer be mentioned, and His Name will not be known; this will be part of the prevalent corruption and Kufr, as in the previous Hadith, “Until no-one on earth says ‘La ilaha illa Allah’.” ‘A’ishah said. “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) came in, saying ‘O ‘A’ishah, your people will be the first of my Ummah to join me. When he sat down, I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, may I be sacrificed for you! When you came in, you were saying something which scared me. He asked, ‘What was that?’ I said, ‘You said that my people would be the first of your Ummah to join you.’ He said, ‘Yes’ I asked, ‘Why is that? He said, ‘Death will be widespread among them, and their relatives will be jealous of them.’I said, ‘How will people be after that?’ He said, ‘Like locusts: the strong will devour the weak, until the Hour comes.'” (Ahmad.) ‘Alba’al-Salami said, “I heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) say: ‘The Hour will only come upon the worst of the people’.” (Ahmad.) Wassalam, Faraz Rabbani Qibla.com
  23. Ayat and Ahadith about the Hour

    The emergence of the beast AMONG the signs of the Hour will be the emergence of a beast from the earth. It will be very strange in appearance, and extremely huge; one cannot even imagine what it will look like. It will emerge from the earth and shake the dust from its head. It will have with it the ring of Solomon and the rod of Moses. People will be terrified of it and will try to run away, but they will not be able to escape, because such will be the decree of Allah. It will destroy the nose of every unbeliever with the rod, and write the word “Kafir” on his forehead; it will adorn the face of every believer and write the word “Mu’min” (true believer) on his forehead, and it will speak to people. Allah SWT said: “And when the Word is fulfilled against them (the unjust), We shall produce from the earth a Beast to (face) them: it will speak to them,'” (al-Naml 27.82) Ibn ‘Abbas, al-Hasan and Qutadah said that “It will speak to them” (tukallimuhum) means that it will address them. Ibn Jarir suggested that it means that the Beast will address them with the words “‘for that mankind did not believe with assurance in Our Sings” (al-Naml 27:82 – latter part of the Ayah). Ibn Jarir reported this from ‘Ali and ‘Ata’ It was reported from Ibn ‘Abbas that tukallimuhum means that the Beast will cut them, i e, it will write the word “Kafir” on the forehead of the unbeliever. It was also reported from Ibn ‘Abbas that he will both address them and cut them; this suggestion incorporates both of the previous suggestions; and Allah knows best. We have already mentioned the Hadith of Hudhayfah ibn Usayd, in which the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) is reported to have said, “The Hour will not come until you see ten signs: the smoke; the Dajjal; the Beast; the sun rising from the West; the descent of Jesus son of Mary; Gog and Magog; and three landslides – one in the East, one in the West, and one in Arabia, at the end of which fire will burst forth from the direction of Aden (Yemen) and drive people to the place of their final assembly.” Abu Hurairah said: “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West, the smoke, the Dajjal, the Beast, the (death) of one of you or general tribulation.” (Muslim.) Baridah said: “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) took me to a place in the desert, near Makkah. It was a dry piece of land surrounded by sand. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘The Beast will emerge from this place. It was a very small area.” (Ibn Majah.) It was reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Beast of the Earth will emerge, and will have with it the rod of Moses and the ring of Solomon.” It was also reported that he said, “(The Beast) will destroy the noses of the unbelievers with the ring, – so that people seated around one table will begin to address one another with the words “O Believer!” or “O Unbeliever!” (i e, everyone’s status will become clear). (Ibn Majah.) ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr said, “I memorised a Hadith from the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) which I have not forgotten since. I heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) say, ‘The first of the signs (of the Hour) to appear will be the rising of the sun from the West and the appearance of the Best before the people in the forenoon. Whichever of these two events happens first, the other will follow immediately.'” (Muslim). That is to say, these will be the first extraordinary signs. The Dajjal, the descent of Jesus (alayhe salam), the emergence of Gog and Magog, are less unusual in that they are all human beings. But the emergence of the Beast, whose form will be very strange, its addressing the people and classifying them according to their faith or unbelief, is something truly extraordinary. This is the first of the earthly signs, as the rising of the sun from the West is the first of the heavenly signs. THE RISING OF THE SUN FROM THE WEST ALLAH SWT says: “Are they waiting to see if the angels come to them, or thy Lord (Himself), or certain of the Signs of thy Lord? The day that certaof thesigns of thy Lord do come, no good will it do to a soul to believe in them then, if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its faith. Say: ‘Wait ye: we too are waiting'” (al-Anam 6:158.) It was reported from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) explained, “The day that certain of the Signs of thy Lord do come, no good will it do to a soul to believe in them then”, referring to the rising of the sun from the West. (Ahmad.) Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘The Hour will not come until the sun rises from the West. When the people see it, whoever is living on earth will believe, but that will be the time when – No good will it do to a soul to believe in them then, if it believed not before'” (Bukhari.) It was also reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Hour will not come until the sun rises from the West. When it rises and the people see it, they will all believe. But that will be the time when ‘No good will it do to a soul to believe in them then'” (Bukhari.) It was reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “There are three things which, if they appear, ‘No good will it do to a soul to believe in them then, if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its faith’ They are: the rising of the sun from the West, the Dajjal, and the Beast of the Earth.” (Ahmad, Muslim, Tirmidhi.) Abu Dharr said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) asked me, ‘Do you know where the sun goes when it sets? I said, ‘I do not know’He said, ‘It travels until it prostrates itself beneath the Throne, and asks for permission to rise again. But a time will come when it will be told, ‘Go back whence you came.’ That will be the time when ‘No good will it do to a soul to believe in them then, if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its faith'” (Bukhari.) ‘Amr ibn Jarir said, “Three Muslims were sitting with Marwan in Madinah, and heard him say, whilst talking about the Signs of the Hour, that the first of them would be the appearance of the Dajjal. The three went to ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr, and told him what they had heard Marwan say concerning the Signs. ‘Abd Allah said, ‘Marwan has not said much. I memorised a Hadith like that from the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) which I have not forgotten since. I heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) say: The first of the signs will be the rising of the sun from the West, and the emergence of the Beast in the forenoon. Whichever of the two comes first, the other will follow immediately'” “The ‘Abd Allah, who was widely-read, said, ‘I think that the first to happen will be the rising of the sun from the West. Every time it sets, it goes beneath the Throne, prostrates itself, and seeks permission to rise again. A time will come when three times it will seek permission and will receive no reply, until, when part of the night has passed and it realises that even if it were given permission, it would not be able to rise on time, it will say: “O my Lord, how far the rising-point is from me! What can I do for the people now?” Then it will seek permission to go back, and it will be told: ‘Rise from where you are now’ – and it will rise from the West'” Then ‘Abd Allah recited the Ayah: “No good will it do to a soul to believe in them then, if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its faith.” (Ahmad.) Some scholars interpret “the rising of the sun from the West” as meaning that Islam will appear in the West, as strong as it was in the beginning, and that the people of the West will carry the flag of Islam. THE SMOKE WHICH WILL APPEAR AT THE END OF TIME MASRUQ said: “While a man was giving a speech among the people of Kindah, he said, ‘There will be smoke on the Day of Resurrection which will deprive the hypocrites of their hearing and sight, but the believers will only suffer something like a cold’ We were terrified, so we went to Ibn Masud, who was reclining. When he heard about this, he became angry and sat up, and said: ‘O people, whoever knows a thing, let him say it; but whoever does not know, let him say, “Allah knows best.” It is a part of knowledge, when one does not know something, to say “Allah knows best.” Allah SWT said to His Prophet Mohammad (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam): “Say: ‘No reward do I ask of you for this (Qur’an), nor am I a pretender'” (Sad 38:86.) “Quraysh were being slow in embracing Islam, so the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) prayed against them, saying, ‘O Allah, help me against them by sending seven years of famine like those of Joseph.’ They were afflicted by a year of famine in which they were destroyed, and ate dead animals and bones. They began to see something like smoke between the sky and the earth. Abu Sufyan came and said, ‘O Mohammad! You came to command us to keep good relations with our relatives, and your people have perished, so pray that Allah may relieve them'” The Ibn Mas’ud recited, “Then watch thou for the Day that the sky will bring forth a kind of smoke (or mist) plainly visible, Enveloping the people: this will be a Penalty Grievous. (They will say:) ‘Our Lord! Remove the Penalty from us, for we do truly believe! How shall the Message be (effectual) for them, seeing that an Apostle explaining things clearly has (already) come to them? Yet they return away from him and say: ‘Tutored (by others), a man possessed! We shall indeed remove the Penalty for a while, (but) truly ye will revert (to your ways).” (al-Dukhan 44:10-15) Ibn Maud asked: “Will their punishment in the Hereafter be removed so they can go back to their Kufr?” Allah SWT said: “One day We shall seize you with a mighty onslaught: We will indeed (then) exact Retribution!” (al-Dukhan 44:16) “…and soon will come the inevitable (punishment)!” (al-Furqan 25:77) These Ayat refer to the Day (Battle) of Badr. Allah SWT said: “Alif-Lam-Mim. The Romans (Byzantines) have been defeated – in a land close by; but they, (even) after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious – within a few years'” (al-Rum 30: 1-3) (Bukhari.) This speaker’s suggestion – that the idea that the smoke would be on the Day or Resurrection was not a good one – made Ibn Masud react angrily. But the smoke will appear before the Day of Resurrection; it will be one of the signs, which are: the Beast, the Dajjal, the Smoke, and Gog and Magog, as the Ahadith narrated from Abu Sarihah, Abu Hurairah and other Sahabah indicate. As mentioned in the Sahih Ahadith, the fire which will appear before the Day of Resurrection will burst forth from the direction of Aden, and drive the people to the place of their final assembly. It will move with them and halt with them, and will devour any who lag behind.
  24. Ayat and Ahadith about the Hour

    The descent of Jesus at the end of time Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘The Dajjal will appear in my Ummah, and will remain for forty – “I cannot say whether he meant forty days, forty months or forty years.” Then Allah will send Jesus (alayhe salam), the son of Mary, who will resemble ‘Urwah ibn Mas’ud. He will chase the Dajjal and kill him. Then the people will live for seven years during which there will be no enmity between any two persons. Then Allah will send a cold wind from the direction of Syria, which will take the soul of everyone who has the slightest speck of good or faith in his heart. Even if one of you were to enter the heart of a mountain, the wind would reach him there and take his soul. “Only the most wicked people will be left; they will be as careless as birds, with the characteristics of beasts, and will have no concern for right and wrong. Satan will come to them in the form of man and will say, “Don’t you respond?” They will say, “What do you order us to do?” He will order them to worship idols, and in spite of that they will have sustenance in abundance, and lead comfortable lives. “Then the Trumpet will be blown, and everyone will tilt their heads to hear it. The first one to hear it will be a man busy repairing a trough for his camels. He and everyone else will be struck down. Then Allah will send (or send down) rain like dew, and the bodies of the people (ie the dead) will grow out of it. Then the trumpet will be sounded again, and the people will get up and look around. Then it will be said, “O people, go to your Lord and account for yourselves.” It will be said, “Bring out the people of Hell,” and it will be asked, “How many are there?” – the answer will come: “Nine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thousand.” On that day a child will grow old and the shin will be laid bare.” (Al-Qalam 68:42) (Muslim) Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘The son of Mary will come down as a just leader. He will break the cross, and kill the pigs. Peace will prevail and people will use their swords as sickles. Every harmful beast will be made harmless; the sky will send down rain in abundance, and the earth will bring forth its blessings. A child will play with a fox and not come to any harm; a wolf will graze with sheep and a lion with cattle, without harming them.” (Ahmad) Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘By Him in Whose hand is my soul, surely the son of Mary will come down among you as a just ruler. He will break the cross, kill the pigs and abolish the Jizyah. Wealth will be in such abundance that no-one will care about it, and a single prostration in prayer will be better than the world and all that is in it.” Abu Hurairah said, ‘If you wish, recite the Ayah: “And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them …” (Al-Nisa 4:159) (Bukhari, Muslim) Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Prophets are like brothers; they have different mothers but their religion is one.Iam the closest of all the people to Jesus son of Mary, because there is no other Prophet between him and myself. He will come again, and when you see him, you will recognise him. He is of medium height and his colouring is reddish-white. He will be wearing two garments, and his hair will look wet. He will break the cross, kill the pigs, abolish the Jizyah and call the people to Islam. During his time, Allah will end every religion and sect other than Islam, and will destroy the Dajjal. Then peace and security will prevail on earth, so that lions will graze with camels, tigers with cattle, and wolves with sheep; children will be able to play with snakes without coming to any harm. Jesus will remain for forty years, then die, and the Muslims will pray for him.” (Ahmad) Ibn Masud reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “On the night of the Isra (night journey), I met my father Abraham, Moses and Jesus, and they discussed the Hour. The matter was referred first to Abraham, then to Moses, and both said, ‘I have no knowledge of it. Then it was referred to Jesus, who said, ‘No-one knows about its timing except Allah; what my Lord told me was that the Dajjal will appear, and when he sees me he will begin to melt like lead. Allah will destroy him when he sees me. The Muslims will fight against the Kafirs, and even the trees and rocks will say, “O Muslim, there is a Kafir hiding beneath me – come and kill him!” Allah will destroy the Kafirs, and the people will return to their own lands. Then Gog and Magog will appear from all directions, eating and drinking everything they find. The people will complain to me, so I will pray to Allah and He will destroy them, so that the earth will be filled with their stench. Allah will send rain which will wash their bodies into the sea. My Lord has told me that when that happens, the Hour will be very close, like a pregnant woman whose time is due, but her family do not know exactly when she will deliver'” (Ahma, Ibn Majah) DESCRIPTION OF THE MESSIAH JESUS SON OF MARY, MESSENGER OF ALLAH Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘On the night of the Isra’ (miraculous journey to Jerusalem) I met Moses – he was a slim man with wavy hair, and looked like a man from the Shanu’ah tribe. I also met Jesus – he was of medium height and of a red complexion, as if he had just come out of the bath'” (Bukhari, Muslim) The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “Whilst I was asleep, I saw myself (in a dream) making Tawaf around the Ka’bah. I saw a brown-skinned man, with straight hair, being supported by two men, and with water dripping from his head. I said, ‘Who is this?’ They said, ‘The son of Mary’I turned around and saw a fat, ruddy man, with curly hair, who was blind in his right eye; his eye looked like a floating grape. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ They said, ‘The Dajjal’ The one who most resembles him is Ibn Qatan.” Al-Zuhri explained: Ibn Qatan was a man from Khuzaah who died during the Jahiliyyah (before the coming of Islam). (Bukhari) THE APPEARANCE OF GOG AND MAGOG They (two tribes or peoples) will appear at the time of Jesus son of Mary, after the Dajjal. Allah will destroy them all in one night, in response to the supplication of Jesus. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “Every day, Gog and Magog are trying to dig a way out through the barrier. When they begin to see sunlight through it, the one who is in charge of them says, ‘Go back; you can carry on digging tomorrow,’ and when they come back, the barrier is stronger than it was before. This will continue until their time comes and Allah wishes to send them forth. They will dig until they begin to see sunlight, then the one who is in charge of them will say, ‘Go back; you can carry on digging tomorrow, insha’Allah.’ In this case he will make an exception by saying insha’ Allah, thus relating the matter to the Will of Allah. They will return on the following day, and find the hole as they left it. They will carry on digging and come out against the people. They will drink all the water, and the people will entrench themselves in their fortresses. Gog and Magog will fire their arrows into the sky, and they will fall back to earth with something like blood on them. Gog and Magog will say, ‘We have defeated the people of earth, and overcome the people of heaven. Then Allah will send a kind of worm in the napes of their necks, and they will be killed by it’ ‘By Him in Whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, the beasts of the earth will become fat.'” Gog and Magog are two groups of Turks, descended from Yafith (Japheth), the father of the Turks, one of the sons of Noah. At the time of Abraham (alayhe salam), there was a king called Dhu’l-Qarnayn. He performed Tawaf around the Ka’bah with Abraham (alayhe salam) when he first built it; he believed and followed him. Dhu’l-Qarnayn was a good man and a great king; Allah gave him great power and he ruled the east and west. He held sway over all kings and countries, and travelled far and wide in both east and west. He travelled eastwards until he reached a pass between two mountains, through which people were coming out. They did not understand anything, because they were so isolated; they were Gog and Magog. They were spreading corruption through the earth, and harming the people, so the people sought help from Dhu’l-Qarnayn. They asked him to build a barrier between them and Gog and Magog. He asked them to help him to build it, so together they built a barrier by mixing iron, copper and tar. Thus Dhu’ -Qarnayn restrained Gog and Magog behind the barrier. They tried to penetrate the barrier, or to climb over it, but to no avail. They could not succeed because the barrier is so huge and smooth. They began to dig, and they have been digging for centuries; they will continue to do so until the time when Allah decrees that they come out. At that time the barrier will collapse, and Gog and Magog will rush out in all directions, spreading corruption, uprooting plants, killing people. When Jesus (AS) prays against them, Allah will send a kind of worm in the napes of their necks, and they will be killed by it. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE KA’BAH At the end of time, Dhu’l-Suwayqatayn, who will come from Abyssinia (al-Habash), will destroy the Ka’bah in order to steal its treasure and Kiswah (cloth covering). The Ka’bah is the ancient building which was built by Abraham, and whose foundations were laid by Adam. As Tafsir (interpretation) of the Ayah “Until the Gog and Magog (people) are let through (their barrier)'” (al-Anbiya 21:96), it was reported from Ka’b al-Ahbar that Dhu’l-Suwayqatayn will first emerge at the time of Jesus, son of Mary. Allah will send Jesus at the head of a vanguard of between seven and eight hundred. While they are marching towards Dhu’l-Suwayqatayn, Allah will send a breeze from the direction of Yemen, which will take the soul of every believer. Only the worst of people will be left, and they will begin to copulate like animals. Ka’b said: “At that time, the Hour will be close at hand.” ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr said, “I heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) say, Dhu’l-Suwayqatayn from Abyssinia will destroy the Ka’bah and steal its treasure and Kiswah. It is as if I could see him now: he is bald-headed and has a distortion in his wrists. He will strike the Ka’bah with his spade and pick-axe’.” (Ahmad) It was reported from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “Leave the Abyssinians alone so long as they do not disturb you, for no-one will recover the treasure of the Ka’bah except Dhu’l-Suwayqatayn from Abyssinia.” (Abu Dawud, in the chapter on the prohibition of provoking the Abyssinians) Ibn ‘Abbas narrated that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “It is as if I can see him now: he is black and his legs are widely spaced. He will destroy the Ka’bah stone by stone.” (Ahmad) The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Hour will not come until a man from Qahtan appears and rules the people.” (Muslim; similar Hadith in Bukhari) This man could be Dhu’l-Suwayq, someone else, because this man comes from Qahtan, while other reports say that Dhu’l-Suwayqatayn comes from Abyssinia; and Allah knows best. Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘Day and night will not come to an end until a freed man called Jahjah holds sway'” (Ahmad) This could be the name of Dhul-Suwayqatayn from Abyssinia; and Allah knows best. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab reported that he heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) say: “The people of Makkah will leave, and only a few people will pass through it. Then it will be resettled and rebuilt; then the people will leave it again, and no-one will ever return.” MADINAH WILL REMAIN INHABITED AT THE TIME OF THE DAJJAL It has been proven in the Sahih Ahadith, as already stated, that the Dajjal will not be able to enter Makkah and Madinah, and that there will be angels at the gates of Makkah to ward him off and prevent him from entering. It was reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “Neither the Dajjal nor plague will be able to enter Madinah.” As mentioned above, the Dajjal will camp outside Madinah, and it will be shaken by three tremors. Every hypocrite and sinner will go out to join the Dajjal, and every believer and Muslim will stay. That day will be called the Day of Purification (Yawm al-Khalas). Most of those who go out to join the Dajjal will be women. As the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “Verily it (Madinah) is good; its evil will be eliminated and its goodness will be obvious.” Allah SWT said: “Women impure are for men impure, and men impure for women impure, and women of purity are for men of purity, and men of purity are for women of purity'” (Al-Nur 24-26) Madinah will remain inhabited during the days of the Dajjal, and during the time of Jesus son of Mary (AS), until he dies and is buried there. Then it will be destroyed. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab said, “I heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) say, ‘A rider will go around Madinah and say, There used to be many Muslims here'” (Ahmad) FOOTNOTE: *Dhu’l-Suwayqatayn: al-Suwayqatayn is the diminutive of al-Saqayn (legs); his legs are described as being “small” because they are thin. Thin legs are, in general, a characteristic of the Sudanese and people of the Horn of Africa.
  25. Ayat and Ahadith about the Hour

    A test for people at the end of time THE HADITH OF AL-MUGHIRAH IBN SHU’BAH Al-Mughirah ibn Shubah said, “No-one asked the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) more questions about the Dajjal than I did. He said, ‘You should not worry about him, because he will not be able to harm you. I said, ‘But they say that he will have much food and water! He said, ‘He is too insignificant in the sight of Allah to have all that.” (Muslim.) Al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah said, “No-one asked the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) more questions about the Dajjal than I did.” One of the narrators said, “What did you ask him?” Al-Mughirah said, “I said, ‘They say that the Dajjal will have a mountain of bread and meat, and a river of water. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘He is too insignificant in the sight of Allah to have all that.” (Muslim.) >From these Ahadith, we can see that Allah will test His servants with the Dajjal and by the miracles which he will be permitted to perform: as we have already mentioned, the Dajjal will order the sky to rain for those who accept him, and will order the earth to bring forth its fruits so that they and their livestock will eat of it, and their flocks will return fat and with their udders full of milk. Those who reject the Dajjal and refuse to believe in him will suffer drought and famine; people and livestock will die, and wealth and supplies of food will be depleted. People will follow the Dajjal like swarms of bees, and he will kill a young man and bring him back to life. This is not a kind of magic; it will be something real with which Allah will test His servants at the end of time. Many will be led astray, and many will be guided by it. Those who doubt will disbelieve, but those who believe will be strengthened in their faith. Al-Qadi ‘Iyad and others interpreted the phrase “He is too insignificant in the sight of Allah to have all that” as meaning that the Dajjal is too insignificant to have anything that could lead the true believers astray, because he is obviously evil and corrupt. Even if he brings great terror, the word Kafir will be clearly written between his eyes; one report explains that it will be written “Kaf, Fa, Ra,” from which we can understand that it will be written perceptibly, not abstractly, as some people say. One of his eyes will be blind, protruding and repulsive; this is the meaning of the Hadith: “…as if it were a grape floating on the surface of the water.” Other reports say that it is “dull, with no light in it,” or “like white spittle on a wall,” i e, it will look ugly. Some reports say that it is his right eye which will be blind; others say that it is his left eye. He could be partly blind in both eyes, or there could be a fault in both eyes. This interpretation could be supported by the Hadith narrated by al-Tabarani, in which he reports that Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Dajjal is curly-haired and white-skinned. His head is like the branch of a tree; his left eye is blind, and the other eye looks like a floating grape. ” One may ask: if the Dajjal is going to cause such widespread evil and his claim to be a”lord” will be so widely believed – even though he is obviously a liar, and all the Prophets have warned against him – why does the Quran not mention him by name and warn us against his lies and stubbornness? The answer is:- 1. The Dajjal was referred to in the Ayah: “… The day that certain of the signs of thy Lord do come, no good will it do to a soul to believe in them then, if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its Faith…” (al-Anam 6:158) Abu Hurairah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘There are three things which, when they appear, no good will it do a soul to believe in them then, if it believed not before nor earned righteousness through its Faith. They are: The Dajjal, the Beast, and the rising of the sun from the west.” 2. Jesus son of Mary will descend from Heaven and kill the Dajjal, as we have already mentioned. The descent of Jesus is mentioned in the Ayat: “That they said (in boast), ‘We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Apostle of Allah; – but they killed him not nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not:- Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is exalted in Power, Wise;- And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment, he will be a witness against them.” (al-Nisa 4:157-9) We think that the Tafsir (interpretation) of this Ayah is that the pronoun in “before his death” (qabla mawtihi) refers to Jesus; i e, he will descend and the People of the Book who differed concerning him will believe in him. The Christians claimed that he was divine, while the Jews made a slanderous accusation, i e that he was born from adultery. When Jesus descends before the Day of Judgment, he will correct all these differences and lies. On this basis, the reference to the descent of the Messiah Jesus son of Mary also includes a reference to the Dajjal (false Mesor Antichrist), who is the opposite of the true Messiah, because sometimes the Arabs refer to one of two opposites and not the other, but mean both. 3. The Dajjal is not mentioned by name in the Quran because he is so insignificant: he claims to be divine, but he is merely a human being. His affairs are too contemptible to be mentioned in the Quran. But the Prophets, out of loyalty to Allah, warned their people about the Dajjal and the tribulations and misguiding miracles he would bring. It is enough for us to know the reports of the Prophets and the many reports from the Prophet Mohammad (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam). One could argue that Allah has mentioned Pharaoh and his false claims, such as “I am your Lord, Most High” (al-Naziat 79:24) and “O Chiefs! No god do I know for you but myself …” (al-Qasas 28:38), in the Quran. This can be explained by the fact that Pharaoh and his deeds are in the past, and his lies are clear to every believer. But the Dajjal is yet to come, in the future; it will be a Fitnah and a test for all people. So the Dajjal is not mentioned in the Qur’an because he is contemptible; and the fact that he is not mentioned means that it will be a great test. The facts about the Dajjal and his lies are obvious and do not need further emphasis. This is often the case when something is very clear. For example, when the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) was terminally ill, he wanted to write a document confirming that Abu Bakr would be the Khalifah after him. Then he abandoned this idea, and said, “Allah and the believers will not accept anyone other than Abu Bakr.” He decided not to write the document because he knew of Abu Bakr’s high standing among the Sahabah (Companions) and was sure that they would not choose anyone else. Similarly, the facts about the Dajjal are so clear that they did not need to be mentioned in the Qur’an. Allah did not mention the Dajjal in the Quran because He (subhanahu wa ta’ala) knew that the Dajjal would not be able to lead His true servants astray; he would only increase their faith, their submission to Allah and His Messenger, their belief in the Truth, and their rejection of falsehood. For this reason the believer whom the Dajjal overpowers will say, when he revives him, “By Allah, it has only increased my understanding that you are the one-eyed liar about whom the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) spoke.” MORE AHADITH ABOUT THE DAJJAL The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Dajjal will emerge in a land in the east called Khurasan. His followers will be people with faces like hammered shields.” Asma’ bint Yazid al-Ansariyyah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘During the three years just before the Dajjal comes, there will be one year when the sky will withhold one third of its rain and the earth one-third of its fruits. In the second year the sky will withhold two-thirds of its rain, and the earth two-thirds of its fruits. In the third year the sky will withhold all of its rain, and the earth all of its fruits, and all the animals will die. It will be the greatest tribulation: the Dajjal will bring a Bedouin and say to him, “What if I bring your camels to life for you? Will you agree that I am your lord?” The Bedouin will say “Yes.” So devils will assume the forms of his camels, with the fullest udders and the highest humps. Then he will bring a man whose father and brother have died, and will ask him, “What do you think if I bring your father and brother back to life? Will you agree that I am your lord?” The man will say “Yes,” so the devils will assume the forms of his father and brother. Then the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) went out for something, and then returned. The people were very concerned about what he had told them. He stood in the doorway and asked, ‘What is wrong, Asma’? I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, you have terrified us with what you said about the Dajjal. He said, ‘He will certainly appear. If I am still alive, I will contend with him on your behalf; otherwise Allah will take care of every Muslim on my behalf. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, we do not bake our dough until we are hungry, so how will it be for the believers at that time? The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘The glorification of Allah which suffices the people of Heaven will be sufficient for them.” Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘The Hour will not come until the Muslims fight the Jews and kill them. When a Jew hides behind a rock or a tree, it will say, “O Muslim, O servant of Allah! There is a Jew behind me, come and kill him!” All the trees will do this except the box-thorn (al-Gharqad), because it is the tree of the Jews.” (Ahmad.) PROTECTION AGAINST THE DAJJAL 1. Seeking refuge with Allah from his tribulation. It is proven in the Sahih (authentic) Ahadith that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) used to seek refuge with Allah from the tribulation of the Dajjal in his prayers, and that he commanded his Ummah to do likewise: Allahumma inna naudhu bika min ‘adhabi jahannam, wa min ‘adhabi ‘l-qabr, wa min fitnati ‘l-mahya’i wa’l-mamat, wa min fitnati’ l-masihi ‘d-dajjal.” “O Allah! We seek refuge with You from the punishment of Hell, from the punishment of the grave, from the tribulations of life and death, and from the tribulation of the False Messiah (Dajjal).” This Hadith was narrated by many Sahabah, including Anas. Abu Hurairah, ‘A’ishah, Ibn ‘Abbas, and Sa’d. 2. Memorising certain Ayat from Surat al-Kahf. Al-Hafiz al-Dhahabi said, “Seeking refuge with Allah from the Dajjal is mentioned in many Mutawatir Ahadith (those with numerous lines of narrators). One way of doing this is to memorise ten Ayat from Surat al-Kahf.” Abul-Dira reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “Whoever memorises the first ten Ayat of Surat al-Kahf will be protected from the Dajjal.” (Abu Dawud.) 3. Keeping away from the Dajjal One way to be protected from the tribulation of the Dajjal is to live in Madinah or Makkah. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “There are angels standing at the gates of Madinah; neither plague nor the Dajjal can enter it.” (Bukhari, Muslim.) Abu Bakr reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The terror caused by the Dajjal will not enter Madinah. At that time it will have seven gates; there will be two angels guarding every gate.” (Bukhari.) Anas said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, ‘The Dajjal will come to Madinah, and he will find angles guarding it. Neither plague nor the Dajjal will enter it, in sha Allah.” (Tirmidhi, Bukhari.) It has been proven in the Sahih Ahadith that the Dajjal will not enter Makkah or Madinah, because the angels will prevent him from entering these two places which are sanctuaries and are safe from him. When he camps at the salt-marsh (Sabkhah) of Madinah, it will be shaken by three tremors – either physically or metaphorically – and every hypocrite will go out to join the Dajjal. On that day, Madinah will be cleansed of its dross and will be refined and purified; and Allah knows best. THE LIFE AND DEEDS OF THE DAJJAL The Dajjal will be a man, created by Allah to be a test for people at the end of time. Many will be led astray through him, and many will be guided through him; only the sinful will be led astray. Al-Hafiz Ibn ‘Ali al-Abar wrote in his book of history (al-Tarikh) that the Dajjal’s Kunyah (nickname or paternal title) would be Abu Yusuf. Abu Bakrah said, “The Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) said, “The Dajjal’s parents will remain childless for thirty years, then a one-eyed child will be born to them. He will be very bad and will cause a great deal of trouble. When he sleeps, his eyes will be closed but his heart (or mind) will still be active. Then he described his parents: ‘His father will be a tall and bulky man, with a long nose like a beak; his mother will be a huge, heavy-breasted woman.” Abu Bakrah said, “We heard that a child had been born to some of the Jews in Madinah. Al-Zubayr ibn al-Awam and I went see his pa, and found that they matched the description given by the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam). We saw the boy lying in the sun, covered with a blanket, murmuring to himself. We asked his parents about him, and they said, ‘We remained childless for thirty years, then this one-eyed boy was born to us. He is very bad and causes a great deal of trouble. When we went out, we passed the boy. He asked us, ‘What were you doing?.We said, ‘Did you hear us?. He said, ‘Yes; when I sleep, my eyes are closed but my heart (mind) is still active. That boy was Ibn Sayyad.” (Ahmad, Tirmidhi; this Hadith is not very strong.) As we have already seen in the Sahih Ahadith, Malik and others think that Ibn Sayyad was not the Dajjal; he was one of a number of “lesser dajjals.” Later he repented and embraced Islam; Allah knows best his heart and deeds. The “greater” Dajjal is the one mentioned in the Hadith of Fatimah bint Qays, which she narrated from the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam), from Tamim al-Dari, and which includes the story of the Jassasah. The Dajjal will be permitted to appear at the end of time, after the Muslims have conquered a Roman city called Constantinople. He will first appear in Isfahan, in an area known as the Jewish quarter (al-Yahudiyyah). He will be followed by seventy thousand Jews from that area, all of them armed. Seventy thousand Tatars and many people from Khurasan will also follow him. At first he will appear as a tyrannical king, then he will claim to be a prophet, then a lord. Only the most ignorant of men will follow him; the righteous and those guided by Allah will reject him. He will start to conquer the world country by country, fortress by fortress, region by region, town by town; no place will remain unscathed except Makkah and Madinah. The length of his stay on earth will be forty days: one day like a year, one day like a month, one day like a week, and the rest of the days like normal days, i e his stay will be approximately one year and two and a half months. Allah will grant him many miracles, through which whoever He wills will be astray, and the faith of the believers will be strengthened. The descent of Jesus son of Mary, the true Messiah, will happen at the time of the Dajjal, the false messiah. He will descend to the minaret in the east of Damascus. The believers and true servants of Allah will gather to support him, and the Messiah Jesus son of Mary will lead them against the Dajjal, who at that time will be heading for Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). He will catch up with him at ‘Aqabah ‘Afiq. The Dajjal will run away from him, but Jesus will catch up with him at the gate of Ludd, and will kill him with his spear just as he is entering it. He will say to him, “I have to deal you a blow; you cannot escape.” When the Dajjal faces him, he will begin to dissolve like salt in water. So Jesus will kill him with his spear at the gate of Ludd, and he will die there, as many Sahih Ahadith indicate. Majma ibn Jariyah is reported to have said, “I heard the Prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) saying, ‘The son of Mary will kill the Dajjal at the gate of Ludd.” (Tirmidhi.) FOOTNOTE: “When he (Dajjal) sleeps, his eyes will be closed but his heart (or mind) will still be active” – means that his evil ideas will still come to him even while he is asleep.
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